KCSE Past Papers 2020 IRE Paper 2 (314/2)

KCSE Past Papers 2020 IRE Paper 1

2020 Islamic Religious Education – Paper 1

1.a. Discuss the significance of the Islamic dress code: (8 marks)

 

  • Promotes modesty and seeks to minimize vice and immorality in society. a Muslim woman must at least cover her hair and body in loose and unrevealing clothing, obscuring the details of her body from the public to minimize sexual enticement and degradation in society as much as possible for both men and women.
  • As a form of obedience to God. Islam forbids any sex appeal and physical allurement outside of marriage.
  • A woman who covers her head commands respect, and through her modesty rejects sexual servitude.b. Identify three types of food prohibited in the Quran and for each, give a reason for itsprohibition(6 marks)

     

  • Meat of an animal which is slaughtered in the name other than God.Life is the previous gift of God for both human beings and animals. If the existence of an animal is to be terminated for the survival of human beings, then it should be mandatory to sacrifice their life in the name of Allah.
  • Already dead animals other than fish. Scientifically meat of the dead animal is not good for health because there is a huge difference between killing and slaughtering.
  • Blood. Because it is the medium of transportation inside body that is why carry toxic materials, carbon dioxide, poisons, uric acid, keratin, and also a huge amount of haemoglobin, it is not easily digestible in stomach. Meat of a pig. It is the only animal which is designed by God as scavenger, used to eat filth and contain different microorganisms like helminths, roundworm, pinworm, tapeworm, hookworm.c. State six ways in which Muslims can prevent zinaa in the society. (6 marks)

     

  • Islamic teaching emphases that Muslim who attain the age of puberty
  • should marry to avoid Zinaa.
  • Prohibition of free mixing of sexes; men and women are not allowed to mix freely. e.g. in the mosques men and women pray in separate areas.
  • Prohibition of acts that may lead Muslims to commit fornication adultery e.g. consumption of alcohol, engaging in dancing etc.
  • Muslim men are allowed to marry a maximum of four wives, incase a man fell in love with another woman he should marry her instead of committing zinaa.
  • Harsh punishment has been prescribed in the Quran on fornicators and adulterers (Q 24 2-3).
  • Muslim women should dress decently i.e. they should cover their bodies with the exception of the hands and face. This reduces the evil of temptation which can lead to zina.
  • Restrictions on men from visiting other men’s homes in their absence, aman cannot visit another man’s house if it’s only the wife who is at home.
  • Islam allows divorce incase a couple are unable to reconcile the in differences to enables both parties choose suitable/ appropriate spouse.
  • Muslim women should be accompanied by Muhrim when going on ajourney.
  • Islam prescribes reward for those who keep away for zinaa.
  • Muslims are encouraged to practices piety to prevent them from engagingin immoral acts.2.a. Mention four main categories of heirs and their shares according to the law of mirath. (8 marks)

     

  • Zaawil Furoodh: These are the “obligatory heirs”. They are all the heirs who have fixed shares prescribed to them.
  • Asabaat: These are the “residuaries”. After the zaawil furoodh get their respective shares, the left over estate (if any) will be given to them.
  • Zaawil Arhaam: These are relatives through the female line. Although they do inherit in some cases, right now we will simply refer to them as “non-heirs”. As far as you are concerned, these relatives are automatically deprived from inheriting.b. Mention five responsibilities of children towards their parents. (5 marks)

     

  • Kindness to the Parents: One of the duties the children were commanded by Allah towards their parents is to treat them with utmost kindness. The children are not allowed to treat them unkindly.
  • Respect to the Parents: It is expected of the children to respect their parents and at no time is the children allowed to disrespect their parents even if they are non-Muslims.
  • Obedience to the Parents: The children are enjoined to always obey the order of their parents. The only exception is when their commandment is in violation of Allah’s commandment. In such a case, the children is not allowed to obey such commandment. However, they must be treated with kindness and respect.
  • Making Provision for the Parents: The children is expected to take proper care of their parents; particularly when they are at old age and they could not do things for themselves.
  • Supplicate for the Parents: One of the duties of the children to their parents is to seek for Allah’s forgiveness and mercy for them; particularly after their death.
  • Paying their debts and religious obligations: For the poor deceased parents, it is expected of the children to pay their monetary debts and those of the religious obligations they were unable to observe (particularly by the first male child).c. Outline seven benefits of wasiyya. (7 marks)

