KCSE Past Papers 2017 History and Government (311/2)

History and Government paper 2

Answer all the questions in this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

1. Identify two types of oral traditions used to obtain information on History and Government. (2 marks)

(i) Riddles

(ii) Myths

(iii) Songs

(iv) Poems

(v) Tongue twisters

(vi) Proverbs

(vii) Stories/folktales/narratives.

(viii) Legends

(ix) Dances.

2. Who discovered the Evolution Theory on the origin of man? (1 mark)

– Charles Dawirn

3. Name two early crops which were domesticated by man. (2 marks)

(i) Maize

(ii) Yams

(iii) Wheat

(iv) Barley

(v) Rice

(vi) Sorghum

(vii) Millet

(viii) Cassava

(ix) Potatoes

(x) Bananas

(xi) Grapes/vines

(xii) Beans

(xiii) Cucumbers

(xiv) Figs

(xv) Lentils

(xvi) Onions

(xvii) Dales

(xviii) Flax

(xix) Olives

4. Give one type of trade. (1 mark)

(i) Local trade.

(ii) Regional trade

(iii) International trade.

5. State two disadvantages of using elephants as a means of transport.(2 marks)

i) It is difficult to load them.

(ii) They easily get sores on feet/skin/diseases.

(iii) It is very hard to tame them/they are temperamental/moody.

(iv) They cannot carry a load for a long distance.

(v) They are slow.

6. Highlight two advantages of wind energy.

(i) It is cheap.

(ii) It is readily available in many places.

(iii) It does not pollute the environment.

(iv) It is renewable/cannot be exhausted.

7. State two factors which led to the growth of Meroe as an urban centre. (2 marks)

(i) It was an intersection/junction of many trade routes/strategically located/ crossroads.

(ii) It was a mining centre/iron working.

(iii) The area had fertile soils/farming activities.

(iv) It had abundant wood energy/fuel.

8. Give the main reason why the golden stool was important in the Asante Empire. (1 mark)

– It united people/it was a symbol of unity

9. Give one characteristic of human rights.(1 mark)

(i) They are universal.

(ii) They are indivisible.

(iii) They have limitation.

(iv) They may be suspended under certain circumstancese during war or outbreak of diseases.

(v) They are inalienable.

10. State how humanitarian factors influenced the scramble for Africa. (1 mark)

– They advocated for the occupation of Africa in order to stamp out slave trade

11. Outline two roles of the Emirs in Northern Nigeria during the colonial period. (2 marks).

(i) They collected taxes.

(ii) They tried cases/settled disputes.

(iii) They maintained law and order.

(iv) They recruited labour for public works.

(v) They eliminated practices which were not acceptable to the British.

12. Name two African leaders who attended the 5th Pan-African Congress in 1945. (2 marks)

(i) Jomo Kenyatta.

(ii) Julius Nyerere.

(iii) Kwame Nkrumah.

(iv) Leopold Senghor.

(v) Kamozu Banda.

(vi) Nnadi Azikiwe.

(vii) Peter Abrahams.

(viii) Obafemi Awolowo.

13. Give two nations which belonged to the Triple Entente during the First World War. (2 marks)

(i) Britain.

(ii) Russia.

(iii) Japan.

(iv) France.

(v) Montenegro.

(vi) Serbia.

(vii) Belgium

14. Identify the organ of the Commonwealth which is responsible for policy making. (1 mark)

– Heads of States Summit

15. Name the European power that colonised the Democratic Republic of Congo. (1 mark)

– Belgium

16. Identify one major ..party in Britain.

(i) Labour Party.

(ii) Conservative Party

– Barrack Obama

17. Give the first Black President of the United States of America.

SECTION B (45 marks)

– Barrack Obama

Answer any three questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

18. (a) Give five uses of stone tools by the early man. (5 marks)

(i) Grinding seeds/grains.

(ii) Skinning animals.

(iii) Scrapping animal skins.

