KCSE Past Papers 2020 History and Government Paper 2 (311/2)

Questions and Answers

Kenya certificate of secondary education

2020 KCSE Past Paper History Paper 2

Section A (25 marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

1. Give two sources of information on History and Government.(2 mark)

i. Archaeology

ii. Oral traditions

iii. Written records

iv. Anthropology

v. Linguistics

vi. Paleontology

vii. Genetics/ botany/ biology/ zoology

viii. Electronics

ix. Geology

2. What does the Creation Theory state about the origin of man?(1 mark)

States that man was created by God/supreme being.

3. Name the person who invented the seed drill. (1 mark)

Jethro Tull

4. Give two modern ways of communication.(2 marks)

. Television

ii. Radio

iii. Telephone/cellphone/mobile phones

iv. Electronic mail

v. Facsimile trans receiver(fax)

vi. Telex

vii. Pager

viii. Internet / zoom / skype / Facebook / whatsapp / telegram / instagram / twitter / social media / satellite / computers

5. Give two factors which were responsible for the emergence of the ancient town of Cairo.(2 marks)

i. Religious center/religion

ii. Presence of water from River Nile for domestic/industrial/agriculture/irrigation

iii. Strategic location/it was along the Caravan route

iv. Availability of water transport/river Nile

v. Trading activities

vi. Educational centre

vii. Cultural centre

6. Who was Omulamuzi in Buganda Kingdom during the 19th century?(1 mark) The Chief Justice

7. Identify two systems of administration used by the Europeans during the colonial period in Africa.(2 marks)

i. Direct rule

ii. Indirect rule

iii. Assimilation

iv. Association

8. Name two organs of the Commonwealth.(2 marks)

i. Heads of state summit

ii. Ministerial meetings

iii. The Secretariat

9. Give the organ of the African Union that hears cases of human abuses.(1 mark)

The court of justice

10. Identify one main political party in the United States of America.

i. The Democratic Party ii. The Republican Party

11. Outline two political challenges that the Democratic Republic of Congo has faced since independence.(2 marks)


  • Civil war/Shaba rebellion
  • Secession of Katanga/Kasai
  • Political assassinations.
  • Military coups/overthrow of governments
  • Dictatorship/suppression of democracy
  • Existence of militia groups
  • Political interference by former colonial masters/domination of public service by Belgians
  • Refugee crises
  • Political and ideological differences between Kasavubu and Mobutu x. Interference of UNO in the affairs of DRC
  • Army mutiny
  • Tribalism/ethnicity conflicts
  • Banning of political parties12. Give the main reason for the formation of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).(1 marks)

    To promote economic integration/development among states. (Trade)

    13. Identify two officials who assisted Mutapa in the administration of the Shona Kingdom during the precolonial period.(2 marks)


  • Queen mother
  • Head drummer
  • 9 Principal wives
  • King’s sister/emperor’s sister/queen sister(Ubunga)
  • Military commander
  • Head doorkeeper/gate keeper
  • The chief cook/head cook/chief baker/battler(Mfumbiro)
  • The Chancellor
  • Senior son-in-law (Mbokurume)14. Give two factors which led to the growth of London as an urban centre.(2 marks)


  • Well-developed transport network/ports/railway
  • Shipping activities/presence of port of London
  • Trading activities
  • Industrialization/textile/metal works/ship building
  • Educational activities
  • Cultural activities
  • Religious activities
  • Administrative center
  • Strategic location e.g. Themes
  • Financial activities e.g. banks15. Name one early source of energy. (1 mark)


  • Wood
  • Wind
  • Water16. State the main use of the pipeline as a means of transport. (1 mark)

    Transport of fuel/petroleum products/liquids/gas

    17. Define the term “barter trade”. (1 mark)


  • It is the exchange of goods for other goods 
  • Exchange of goods and services for other goods and servicesSection B (45 marks)

    Answer any three questions from this section.