     

  • It gives the deceased an opportunity to help the poor, the needy and other vulnerable people in the society.
  • It eradicates favouritism among heirs.
  • It inculcates discipline among the heirs while handling the property of the deceased.
  • It prevents quarrels, wrangles and fights among family members.
  • It accords the rights of business partners, workers and third parties.
  • It encourages individual members in the society to be dutiful, responsible and exercise love and care since whoever does contrary to this may be exempted from the will.
  • Those bequeathed get a chance to better their lives from the property left for them.
  • A will creates a strong bond of relationship between the mu’swi (deceased) and the mu’swillahu. It can therefore be used in the appointment of a guardian for the children.
  • It cements love and friendship among the family members.
  • Controls against fraud or misappropriation of the estate.3.a. Explain eight ways through which Muslims can eradicate child abuse in the society. (8marks)

     

  • Volunteer your time. Get involved with other parents in your community. Help vulnerable children and their families. Start a playgroup.
  • Discipline your children thoughtfully. Never discipline your child when you are upset. Give yourself time to calm down. Remember that discipline is a way to teach your child. Use privileges to encourage good behavior and time-outs to help your child regain control.
  • Examine your behavior. Abuse is not just physical. Both words and actions can inflict deep, lasting wounds. Be a nurturing parent. Use your actions to show children and other adults that conflicts can be settled without hitting or yelling.
  • Educate yourself and others. Simple support for children and parents can be the best way to prevent child abuse. After-school activities, parent education classes, mentoring programs, and respite care are some of the many ways to keep children safe from harm. Be a voice in support of these efforts in your community.
  • Teach children their rights. When children are taught they are special and have the right to be safe, they are less likely to think abuse is their fault, and more likely to report an offender.
  • Support prevention programs. Too often, intervention occurs only after abuse is reported. Greater investments are needed in programs that have been proven to stop the abuse before it occurs – such as family counseling and home visits by nurses who provide assistance for newborns and their parents.
  • Know what child abuse is. Physical and sexual abuse clearly constitute maltreatment, but so does neglect, or the failure of parents or other caregivers to provide a child with needed food, clothing, and care. Children can also be emotionally abused when they are rejected, berated, or continuously isolated.
  • Know the signs. Unexplained injuries aren’t the only signs of abuse. Depression, fear of a certain adult, difficulty trusting others or making friends, sudden changes in eating or sleeping patterns, inappropriate sexual behavior, poor hygiene, secrecy, and hostility are often signs of family problems and may indicate a child is being neglected or physically, sexually, or emotionally abused.
  • Report abuse. If you witness a child being harmed or see evidence of abuse, make a report to your state’s child protective services department or local police. When talking to a child about abuse, listen carefully, assure the child that he or she did the right thing by telling an adult, and affirm that he or she is not responsible for what happened.
  • Invest in kids. Encourage leaders in the community to be supportive of children and families. Ask employers to provide family-friendly work environments. Ask your local and national lawmakers to support legislation to better protect our children and to improve their lives.b. Enumerate eight Islamic rules that govern the relationship between Muslims and non Muslims. (8 marks)

     

