Human factors in management
It refers to the study of how human behave physically and psychologically in relation to particular environments, products or services
Motivation is very important for an organization because of the following benefits;
- Improves level of efficiency of employees. This will result into increase in productivity, improve overall efficiency and reduce cost of operations
- Leads to achievement of organizational goals. The goals can be achieved by best utilization of resources
- Builds friendly relationship. Motivation brings employees satisfaction. This can be done by keeping into mind and framing an incentive plan for the benefit of the employees
- It leads to stability of work force. The employees can remain loyal to the enterprise only when they have a feeling of participation in the management
- It promotes good feelings about the policies, practices of the organization. Morale is one of the important factors in success or failure of the industry.
- It helps in overcoming problems such as absenteeism, indiscipline e.t.c.
One of the mos t4h6tegp;t important steps one can take toward achieving his/her greatest potential in business is to learn to monitor his/her attitude and its impact on work performance and relationships. Positive attitude in the workplace helps employees to accomplish tasks faster and in a better manner
The benefits of positive attitude include
- Career success. Employee’s success in the workplace is measured through their performance.
- With a positive attitude, employees tend to take more interest in what they do and deliver
- Effective leadership. Some employees earn respect easily and people often follow and listen to them. This is possible through the positive attitude demonstrated by leaders.
- Team work. Positive attitude helps employees to appreciate each other’s competencies and work as a team for achieving common objectives.
- Proper decision making. Having a positive attitude helps employees to take better decisions, in an objective manner
Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization.
Characteristics/features of recruitment
- Recruitment is a process or a series of activities rather than a single act or event.
- Recruitment is a linking activity as it brings together those with jobs (employer) and those seeking jobs (employees)
- Recruitment is positive functions as it seek to develop a pool of eligible persons from which most suitable ones can be selected.
- Recruitment is an important faction as it makes it possible to acquire the number and type of persons necessary for the continued functioning of the organization.
- Recruitment is a pervasive function as all organization engages in recruiting activity.
- Recruitment is a two way process.
Methods of Recruitment
- Direct Method – Under direct recruitment scouting employee contacts, manned exhibits and waiting list are used. In scouting representatives of the organization are sent to educational and training institutions. These traveling, recruiters exchange information with the student clearly their doubts, stimulate them to apply for jobs conduct interview and shortlist candidates for further screening.
- Indirect method – Advertisement in newspapers, journals, on the radio and television are used to publicize vacancies. A well thought out and clear advertisement enables candidates to assess their suitability so that only those possessing the requisite qualification will apply.
- Third party method – Various agencies can be used to recruit personnel
It refers to records pertaining to employees of an organization. These records are accumulated, factual and comprehensive information related to concern records and detained.
Personnel records are maintained for formulating and reviewing personnel policies and procedures. Complete details about all employees are maintained in personnel records such as name, date of birth, marital status, academic qualifications, previous employment details e.t.c.
Types of personnel records
- Records of employment contain applicants past records, list sources, employees progress, medical reports e.t.c.
- Wages and salaries records e.g payroll records, leave records, turnover records e.t.c.
- Training and development e.g. appraisal reports, transfer cases, training schedule and training methods.
- Health and safety records e.g. sickness reports, medical history e.t.c
- Service records are essential records containing bio-data, residential and family information, academic qualifications, marital status, past address and employment records
It can be organized or acquired by the employer for the employees, based on the operations and goals of the working community.
A company can ensure that the competence and expertise of its employees remains up to date through training.
Types of personnel training
- In service training
- Pre-service training
- On the job training
Need for personnel training
Training is required on account of the following reasons:
- Job requirement- Employees selected for a job might lack the qualification required to perform the job effectively. New and inexperienced employees require detailed instructions for effective performance on the job.
- Technological changes – Technology is changing very fast. New automation and mechanization have are been increasingly applied in offices and service sector.
- Organisational viability – In order to survive and grow, an organization must continually adopt itself to the changing environment. With increasing economic linearization and globalization, business firms are experiencing expansion growth & diversification.
- Internal mobility – Training becomes necessary when an employee moves from one job to another due to promotion and transfer.
Reasons for training
- The installation of new equipment or techniques which require new or improved skills.
- A change in working method.
- A change in product , which may necessitate training
- A realization that performance is inadequate.
- Labour shortage, necessitating the upgrading.
- A desire to reduce the amount of accidents.
- Promotion or transfer of individual employees
Health, safety and security in employment
1. National social security fund
The role of NSSF is to provide security protection to all workers in the formal and informal sectors in retirement.
2. National Hospital insurance Fund
It is the primary provider of health insurance in Kenya with a mandate to enable all Kenyans to access quality and affordable health services
3. Widows and children’s pension scheme
WOPS is a contributory scheme operated by the government which provides pension benefits to the widow and orphans of the deceased officer who was a member of the scheme.
4. Provident fund
It is a compulsory, government-managed retirement scheme. It is run by a government for the benefit of its citizens.
A provident fund is a form of social safety net into which worker must contribute a portion of their salaries and employers must contribute on behalf of their workers. The money in the fund is then paid out to retirees, or in some cases to the disabled who cannot walk.
5. Factories Act
The Act continues to have a legal importance as cases of chronic workplace exposure to hazards such as industrial noise or carcinogens.
6. Workmen’s compensation
It is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee’s right to sue his or her employer for the tort of negligence.
7. Trade disputes Act
The Act declares that unions could not be sued for damages incurred during a strike.
8. Employment Act