MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS AND TECHNIQUES

Managerial process

The process of management consists of several interrelated activities. These activities are known as managerial functions.

There are different classifications of functions which a manager has to perform in order to work effectively. These functions includes planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling, coordinating, communicating, motivating e.t.c. These functions therefore are applied in every situation of the organization.

1. Planning

Planning is the basic or primary function of management. It precedes other functions because a manager plans before he acts.

Planning involves determining the objectives and selecting a course of action to achieve them. It implies looking ahead and deciding in advance what is to be done, when and where is to be done, how and by whom it is to be done.

Planning is a mental process requiring the use of intellectual faculties, foresight, imagination and sound judgement. Therefore a plan is a pre-determined future course of action (today, tomorrow and future).

Planning may be long term or short term and managers at all levels have to prepare them. The process of planning consists of;

  1. Determining of objectives
  2. Forecasting and choice of a course of action
  3. Formulation of policies, programmes, budgets, schedules etc to achieve the objectives
  4. Laying down of procedure and standards of performance.

2. Organizing

Is the process of establishing harmonious authority among the members of the enterprise. It is the function of creating a structure of duties and responsibilities. Through organizing a manager can bring together materials and human resources required for the achievement of desired goals. This helps to avoid duplication of work and overlapping of efforts.

Organizing involves the following steps;

  1. Determining and defining the activities required for the achievement of planned goals
  2. Grouping the activities into logical and convenient units
  3. Assigning the duties and activities to specific positions and people
  4. Delegating authority to those positions and people
  5. Defining and fixing responsibilities for performance

3. Staffing

Staffing is the process of filling all positions in an organization with adequate and qualified personnel. Staffing consist of man power planning, recruitment, selection, training, compensation, integration and maintenance of employees. These will facilitate smooth running and competency of employees through appraisal of their performance.

4. Directing

It is the function of guiding, supervising, motivating and leading people towards the attainment of planned targets of performance. Managers need to take active steps to ensure that the employees accomplish their tasks according to the established plans.

Directing initiates organized actions and sets the whole organization machinery into action.

Directing involves the following activities;

  1. Issuing orders and instructions
  2. Supervising people at work
  3. Creating willingness for certain objectives
  4. Establishing understanding with employees regarding plans and their implementation (communication)
  5. Leading or influencing the behavior of employees

5. Controlling

It is the process of ensuring that the organization is moving in the desired direction and that progress is being made towards the achievement of the goals.

Controlling involves the following steps

  1. Establishing standards for measuring work performance
  2. Measurement of actual performance and comparing it with the standard
  3. Finding variances between performance and standards
  4. Taking corrective action for deviations so as to ensure attainment of objectives

Difference between administration and management

  1. Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their effort towards goals while administration is the formulation of broad objectives, plans and policies
  2. Management is execution of functions and doing of functions while administration involves decision making and thinking function
  3. Management decisions within the framework are set by the administration while in administration is major decisions of an enterprise as a whole
  4. Management consist of middle level activity while administration consists of top level activity
  5. Management consists of managerial personnel who use their specialized knowledge to fulfill the objectives while administration consists of owners who invest capital and receive profit from an enterprise
  6. Management decisions are influenced by the values, opinions and belief of the managers while administration is influenced by the public opinion, government policies or customs
  7. Management is mainly motivation and controlling while administration is mainly planning and organizing
  8. Management handles the employees while administration it handles the business aspect such as finance.

 

Relationship between administration and management (assignment)

Techniques in management

  1. Leadership- Effective leadership should be placed before for the purpose of overseeing the activities of the organization. Proper leadership works with the employees and not for the employees.
  2. Delegation- Employees should be delegated duties which they will be expected to do. In nk.hidelegation it is good to delegate using the ability of power, authority and responsibility that employees possess.
  3. Supervision- Proper and regular supervision should be carried out to ensure smooth running of the organization
  4. Motivation- Employers should look for ways in which they can motivate the employees to achieve greater results e.g. giving rewards, promotion.
  5. Decision making- Effective and efficient decisions should be made that will favor all employees in the organization
  6. Co-otulrdination- The employer should coordinate the different activities in the organization and also coordinate tasks to be performed by the employees.
  7. Communication- There should be a well streamed line of communication from top to down and from bottom to top.
  8. Evaluation- Evaluation should be done both in the midst of an activity and at the end of every activity so as to know if it is successful and sustainable to the organization.

Management types

  1. Management by objectives- It aims to improve performance of an organization by clearly defining objectives that are agreed to by both management and employees
  2. Management by crisis- It is the process by which an organization deals with a major event that threatens to harm the organization, its stakeholders or the general public.
  3. Management by exception- Is the practice of examining the financial and operational results of a business, and only bringing issues to the attention of management if results represent substantial differences from the budgeted or expected amount.
  4. Management by team approach- It is the ability of an individual or an organization to administer and coordinate a group of individuals to perform a task
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