  • Muslims should deal with them justly and with fairness. Allah (SWT) says, “Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: For Allah loves those who are just.” [Q 60:8]
  • Muslims should extend greeting to them as a sign of good neighbourhood.
  • Muslims should exercise wisdom, patience and knowledge when debating or discussing religious issues with the non-Muslims. The Qur’an directs that; “And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with means better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong (and injury); but say, ‘We believe in the Revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; Our God and your God is One; And it is to Him we bow (in Islam)” [Q 29:46] Muslims must be careful not to compromise the religion with non-Islamic practices that are prevalent in the society.
  • Muslims can enter into treaties or peaceful agreements with the nonMuslims for the sake of coexistence. The Prophet (PBUH) showed a good example when he settled in Madina. He succeeded to unite all its inhabitants (Muslims, Jews, Christians and pagan Arabs) to sign a treaty (that is, the Madinan constitution).
  • Non-Muslims should be given the freedom of practising their religion without interference.
  • Visiting them when sick and praying for their recovery and guidance.
  • Sending condolences to them during death, disasters and tragedies.
  • Collective participation with them in any project or undertaking beneficial to the society.
  • Perform da’wa (inviting them to Islam) using good language and wisdom.
  • They should not be coerced to embrace Islam. Allah (SWT) says; “There is no compulsion in religion. The truth stands out clear from error.” [Q 2:256]
  • Accommodate them in our communities and show them kindness and justice. At one time caliph Umar (RA) the second Caliph had learned that some Muslims had taken a piece of land that belonged to a Jew, and had built a mosque on it, he ordered the demolition of the mosque and the piece of land was given back to the Jew.
  • Sign treaties with them and having respect for such treaties. The Prophet (PBUH), despite facing hardships from the Makkan Quraish, he signed the treaty of Hudaibiya which was favouring the Makkans. The Muslims respected the terms of the treaty.
  • Maintain good family ties with them. There are instances where one or some members of a family are of different religions. A Muslim should not break his or her family ties.c. Explain four conditions for polygamy in Islam. (4 marks)

     

  • The number of wives must not exceed four at any one given time.
  • The husband should be equally fair to all his wives in relation to life’s daily needs such as providing them with clothing, feeding and housing without favor or discrimination to any one of them. Also on the basis of emotional side such as spending the same number of nights with each one equally.
  • It should be noted that for a man to favor emotionally all of his wives is sometimes beyond the human ability; however, one should not abuse this fact by unjustly mistreating any of the wives. If this condition is not fulfilled, then polygamy is absolutely forbidden because in such a case it would bring injustice and means for misbehaving.
  • One should be in a position to fulfill the wives conjugal rights before he commits himself to another one, because one of the main objectives of marriage is fulfillment of sexual desires.
  • One should be financially able to sustain and support tthe wives and the children because it is the man’s responsibility to provide for the family.
  • Failure to observe the above conditions, a Muslim man is not encouraged to marry a second wife.4.a. Outline eight contributions of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A.) during his caliphate. (8 marks)

     

  • Expanded and consolidated the unity of the Muslim empire.
  • Expanded the mosque at Mecca.
  • He introduced administrative record keeping in 14A.H to record revenue and government expenditure.
  • He built bridge and Canals.
  • He established the Islamic calendar in the year 16 A.H and ordered it to Get more notes and past papers at www.easyelimu.com. (WhatsApp only +254 700 755976 for more)start from the migration (Hijra).
  • He introduced a standing army.
  • He ordered minting of coins in I8A.H.
  • Established the institution of Kadhihood in Islam.
  • Introduced a police force.
  • Originated welfare system in Islam by giving stipends to the poor from bait-ul maal.
  • Founded new cities contributing to the growth of Islamic culture and civilization.
  • He improved agriculture and the economy of the Islamic state.
  • Established the first educational system in Islam.
  • Introduced quarantine in areas affected by epidemics as one of his public health measures.
  • Introduced a postal and town systemb. Highlight the challenges experienced by the Muslims after Hijra to Madina. (7 marks)

     

  • A clan of Khazraj headed by Abdullah ibn Ubayy who had been expecting to take over as a king of Yathrib. He therefore pretended to revert to Islam together with his supporters (Munafiqun). They had not been happy with the prophet’s advancement and started causing mischief among the believers.
  • The Jews staying in Madina also opposed the prophet when the verse came directing Muslims to change the Qibla from Jerusalem to Makka. (Read Q: 2:146). They secretly contacted the Makkan Pagans and started to work against the interest of the Muslims. They also rejected Prophet Mohammad because the messenger they had expected to come was to be from their tribe.
  • The Quraish started sending troops to kill the prophet and his companions.
  • Often, they interfered with business activities by looting the towns and destroyed the Arab trade in the region by paralyzing all business activities.
  • They also sent raiding parties with the intention of destroying fruit trees, plantations and carrying away animals.
  • The Makkans conspired with the Munafiqun to rebel against the prophet and Muslims.
  • The Quraish went ahead to form alliances with other tribes with the aim of to dislodging Islam and the Muslims.
  • The Quraish leaders spread negative information about the prophet i.e. they said that he was a seeker chased from his motherland in order to discourage people from embracing Islam.c. Mention five religious groups that existed in Makka during the jahiliyya period. (5 marks)