    18. (a) State five social factors which led to the European scramble for colonies in Africa.(5 marks)


  • Spread of Christianity by missionaries
  • Support by influential people in Europe e.g. David Living Stone, William Mackinon, Karl Peters, W.T. Stead
  • The need to settle their surplus population
  • Missionaries demand for protection
  • Humanitarianism in Europe/desire to abolish slave trade which was inhuman vi. Racism/European superiority complex/civilization/paternalism
  • Exploration and adventure(b) Discuss five reasons for the growth of nationalism in Mozambique.(10 marks)


  • African resented racial segregation/discrimination which dehumanized/eroded their dignity
  • The Portuguese security police were harsh/ruthless in their treatment of Africans iii. Africans were against land alienation by the Portuguese as it rendered them landless/impoverished
  • Arbitrary replacement of African/traditional chiefs by Portuguese officials thus denying them participation in governance
  • Imposition of taxes by Portuguese administration thereby subjecting them to economic hardships
  • Disrespect of the African culture by the Portuguese was resented by the Africans as the economic hardships
  • Disrespect of the African culture by the Portuguese was resented by the Africans as the Portuguese considered it backward/they kept African women as mistresses viii. The Portuguese subjected Africans to forced labor which the Africans resented ix. The Portuguese limited Africans freedom of expression/ Strict censorship of the press
  • Inadequate representation of Africans in parliament in Lisbon.
  • Inspiration from other independent countries e.g. Tanzania
  • Africans were subjected to long walking hours with low wages19.(a) Give five characteristics of the Industrial Revolution in Europe.(5 marks)


  • Increased use of iron/steel in construction and machines in buildings/ factories ii. Production of goods in large quantities
  • The application of scientific knowledge in production
  • The development of trade unions
  • The rise of modern capitalism/creation of more wealth
  • The use of machines
  • The emergence of the factory system
  • The development of modern/better forms of transport/railways and roads
  • The use of new sources of energy/electricity/steam/petroleum/coal
  • Improved living standards of the people
  • Development of trade
  • Factory workers were organized in shifts(b) Explain five reasons why Britain was the first country in the world to industrialise.(10 marks)


  • Britain enjoyed political unity/ peace/ stability/ strong leadership for a long time which favoured industrial activities.
  • She had massive wealth from trade/ enough capital/ external capital from colonies abroad/ America and Africa which was invested in industry.
  • Britain had military might particularly the navy which protected her merchants/ guarded trade routes in the sea.
  • Due to the Agrarian Revolution which had taken root there, there was reliable supply of raw materials required in their industries/ food for industrial workers/ raw materials from her colonies.
  • Availability of a good banking/ insurance system which provided credit facilities and security against losses/ accidents in industry/ internal capital.
  • There were mineral resources such as coal which was a source of energy.
  • Availability of labour/ unskilled labour which was provided by the people who migrated to urban areas due to displacement by land enclosure system.
  • Large population in the country provided ready market/ internal/ domestic/ local market for her products.
  • Britain had good transport system like roads and railway which ensured safe and timely transportation of raw materials.
  • Britain exported her products to European countries and her colonies in Africa/ external market.
  • Britain had a policy of free trade without customs which favored industrialization.
  • The existence of cottage industries which laid the foundation for industrialization.
  • Scientific and technological inventions like the steam engine and electricity provided more reliable source of energy.
  • The British government provided the necessary support/ goodwill and favourable policies for industrial growth.
  • Existence of rich merchants who were willing to invest in industries.
  • Availability of skilled labour to man machines in industries.20.(a) Highlight five economic developments which have taken place in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.(5 marks)


  • Nationalization of industries
  • Encouragement of foreign investments
  • Development of hydroelectric power
  • Encouragement of public-private partnership
  • Development of transport infrastructure/network/ roads/ railways/ water.
  • Exploitation of minerals
  • Expansion/improvement of agricultural sector
  • The development of entertainment/music industry/ development of industries e.g. mining, textile, cement.(b) Explain five economic challenges that Tanzania has faced since independence.(10 marks)


  • Natural calamities/drought which reduced agricultural production/economic growth of the country
  • Nationalization policy adopted by President Julius Nyerere forced many foreigners to leave the country, making them lose their interest leading Tanzania to lose out on profits
  • The adoption of socialism/Ujamaa was resisted in some areas as it did not consider differences in economic potential
  • Shortage/ insufficient donor funds has slowed down the country’s economic programmes
  • Poor transport infrastructure has reduced economic growth/exploitation of resources
  • Depreciation of Tanzanian shilling has made exports less competitive in the world market/reduced foreign exchange earnings.
  • General poverty of masses and government’s inability to solve the problems
  • Corruption has compromised the government development agenda
  • Collapse of the initial East Africa Community denied the country a common market for her goods
  • Huge external debts
  • Fall in major export prices’ 21.(a) Identify five European powers which colonised Africa.(5 marks)


  • Britain/ Great Britain/ United Kingdom
  • France
  • Belgium
  • Portugal
  • Italy
  • Holland/Netherlands
  • Spain
  • Germany(b) Explain five results of the Mandinka resistance against the French invasion in the 19th century.(10 marks)


