KCSE Past Papers 2019 History and Government Paper 1 (311/1)

Questions and Answers

2019 History and Government paper 1

1. Identify two theories which explain the origin of man.

(i) The Creation Theory

(ii) The Evolution Theory

(iii) The Traditional/mythical) Theory Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks.

2.State two ways in which the Agikuyu interacted with the Maasai during the pre-colonial period.

(i) They inter married.

(ii) Ney traded/exchanged goods.

(iii)They borrowed items from each other.

(iv)They raided each other/fought. Any 2 x 1 – 2 marks.

3. Name the original homeland of the River-Lake Nilotes of Kenya.

(i) O Bahr-el-Giiazal/Southern Sudan

4.Identify the main economic activity of the Akamba during the pre-colonial period.

(i) Livestock keeping

5.Give one advantage of dual citizenship to a Kenyan.

(i) person can work in either of the countries.

(ii) One can choose to live in either of the countries.

(iii) One is entitled to the rights/freedom provided in the Constitution of Kenya.

6. Mate two ways in which national integration has promoted economic development in Kenya.

(i) It has enabled citizens to work/employed in any part of Kenya.

(ii) It has enabled free movement of goods/services within the country.

(iii) It has enabled citizens to invest/establish businesses in any part of the country.

(iv) It has enabled people to buy property anywhere in the country. Any 2 x l = 2 marks.

7.Identify one minority group whose rights were protected by the Constitution independence.

(i) The Europeans

(ii) The Asians

(iii) Minority indigenous African communities>

8.Outline two advantages of indirect democracy as practised in Kenya.

(i) People exercise their democratic rights/elect leaders of their own choice

(ii) The leaders are accountable to the electorate.

(iii) The electorate/people can vote out/recall their elected leaders.

(iv) People’s views in decision making are taken into account.

9. Give the type of human right which is violated if a person is unlawfully detained.

The right of movement/freedom of movement

10.State two demands of the African Elected Members Organization (AEMO) presented to the Colonial Secretary in 1957.

(i) The increase of African elected members in the Legislative Council

(ii) Registration of voters on a common vote

11.Give the main contribution made by Tom Mboya which improved the welfare of workers in Kenya during the colonial period.

– He formed Trade union/workers’ union 1×1=1 mark.

12. Outline two types of cases which are determined by the Kadhis courts in Kenya.

(i) Marriage cases.

(ii) Divorce cases.

(iii)Inheritance cases.

(iv)Personal status. Any 2 x 1= 2 marks.

13. Give two reasons that may lead to the removal of a County Governor from office in Kenya.

(i) If he/she violates the Constitution/any other law.

(ii) If he/she commits a crime under national /international law.

(iii) Due to abuse of office/gross misconduct.

(iv) Due to mental or physical incapacity to perform functions of the office. Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks.

14. Identify one National Security organ of the Republic of Kenya.

(i) Kenya Defence Forces.

(ii) National Intelligence Service.

(iii)National Police Service.

15.Give one classification of land ownership enshrined in the Constitution of Kenya.

(i) Public land.

(ii) Community land.

(iii) Private land.

16. State two roles played by Theatre in nation building.

(i) It educates people on different cultural aspects.

(ii) It provides entertainment.

(iii) It creates employment

(iv) It helps in uniting people

17.Give the main reason why President Daniel Arap Moi banned ethnic organisations 1979

In order to promote national unity

18. (a) Outline three factors that enabled the early visitors to come to the East African Coast before 1500 AD.

(i) The accessibility of the East African Coast from the sea/ocean.

(ii)The development of marine technology/existence of marines./existence of marine

(iii) The existence of monsoon winds.

(iv) The technology/knowledge of boat making.

(b) Explain six effects of the Indian Ocean trade on the East African Coastal inhabitants before 1500 AD.

(i) It led to the development/growth of the city states/towns along the coast like Mombasa which were near

(ii) Many foreigners settled in the East African Coast thereby increasing the population in the region.

(iii) Islamic code of law/sharia was introduced which was used to govern the coastal city states/people.

(iv) Islamic religion widely spread in the region as many people were converted into it.

(v) Arabic/Persian architecture was introduced which was reflected in the designs of houses/mosques built in the region.

(vi) Islamic education was introduced where Islamic schools/madrassa were constructed.

(vii) There was intermarriage between the early visitors and the coastal inhabitants resulting with the new breed of people called Waswahili.

(viii) Kiswahili language emerged, which was a combination of Bantu and Arabic languages.

(ix) There was introduction of new crops like rice/cloves/millet/fruits which becomes staple foods for the coastal people.

19.Give 3 reasons why the British used direct rule in kenya

(I) Most of the- communities were stateless/did not have elaborate traditional governments

(ii) They wanted to establish full control of the people.

(iii) lt had been used successfully elsewhere.

(iv) They had enough personnel/administrators.

(v) Some communities were resisting.

(vi) Most of the communities had been weakened by civil wars/famines.

b) Explain six results of the collaboration between Lenana and the British.

(i) The Maasai were evicted/displaced from some of their !ands which was given to the settlers.

(ii) The Maasai lost their independence, hence colonized by the British.

(iii) Lenana was given the position of Paramount Chief by the British in order to please him.

(iv) Maasai warriors were employed as mercenaries and were used to suppress fbring other communities under colonial rule.

(v) The Maasai were rewarded with livestock which was confiscated from resisting communities

(vi) Lenana was helped to fight his brother Sendeyo whom he forced together with his followers to move to nothern Tanzania.