     

  • Christians.These were the followers of Prophet Issa (A.S) and had settled at Najran and followed the teachings of the Injil.
  • Magicians. These were the people who worshipped fire. These fire worshippers originated from Persia.
  • Hanifs or Hunafaa. These were the followers of prophet Ibrahim (A.S).
  • These people worshiped and believed in one God as they embraced the teachings of prophet Ibrahim and Ismail. Most of them accepted Islam when the prophet started peaching.
  • Jews who practiced Judaism. These were the followers of prophet Musa Get more notes and past papers at www.easyelimu.com. (WhatsApp only +254 700 755976 for more) (A.S) and were the descendants of Israel (Banu Israil). They followed the teachings of the book of Taurat which was revealed to prophet Musa (A.S)They mostly dwelt in Yathrib and Khaybar.
  • Most of the Arabs were idolatrous. They used to curve idols from wood and stone which they used to worship.Each clan had its own idols to worship. They offered sacrifices to them and sought their blessings and guidance. There were 360 idols in Makkah alone. The leading idols were Al –Lata, Uzza, Manata and Hubbal.

    5.a. Outline seven results of the contact between Arab settlers and the Indigenous people of the East Coast of Africa before the Nineteenth Century. (7 marks)

     

  • It led to the spread of Islam at the East Coast of Africa.
  • There was intermarriage between Arab settlers and the local inhabitants.
  • Muslims city states flourished with trade and other activities.
  • It led to the enrichment of Kiswahili language which had a heavy borrowing from Arabic language.
  • Islamic culture was adopted as a way of life for the Coastal people i.e. mode of dressing, eating etc.
  • They constructed places of worship i.e. mosques and learning centres i.e. Madrasas.
  • Islamic education was introduced.
  • Arabic and Persian architecture were introduced as a result of this contact.
  • It led to the introduction of Arabic literacy which helped in the writing of (X) Swahili language using the ajamy form of writing. It led to the introduction of religion specialists such as Imams, Kadhis, etc.
  • It led to the introduction of new forms of religious ceremonies e.g. Nikah, Maulid, etc.b. Discuss the role played by Nabongo Mumia in the spread of Islam in Western Kenya. (7marks)

     

  • He welcomed trade caravans and allowed them to settle in his area to trade and spread Islam.
  • He embraced Islam and through him his people including 3 brothers embraced Islam allowed his people to inter marry with the Muslim traders which led to further spreading of Islam. allowed the Muslims to propagate Islam in Western Kenya e.g. Shariff
  • Hassan sent Muslims to different areas of Western Kenya and parts of Uganda to preach Islam.
  • Supported the Asian Muslims who reached Western Kenya in the propagation of Islam.
  • He set aside special quarters for Muslims to stay while in his kingdom and catered for their basic necessities. This created a conducive environment for Muslims to interact with the locals paving way for the propagation of Islam.
  • Muslim coastal traders were accorded status of brotherhood by Nabongo as a result of the help they gave him to fight off his enemies thus cementing the fraternal relations between the Muslims and the local inhabitants. 
  • The friendly relations between Nabongo Mumia and the earlier Muslim traders encouraged more Muslim traders and missionaries to propagate Islam to other parts of Western Kenya e.g. Gaziti was sent to Kakamega and Mwinyi Akida to Kisumu.
  • Nabongo’s closest associates and advisors upon conversion to Islam were instrumental in the conversion of more indigenous people to Islam.c. State six achievements of Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan. (6 marks)

     

