KCSE Past Papers 2019 History and Government Paper 2 (311/2

Questions and Answers

KCSE 2019 History and Government paper 2

1 Give the meaning of the term “Stone Age Period.”

This is the period in history when humans used tools which were mainly made of stones.

2 Identify one method of irrigation which was used in ancient Egypt.

(i) Shadoof

(ii) Basin.

(iii) Canal.

3 Name the centre where treed slaves were settled by the missionaries in Tanzania.

— Bagamoyo.

4 Identify the main item of trade from West Africa during the Trans-Saharan trade.

— Gold

5. Outline two characteristics of Macadam roads.

(i) They were cheap to construct.

(ii) They were durable.

(iii) They were all-weather.

(iv) They had smooth surface.

(v) They were straight.

(vi) They were wide.

(vii) They were well drained.

6. Give the early form of writing in Mesopotamia.

— Cuneiform

7. State two disadvantages of using electricity as a source of energy.

(i) It can cause fire/destruction of property.

(ii) It can electrocute/cause loss of life.

(iii) It is expensive to generate/distribute.

(iv) Potential sites for its production are limited.

(v) It requires well trained personnel for installing/ maintenance.

8. Outline two functions of the ancient town of Kilwa.

(i) It was a trading centre.

(ii) It was an administrative centre.

(iii) It was a religious centre/Islamic centre.

(iv) It was a defence centre.

(v) It was a settlement area.

(vi) It was an industrial centre.

9. Give one symbol of unity among the Shona during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)

(i) The religion/Mwari cult/ Mlimo cult.

(ii) The Royal Fire.

(iii) The King/Mwene Mutapa/ Emperor/ Mutapa.

10. Identify the main method which was used by the European powers to suppress resisting African communities.

— Military force/expedition / conquests.

11. Name the British administrator who introduced indirect rule in Northern Nigeria.


  • Fredrick Lugard.12. State two political factors which undermined the nationalistic struggle for majority rule in South Africa.

    (i) They were not united.

    (ii) African political parties were banned/proscribed.

    (iii) Some were arrested/detained/jailed.

    (iv) They were not allowed to have free press/freedom of press/ press censorship.

    (v) Laws entrenching apartheid were passed/ Pass laws/ movement restrictions.

    (vi) They were forced into exile.

    (vii) Divide and rule/ creation of Bantustans.

    (viii) Banning of trade unions.

    (ix) Some of the fighters were killed.

    13. Highlight two ways in the Cold War was fought.

    (i) Through propaganda.

    (ii) Through economic sanctions.

    (iii) Through financial/technical aid to the allies.

    liv) Through military support to the allies of the enemy.

    14. Identify two permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.

    (i) China

    (ii) United States of America/ America.

    (iii) United Kingdom/Britain

    (iv) France

    (v) Russia /USSR.

    15. Give two common services provided by the East African Community to the members between 1967 — 1977.

    (i) Judicial services/Court of Appeal.

    (ii) Educational services/Examinations Council.

    (iii) Publishing services.

    (iv) Transport services/Railways/Water/Air transport.

    (v) Postal services.

    (vi) Financial services/banking services.

    (vii) Meteorological services.

    (viii) Research services.

    16.Name the two political parties which merged to form Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) in Tanzania.

    (i) Afro Shirazi Party

    (ii) Tanganyika African National Union (TANU)

    17. Give one chamber of the Congress in the United States of America.

    (i) The Senate

    (ii) The House of Representatives.


    Answer any THREE questions from this section in the space provided after question 24.

    18. (a) State five effects of early agriculture in Mesopotamia. (5 marks)

    (i) It led to settling down of people/ sedentary life.

    (ii) It led to increased production of food.

    (iii) It led to population increase.

    (iv) It led to rise of city states/towns/ urbanisation.

    (v) It led to the development of trade among communities.

    (vi) It resulted to specialization in craft/division of labour.

    (vii) It led to development of Writing/Science/ Arithmetic/Mathematics./ it developed education.