  • Many people lost their lives due to conflict/war between them and the French soldiers
  • Property like houses, food stores and livestock were destroyed due to the use of scorched earth policy by the Mandinka warriors
  • It sowed the seed of nationalism among the Africans who later organized movements to liberate themselves/inspired other nationalists
  • The Mandinka lost control over all their trading/ economic activities/ such as gold mines
  • Their leader Samori Toure was captured and deported to Gabon where he died in 1900
  • The Mandinka people were forced to flee/displaced from their areas thereby becoming refugees in neighboring states/kingdoms
  • Mandinka people experienced starvation/famine as farming activities were neglected
  • The war created suffering/ misery among the people leading to a state of despair
  • Disruption of traditional institutions e.g. chiefdoms were made ineffective in discharging duties.22. (a) State five functions of the Legislature in India.(3 marks)


  • It makes laws
  • It approves the national budget
  • It links the people with government
  • It amends some laws
  • It elects the president
  • It debates matters of national/international importance
  • It supervises the performance of ministers
  • It declares highways and waterways to be national highways and international waterways.
  • It can impeach the president(b) Discuss six advantages of the Federal Government of the United States of America.(12 marks)


  • It promotes unity among the different states while retaining their distinct identity
  • It creates a more viable economic unit where individual states can access market/trade with each other.
  • It safeguards rights of smaller states from domination by bigger states
  • It guarantees security of states as they have a joint defense force
  • It enhances political influence of individual states since they speak/take a common stand on international issues
  • It enables the states to benefit from a common pool of resources
  • It enhances trade among states through the elimination of trade barriers/use of a common currency
  • It enables states to solve common challenges such as terrorism/drug/human trafficking23. (a) Identify three challenges faced by the Pan-African Movement.(3 marks)


  • Disagreement among the leaders/ideological differences
  • Illiteracy/ignorance among some Africans
  • After independence, the movement was restricted to African continent/lack of support from blacks in the diaspora
  • Negative propaganda spread by the Europeans powers
  • Inadequate African participation in the Pan African affairs/denied travel visas by colonial governments
  • Hostility from European powers/ e.g. the Europeans fought the activities of the Pan Africanists e.g. imprisonment, not allowing venue in Africa
  • Inadequate funds/lack of economic empowerment
  • Differences/divisions between Anglophone and Franco-phone countries(b) Discuss six achievements of the East African Community (EAC), 2001.(12 marks)


  • It has provided a forum where East African leaders can discuss matters affecting them harmoniously/peacefully
  • Tariffs for industrial goods produced in East Africa have been reduced/investment procedures have been eased thereby increasing the volume of trade
  • The introduction of the East African passport/opening of borders has eased movements of citizens within member countries
  • It has facilitated the improvement and expansion of transport and communication among the member states such as low telephone calling rates
  • Professionals/artisans and business people are able to provide services within the community
  • The law societies in member states formed law society of East Africa which offers legal advice on matters affecting the community
  • It has promoted trade among member states by encouraging citizens to conduct trade in all member states
  • There is a functional legislative/Assembly with representatives from the member states who deliberate on matters touching on the community
  • Enhanced development of industries such as banking (KCB/ Equity)24.(a) Highlight three achievements of the United Nations since its formation.(3 marks)


  • It has assisted in disarmament efforts
  • It has preserved world peace/security.
  • It has promoted/protected human rights
  • It has alleviated human suffering/control disease/famine
  • It has promoted democracy
  • It has combated terrorism
  • It has helped resettle displaced persons/refugees
  • It has assisted in reconstruction of shattered economies
  • It has arbitrated disputes among countries
  • It has promoted decolonization
  • It has helped maintain/promote/protect cultural interaction in the world(b) Explain six challenges which the United Nations faces in its efforts to maintain world peace.(12 marks)


  • It lacks a standing army/military as it relies on the goodwill of the member states
  • There is lack of objectivity in voting by some member states who vote as a block according to their interests
  • National interests of individual member states are given more prominence/importance than those of the United Nations
  • Inadequate funds as some member states fail to remit their contributions on time thereby hampering its operations
  • Meddling into affairs of former colonies among the powerful nations has continued to bring suspicion/mistrust among member states
  • Political instability as a result of constant conflicts in many parts of the world undermines the operations of the United Nations/ civil wars/ conflicts between and within countries
  • Terrorism in the world has threated efforts to attain international peace
  • Inability to implement certain decisions/policies due to use of the veto power
  • Ideological differences which have heightened suspicion among member states x. Different levels of development among members make some feel disenfranchised/denied development or opportunities/disadvantaged
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