  • Muawiya is credited with the creation of specialized bureaus, known as diwans, to increase the centralization of the government. They included; Diwan al-Kharaj (the Board of Revenue), Diwan alRasa’il (the Board of Correspondence), Diwan al- Khatam (the Board of Registry), Diwan al-Bard (the Board of Postal services), Diwan al-Qudat (the Board of Justice) and Diwan al-Jund (the Military Board)
  • The capital of the Muslim empire was transferred from Makkah and Madina to Damascus.
  • He established a highly-trained army of Syrian soldiers which was used to expand Muslim authority east into Khorasan and west into North Africa Muawiya also led expeditions into Anatolia beginning in 672 C.E which resulted in an unsuccessful three-year seige of Constantinople (674-677 C.E).
  • He retained the administrative structures left by the Byzantines and Persians but consolidated his authority by appointing kinsmen to key posts.
  • He constructed a gigantic palace called the Green Palace of Damascus.6.a. Explain eight views of Ibn Khaldun on education. (8 marks)

     

  • Quran is the basis of Islam and source of Islamic knowledge hence should be studied with understanding.
  • Aim of education is to develop firm religious belief and good morals in children.
  • Teachers should acquire knowledge and master the art of teaching.
  • Teachers should know the psychology of pupils and their levels of ability.
  • Memorisation without understanding as a form of teaching should be discouraged.
  • Students should be encourages to engage in debate and arguments ina scientific way.
  • Teachers should make necessary preparations for the lesson.
  • Education of youngsters should be based on generalization of knowledge at the beginning and specification should come later.
  • Secular education is important.
  • Recommended continuity in learning.
  • Quran should only be taught when the child acquires a certain degree of intelligence, other religious subjects should be taught early.
  • Punishments as an incentive to learning should be a last resort to the teacher.
  • Teaching in the earlier stages should be in mother tongue.
  • Arts and craft should be included in the curriculum and should be perfected.
  • Advocated for teaching of languages which are found in modern education.
  • Advocated for progressive and modern system of education.b. Outline seven contributions of Hassan Al-Banna to Islam. (7 marks)

     

  • Contribution to the development of Sufism by becoming a Sufi himself.
  • He was constantly opposed to the Muhtazilities and Shia belief as they were misleading.
  • Encouraged Muslims to follow the Islamic culture.
  • He was a scholar of fiqh, philosophy, science and logic and was a professor of Islamic theology.
  • People sought for his advice on matters of religion because of his vast knowledge.
  • Through his views and reforms he tried to change the bad conditions of the society through Islam.
  • He strongly discouraged Muslims from imitating the west with its materials ideology which separates religion from the state.
  • Encourages Muslims brotherhood and following of the Quran and hadith so as to establish an Islamic system of government.
  • Advocated for total rejections of the west and denounced Muslim intellectuals of the government for their dependence on the west.
  • Advocated for reform and modernization through Islamic principles and values.
  • Emphasized on unity of Muslims.
  • Produced many publications on social, religious and political issues affecting Muslims e.g. a daily paper known as ‘Ikhwan-ul-Muslimun’ a booklet “what is our message?”
  • Dedicated himself to being a counselor and teachers to adults and children to teach them the objectives of religion and sources of their well being and happiness in life.
  • Used the mass media to serve Islam and created awareness among Muslims.c. Outline five contributions of Muslims to the field of medicine. (5 marks)

     

  • Translations of Medical Texts. Arab scholars translated works from Greek, Syriac, Pahlavi and Sanskrit into Arabic; thus, preserving scientific knowledge while additionally supplementing it with their own discoveries.
  • Hospitals and Medical Education. While hospitals were not an Islamic invention, the Islamic Golden Age was responsible for their popularity and influencing these institutions greatly; in how they were run, how physicians were educated and changing the entire medical profession in general.
  • Surgery. Islamic surgeons were known for performing and documenting previously unseen surgical procedures. They also documented the intricate tools they invented and used.
  • Pharmacies/Drugs. The field of pharmacology and the existence of pharmacies, called saydalas, were established during the Islamic Golden Age. Islamic scientists applied the science of chemistry to medicine.
  • The Canon of Medicine is an immense encyclopaedia of medicine. At the time, it presented a summary of all the medical knowledge. He used a systematic approach, formal perfection as well as its intrinsic value in his writing. It contains a complete section about kidney calculi. His book prescribes 65 herbal, 8 animal, and 4 mineral drugs for dissolving, expelling, and preventing kidney calculi.
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