    (viii) It led to the development of the wheel.

    (ix) It led to the invention of the plough/ seed drill/hoe.

    (x) It led to belief in many gods/polytheism/ development of religion.

    (xi) It led to development of Hammurabi’s code/laws/ development of laws/ government.

    (xii) Development of social class/stratification.

    (xiii) Development of architecture.

    (b) Explain five solutions to food shortage in the African countries. (10 marks)

    (i) Reclaiming more land would increase the area for farming thereby producing more food.

    (ii) Adopting irrigation which would ensure food production throughout the year. (iii) Government should formulate/adopt food policies which would give strategies of achieving food security in the countries.

    (iv) Encouraging farmers to grow food crops that are drought resistant/require little rainfall.

    (v) Farm inputs/seeds/fertilizers/pesticides should be highly subsidized in order to make them affordable to the farmers.

    (vi) Storage facilities should be improved to minimize loss/wastage before and after the harvest.

    (vii) Modern/scientific farming methods such as artificial insemination should be practiced in order to improve agricultural yields.

    (viii) Transport infrastructure should be improved/constructed for efficient movement of farm inputs/produce to and from markets.

    (ix) Encouraging agro-forestry which would ensure food production alongside forestry.

    (x) Encouraging family planning so as to have population that can be sustained by the available food./ so that families have only the number of children who they can feed.

    (xi) Encouraging soil conservation measures/ terracing/ afforestation.

    (xii) Encouraging farmers to form cooperative societies to assist them in marketing their products.

    Promoting peaceful coexistence among communities to enable farming activities to flourish.

    (xiv) Encouraging the growing of food crops instead of cash crops.

    (xv) Giving loans /credit facilities/funding to farmers.

    19. (a) Outline three disadvantages of using Barter system of trade (3 marks)

    (i) Some trade items are bulky/ heavy to transport.

    (ii) Some goods are not divisible.

    (iii) Sometimes traders lack double coincidence of wants.

    (iv) It is difficult to determine the value of some goods.

    (v) Some goods are perishable/last for a short period.

    (vi) Lack of common language/ language barrier.

    (b) Discuss six factors which led to the decline of the Trans-Atlantic trade. (12 marks)

    (i) The introduction of machines/industrialization which replaced human labour leading to decline of demand for slaves.

    (ii) Slave labour was perceived by economists to be less profitable/less productive compared to free labour.

    (iii) The campaign against slave trade/slavery by philanthropists/missionaries who declared it evil/inhuman/against religious teachings.

    (iv) The closure of slave market in America after the American civil war of 1865 left the slave dealers with no market for their slaves.

    (v) Propagation of liberty/equality for all human beings following the French Revolution which encouraged fair treatment of all people irrespective of their racial background.

    (vi) The development of legitimate trade which was more profitable and replaced slave trade.

    (vii) The signing of treaties abolishing slave trade/slavery by Britain influenced other countries to adopt the same.

    (viii) The need to retain Africans in their homeland to produce raw materials for export to Europe.

    (ix) The attainment of independence of the U.S.A in 1776 left Britain without colonies where slaves would work.

    (x) Slave revolts /rebe11ion in St. Dormigo / Jamaica/ Guyana was a clear message that slave trade was no longer viable.

    (xi) Decline in demand for sugar in European market as France produced cheaper one.

    20.(a)Identify three effects of scientific inventions on medicine (3 marks)

    (i) It has led to the discovery of preventive/curative medicine.

    (ii) It has led to rise of living standards/life expectancy.

    (iii) It has led to increase in population/reduction of mortality rates/ terminal diseases.

    (iv) It has led to production of advanced medical equipments/ x-rays/ CT scan/MRI.

    (v) It has led to manufacture of variety of drugs.

    (vi) It has created job opportunities.

    (vii) Development of test-tube babies.

    (viii) Loss of lives through abortions.

    (ix) Over dependence / weakening of immune system/ drug abuse.

