It is getting things done through people (American management association)

Management is a distinct process of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.


It refers to management, governance, decision making, and supervision of an organization.

It refers to people who plan, organize and run a business or organization


Characteristics or features of management

1. Management is universal

They apply more or less the same world over and in any situation

2. Management is a continuous process

It is dynamic and an on-going process. The circle of management continues to operate as long as the organization exists.

3. Management is purposeful

It exists for a purpose of achieving specific goals. It is therefore the means by which pre-determined goals are accomplished. All management activities are goal oriented.

4. Management is an integrating force

It reconciles individual goals with organizational goals by creating a whole which is more than the sum of individuals.

5. Management is a social process

It is done by people, through people for the people. It is a social process because it is concerned with interpersonal relationships.

6. Management is intangible

It is unseen or invisible force, but its presence can be felt. However, managers who perform management functions are themselves visible.

7. Management is both an art and a science

As a science it contains systematic body of theoretical knowledge. It involves practices application of knowledge.

As an art, it is based on one’s initiative, creativity, initiativeness and own approach to problem solving


Management training

It is the process of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.

It is an organized activity designed to create change in the thinking and behavior of people and to enable them to do their jobs in a more efficient manner.

Purpose of management training

  1. It enables the managers to get acquainted with their present or prospective jobs in order to increase knowledge and skills.
  2. It makes new managers more productive and efficient.
  3. It makes the old managers familiar with new machines and techniques by refreshing their knowledge.

Benefits of management training

Management training has the following main advantages;

  1. Higher performance. Training helps to improve the quantity and quality of work output. Training increases the knowledge and skills of employees in the performance of particular jobs.
  2. Uniformity of procedures. Training helps in work standardization for work which then leads to improved quality of performance.
  3. Manpower development. Training enables the organization to fill manpower needs. Training helps to remove defects in the process of selection and competent replacements.
  4. Economy of materials and equipments. Trained employees make better and economical use of materials and equipments. Wastage of tools and materials is reduced. When the performers are well trained, industrial accidents and damage to machinery and equipments will be
  5. Less supervision. Training helps to reduce the need for close supervision of workers. It permits management to self reliant individuals towards the performance.
  6. High morale. Training helps to improve the job satisfaction and morale of employees. As their productivity increases, there is an improvement in their earning and career prospects. This therefore makes employees cooperative and loyal to the organization.
  7. Participative management. Training facilitates delegation and decentralization of authority. Trained employees are willing to accept new and challenging assignments.

Types of management training

Types of management training for employees can fall under a number of primary categories. Well-planned and properly implemented, a management training curriculum helps build confidence and create well-rounded managers.

Training also helps create, reinforce and maintain your company’s culture and mission, which managers may then impart to employees

1. Employee relations

Since most managers deal with employees, they must be able to relate to them in a way that has a positive effect on morale and productivity. Managers will need to recognize the different types of communication, how to solve problems and when to take action.

2. Time management and planning

Managers must make the most efficient use of their time. Training programs that include time-management, planning, problem solving and delegation skills will help managers make the most of their time and resources.

3. Safety and emergency

Employee safety is a major concern for every business and managers must be aware of potential risks and how to handle emergencies. Aside from specific job-related safety and emergency procedure training, managers must know policies and protocol concerning emergency evacuations, fire safety, lockdowns and other safety and security-related issues.

4. Ethics and harassment

Ethics encompasses many different training areas including diversity, corporate responsibility and harassment. But any training that deals with the ethical treatment of workers and customers, environmental and legal issues falls under the ethics umbrella

5. Policies and procedures

Understanding company policies, mission statement, quality initiatives and general expectations are common, and managers will need to know the reasoning behind them for employee education and enforcement.

6. Human resources

Many managers deal with human resource issues every day. Some employees issues are best referred directly to human resources, and the trainings should outline what a manager should and should not do when such issues arises.

7. Leadership and supervisory

Effective managers must learn and develop supervisory, team building and leadership skills. There are several management styles and knowing when and how to use them is one of the keys to good management

8. Customer service

Customer care service training is not just for employees; managers must be trained in this capacity as well. Customer service training includes many basic elements of other trainings, such as conflict resolution, communication and problem solving but is geared toward customer-based issues rather than those of the company or employee


Management development

It is a systematic and continuous process through which managers learn advanced knowledge and skills in managing.

It is a planned and organized process of learning and growth designed to improve managerial behaviors and performance. Through this programme, managers cultivate their mental abilities and skills in order to manage effectively.

Characteristics of management development

  1. It involves a change in the behavior of the managers
  2. Management development , is never ending-no limit to development
  3. It depends on individual efforts to increase knowledge

Techniques of management development

  1. On the job training method
  2. Coaching
  3. Under study
  4. Special projects
  5. Committee assignments
  6. Off-the-job training
  7. Special courses
  8. Case study
  9. Conference
  10. Role playing
  11. Sensitivity training

Management education

It academic disciplines by which students are taught to be business leaders, managers and university professors in business education (according to Capella university).

It is an important factor in determining the entrepreneurial orientation in individuals.

Management education focuses on training future business leaders.

Importance of management education

Management education offers all necessary tools to equip one with the necessary techniques of successfully handling various business and management related issues.

Besides providing the basic management capabilities, management education also provides;

  • The ability to use the contingency approach to solving business problems
  • Combining the best parts of several solutions into a unique and better solution
  • Having a global perspective
  • Working with and learning from others

Job of management

Job of management is to improve business performance through the achievement of the main task: customer satisfaction.

Customer satisfaction is the simplest way to maintain and grow a business

  1. Sets objective. The manager set goals for the group, and decides what work needs to be done to meet those goals
  2. The manager divides the work into manageable activities, and selects people to accomplish the task that need to be done
  3. Motivates and communicates. The manager creates a team out of his people, through decisions on pay, placement, and promotion and through his communication with team.
  4. The manager establishes appropriate targets and yardsticks, and analyzes, appraises and interprets performance.
  5. Develops people. In a knowledge economy, people are the company’s most important asset and it is up to the manager to develop that asset.

Importance of administration and management

  1. It creates teamwork and coordination among specialized efforts.
  2. It helps in the optimum utilization of resources
  3. It enhances productivity and encourages continuity in production
  4. It helps in conversion of diverse resources into a useful enterprise
  5. It helps in the accomplishment of group goals
  6. Proper leadership helps in efficient running of the organization
  7. Proper management establishes a sound organizational structure that is in accordance with the desired objectives
  8. It helps in developing sound and proper policies
  9. It provides guidance and planning towards operations of an enterprise
  10. Management provides delegation to enhance continuity of work

Role of management

  1. To analyze, evaluate and deal with the environmental forces
  2. To appoint departmental and other executives
  3. To represent the company or enterprise to the outside world
  4. To exercise overall review and control on the company’s operations
  5. Coordinates the activities and efforts of different departments
  6. To interpret and explain the policies of the organization
  7. To motivate supervisory personnel to work for organizational goals
  8. To develop and train supervisory and operative personnel’s
  9. To plan day to day production within the goals laid down by higher authorities
  10. To assign jobs to workers and make arrangements for their training and development
  11. To maintain discipline and good relations among workers
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