(vii) .Through Maasai agreements of 1904 and 1911, they were divided into Laikipia and Ngong reserves.

(viii) The Uganda railway was constructed through Maasai land which enhanced colonial/British administration.

20.Outline three reasons why Africa reserves were created in kenya during the colonial period

(i) In order to check/control the movements of Africans

(ii) In order to control room/land for settler farming

(iii) To create a pool of African labour force.

(iv) To check/ reduce/ curtail/ slow down the spread of nationalist ideas

(v) 1t was a divide and rule tactic

(vi) For easier provision of social amenities to the Africans. Any 3 x I – 3 marks.

(b) Explain six ways in which the construction of the Uganda Railway promoted economic development in Kenya.

(i) lt provided cheap/easy transportation of goods and services to and from the market.

(ii) lt enhanced the movement of labour/workers. thereby enabling them to access their work places.

(iii) There was development of towns/trading centres/duka wallas developed along the railway which generated revenue to the government.

(iv) It created ob opportunities to many people who were employed to man/maintain it.

(v) It opened up agricultural potential areas where both settler and Africans started farming activities.

(vi) Minerals were exploited as there was access to the mines and transport of the products.

(vii) culture-related industries were established to mainly process agricultural raw materials.

(viii) It promoted local trade as goods could be transported to areas where there was demand.

(ix) It generated revenue for the government through charges levied on goods/peop1c transported.

21. Identify three political organizations that Ronald Ngala Worked with in his political career

(I) Coast African Association.

(ii) Kilifi African People’s Union.

(iii) Kenya African Democratic Union.

(iv) Mombasa African Democratic Union.

(v) Kenya African National Union

(b) Discuss six contributions of Prof. Wangari Maathai in the politics of Kenya.

(i) She founded the Green Belt Movement which advanced environmental and political activism in the country.

(ii) She served as the vice-chair and later as the chair of the National Council of Women of Kenya which encouraged the participation of women in political affairs.

(iii) Together with other pro-multiparty democracy activists, she campaigned for the need to have political pluralism in Kenya.

(iv) Together with other activists, she participated in hunger strike in Freedom /Uhuru Park to put pressure on the government to release political prisoners.

(v) She was an elected Member of Parliament for Tetu Constituency on a NARC ticket where she represented her people.

(vi) She was an assistant minister for Environment and Natural Resources under the NARC government, a forum she used to improve the country’s environment

(vii) She founded the Mazingira Green Party to allow the candidates to run on a platform for environmental conservation.

22. (a) State five economic challenges which Kenya was experiencing at independence.

(i) High poverty levels among the people.

(ii) Africanisation of jobs/economy.

(iii) Unfavourable balance of trade.

(iv) Low salaries/remunerations for Africans.

(v) High unemployment level.

(vi) Inadequate capital for development.

(vii) Redistribution of land/settling landless people.

b) Discuss five features of African Socialism which was adopted in Kenya after independence.

(i) Democracy was_embraced where Africans were encouraged to participate actively.

(ii) Mutual social responsibility, which emphasized the spirit of brotherhood in nation building.

(iii) Private and public ownership of the factors of production would develop hand in hand.

(iv) It emphasized equal job opportunities for all regardless of one’s tribe/religion/background.

(v) Narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor would be achieved through progressive taxation/mutual assistance.

(vi) To provide the needed social services such as education/health which were inadequate.

(vii) Mixed economy was emphasized in order to improve production/living standards of the people.

(viii) Progressive Africanisation of the economy would be achieved without harming/disrupting it.

23 (a) Give five qualities of a good public servant in Kenya.

(i) Efficiency/effectiveness.


(iii) Accountability/ transparency.

(iv) Integrity.

(v) Professionalism.

(vi) Responsiveness.

(vii) Self-driven/self-motivated.

(b) Explain five functions of the Civil Service of the National Government of Kenya.

(i) It provides services required by the people in various sectors of the economy.

(ii) It keeps government records/documents which ensures continuity in the provision of public service.

(iii) It explains government.policies_to the people in order to make them easily understood by the public

(iv) It maintains law and order/security through various security organs like the Kenya Police/ National Intelligence Services.

(v) It monitors the implementation of government projects/policies in order to ensure proper use of public resources.

(vi) ft defends the country from external aggression through the Kenya Defence Forces.

(vii) It liaises with other countries/international organizations which conduct business with government.

(viii) Through the Judiciary, it settles disputes which arise among the people.

24. (a) State five functions of the Controller of Budget of the Government of Kenyan

(i) He/She oversees implementation of the budget of the National/County Government.

(ii) He/She authorizes withdrawals of the public funds.

(iii) He ensures that the withdrawals are lawful.

(iv) He/She submits to parliament reports on implementation of budget.

(v) He/She checks. the use of government funds.

(vi) He/She advises the government on budgeting.

(b) Explain five ways in which the recurrent expenditure funds are used by the County governments in Kenya. (10 marks)

(i) They are used to pay salaries/wages to the county government workers who provide services within the county.

(ii) They are used to repair/maintain government facilities in order to keep them in good working conditions.

(iii) They are used to pay loans borrowed to finance operations/activities in the counties.

(iv) They are used in provision of bursaries/sponsor needy students for further studies.

(v) They are used in financing sporting/cultural activities which take place in the counties.

(vi) They are used to pay subscription fee to inter-county associations/programmes in order to sustain their operations.

(vii) They are used.to buy medicine supplies/medicine required in the county health facilities.

(viii) They are used to construct/maintain transport infrastructure in order to ease movement of people/goods in the county/ ease commercial activities.


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