    (x) Harm to humans due to careless disposal of medical products.

    (xi) Reduction of suffering.

    (xii) Transplant of human body parts/ safer surgical transplants.

    (xiii) immorality due to use of contraceptives.

    (xiv) Development of vaccines.

    (b) Explain six challenges which South Africa has faced in the process of industrialization (12 marks)

    (I) The imposition of economic sanctions which prevented her from trading with other countries.

    (ii) The long period of apartheid created an unconducive environment for industrialization.

    (iii) Competition from more developed countries such as Western European countries whose manufactured goods were of better quality than those ones from South Africa.

    (iv) Industrial strikes/demonstrations/boycotts which were organized by trade unions led to closure of some industries.

    (v) High levels of poverty which created inadequate market for manufactured goods due to low purchasing power.

    (vi) Violence/xenophobia/aggression against foreigners has discouraged foreign investors/chased away the would be foreign investors.

    (vii) HIV/AIDS has affected the work force in industries thereby undermining industrial production.

    (viii) High incidences of insecurity/ criminal activities in South Africa which has been caused by unemployment.

    (ix) Inadequate infrastructure /transport/ banking/ insurance / communication thus slowing movement of goods and services.

    21.(a) State three terms of the Berlin conference (3 marks)

    (i) Any European country laying claim on any part of Africa should inform others.

    (ii) Those countries who signed the agreement declared their area of occupation/ spheres of influence.

    (iii) The interior of the coast area claimed by a European power becomes its sphere of influence.

    (iv) That each European country must effectively occupy their area of occupation/ sphere of influence.

    (v) European countries that acquire colonies in Africa must abolish slave trade/ slavery/ safeguard African interests.

    (vi) River Congo/ River Niger/ R. Zambezi basins were free for all European countries to navigate/ trade.

    (vii) European countries should demonstrate their authority to protect European in their area of occupation eg traders/explorers.

    (viii) Congo declared a Free state under King Leopold of Belgium.

    (ix) Conflicts over boundaries were to be settled through negotiation.

    (b) Describe six reasons for the defeat of Samori Toure by the French in 1898 (12 marks)

    (i) Constant movement of the people/army denied them opportunities to carry out economic activities leading to inadequate supply of necessary items/food.

    (ii) Samore Toure was cut off from Freetown where he used to buy fire arms /use of wom out weapons.

    (iii) Lack of support from other African rulers/Ahmed Seku of Tukolor empire/Tieba of Sikasso demoralized him.

    (iv) Samori’s second empire was difficult to defend as it was exposed to attacks from all sides/the British/the French.

    (v) The scorched — earth policy that he adopted lacked support from civilians who resisted against him.

    (vi) His inability to appease the conquered areas /peop1e denied him the needed support.

    (vii) The British policy of non-interference denied him their support against the French.

    (viii) The besieging of his capital by the French forced him to surrender/his blockage from retreating to Liberia.

    (ix) The determination by the French to establish an overseas empire made them use superior weapons on Route.

    (x) The non- Mandinka/ non -Muslims communities in his empire supported the French against him.

    (xi) The loss of Bure gold mines denied him finances to sustain his forces.

    (xii) He became old and was unable to control the large army he had built.

    SECTION C (30 marks)

    Answer any two questions from this section in the space provided after question 24.

    22. (a) Identify the three countries which formed the Tripple Alliance before the outbreak of the First World War. (3 marks)

    (i) Germany.

    (ii} Austria — Hungary.

    (iii) Italy.

    (b) Explain why the Allied Powers were able to defeat the Central Powers during the First World War. (12 marks)

    (i) They had advanced/firepower weapons compared with the Central powers.

    (ii) They had more financial resources which were used to fund the war.

    ciii) They had strong naval power which enabled them to blockage supplies to the Central Powers from the sea.

    (iv) They were united/well organized unlike the Central Powers who were disorganized.

    (v) Some members of the Central Powers decamped thereby weakening them to the advantage of the Allied Powers.

    (vi) The entry of the United States of America on the side of the Allied Powers boosted their resources/skills.

    (vii) The powers were led by leaders who were competent/focused hence inspired their members.

    (viii) They had more manpower/soldiers who were deployed during the war.

    (ix) The Allied Powers received support from other countries which boosted their mastery over the Central Powers.

    (x) There was political unrest /instability in Germany which affected her military strength.

    (xi) Failure of the Von Schrieffer Plan delayed attack on France through Belgium.

    (xii) Toward the end of the war, Germany used young/ inexperienced soldiers.

    (xiii) The invasion of neutral Belgium by Germany helped to turn the world opinion against Central Powers which was seen as unreasonable/ arrogant.

    (xiv) The Spanish flu weakened the soldiers and the Central Power.

    23. (a) State five objectives of the African Union (AU) (5 marks)

    (i) To achieve greater unity/ cohesion/ solidarity among African countries/nations.

    (ii) To defend the sovereignty/ territorial integrity/independence of its member states.

    (iii) To accelerate the political/ social-economic integration of the continent.

    (iv) To promote/ defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent/ the people.

    (v) To encourage international cooperation, taking due account of the Charter of the UN and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    (vi) To promote peace/ security/ stability of the continent.

    (vii) To promote democratic principles and institutions / popular participation and governance.

    (viii) Promote and protect human/ people’s rights.

    (ix) Establish conditions which enable the continent to play its rightful role in global economy.

    (x) Promote sustainable development at economic/ social/ cultural levels.

    (xi) Promote cooperation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standards of the Africans.

    (xii) Coordinate /harmonize the policies in existing or future regional economic communities.

    (xiii) Advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields.

    (xiv) Work with relevant international partners in eradication of preventable diseases.

    (b) Explain five challenges facing the East African Community (EAC) 2001

    (i) Suspicion/mistrust among member states as some view others as more dominating in its affairs/benefiting more.

    (ii) Some countries impose trade barriers for goods from member states which fuels animosity.

    (iii) There has been trans-border/across border smuggling of vehicles/other goods which creates economic mistrust among neighbours/ members.

    (iv) Dispute over use of natural resources/water resources has led to arrest of some fishermen thereby straining relationship among affected member states.

    (v) Cross-border cattle rustling/raids has fueled insecurity/tension among member states.

    (vi) Divided loyalty as member states belong to other regional/international organizations.

    (vii) Ideological differences among leaders has led to strained relations among them.

    Identify five ways through which the supremacy of the parliament may be limited in Britain

    24 (a) Identify five ways through which the supremacy of the parliament may be limited in Britain (5 marks)

    (i) It cannot make laws which overlook moral values.

    (ii)Decision made by the parliament must take into consideration public opinion. Local

    (ii)authorities are empowered to make by —laws without consulting the parliament.

    (iv) It must consider interest of institutions before making laws affecting them.

    (v) Legislation passed by the parliament may be changed in the future.

    (vi) International law is also taken into account when laws are made.

    (vii) Parliament cannot discuss what is before the the law courts.

    (b) Discuss five functions of the Federal Government in the United States of America. (10 marks)

    (i) It levies/collects taxes which enable the government to finance its operations.

    (iii) It admits new states into the union like Alaska which was last to be admitted.

    (iv) It enacts/passes/amends laws which regulate operations of the Federal /State governments.

    (v) It handles foreign affairs e.g.s through ratifying treating with the other countries.

    (vi) It declares war/ makes peace when /if need be.

    (vii) It resolves disputes among states in order to enhance their cooperation.

    (viii) It establishes Federal courts which determine cases which are beyond jurisdiction of state courts.

    (ix) It makes/issues currencies/regulates its value.

    (x) It establishes federal and postal services.

    (xi) It gives grants to individual states.

    (xii) It regulates internal and external trade.

    (xiii) It establishes federal armed forces/defence.

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