(iv) Sharpening weapons.

(v) Digging roots.

(vi) Cutting meat/vegetables/roots.

(vii) Defence/protection/security.

(viii) Hunting/killing.

(b) Explain five reasons why Africa is regarded as the original homeland of mankind. (10 marks)

(i) The availability of forests provided possible shelter/habitat/settlement for the early man.

(ii) Africa is centrally located and it’s from here that man may have migrated to other parts of the world.

(iii) Compared to other continents, the oldest fossils of man were discovered in Africa/ archaeological sites.

(iv) The savanna grasslands available in the continent provided suitable hunting grounds for the early man.

(v) Africa has many rivers/lakes which provided water for use by the early man.

(vi) African continent has relatively good climate which may have favoured human settlement.

19. (a) Give five traditional forms of communication. (5 marks)

(i) Drum beats.

(ii) Horn blowing.

(iii) Messengers/humans beings/ birds/ animals/ runnersy

(iv) Fire and smoke signals.

(v) Gestures and signals/body movements.

(vi) Flags.

(vii) Bells.

(viii) Whistles.

(ix) Screams and cries/ululations

(b) Discuss five advantages of using the internet as a source of information on History and Government (10 marks)

(i) It has promoted efficiency in the government operations in areas such as tax filing/provision of various services.

(ii) It has promoted education programmes as information can be accessed online.

(iii) It has promoted trade as goods/services can be sold/bought through internet/ online shopping/diverse transactions.

(iv) Job/employment adverts/job interviews can be made through internet thereby minimizing wastage of time/resources.

(v) It has enhanced communication as people could send/receive messages online.

(vi) It has promoted research activities as it provides information in various fields.

(vii) It has enhanced quicker/faster communication through use of social media such as Whats App/Facebook/twitter/messenger.

(viii) It has promoted/enhanced security/storage of information through use of drop box/cloud storage.

(ix) It is used for entertainment as one is able to watch video/play games/music online.

20. (a) Outline five methods which were used by the Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa. (5 marks)

i. Signing of treaties.

ii. Military conquest/force.

iii. Company rule.

iv. Diplomacy

v. Treachery/tricks eg Menelik II of Ethiopia/Lobengula of the Ndebele.

vi. Divide and rule/playing off communities against each other.

vii. Luring communities with gifts

(b) Explain five reasons why the Africans were defeated during the Maji Maji rebellion. (10 marks)

i. The use of scorched earth policy by the Germans led to destruction of farms/food thereby weakening their resolve to continue with the war.

ii. Disunity among the Africans made it easy for the Germans to defeat them.

iii. Germans were well trained and had a disciplined army.

iv. Germans had superior weapons/guns compared to the African soldiers/warriors who used mainly bows and arrows.

v. The Germans received reinforcement from Germany and other countries like Somali, Sudan and Guinea/mercenaries.

vi. Large/ powerful communities which had been defeated by Germans did not join the war eg the Hehe, Yao and Nyamwezi.

vii. The arrest/capture of African leaders by Germans demoralized the fighters resulting to their surrender.

viii. The African traditional religion which had promised that magic water could protect them from the German bullets failed hence their defeat.

ix. Poor organization of Africans/leaders compared to the Germans who had a proper structure of command

21. (a) State five roles which were played by Kwame Nkrumah during the struggle for independence in Ghana. (5 marks)

i. He started a newspaper/Accra Evening News which articulated African grievances/their plight.

ii. He formed 4vention People’s Party (CPP) which mobilized the people against the colonial rule

iii. He introducethhe party salute/slogan which urged people to support the nationalist cause.

iv. HeAheld political rallies which sensitized the people.

v. He made CPP vibrant/popular.

vi. He produced the country’s flag.

vii. He led Ghana to independence from Britain.

(b ) Explain five factors which were responsible for the growth of African nationalism in South Africa. (10 marks)

i. Presence of African elites such as Walter Sisulu/Nelson Mandela promotea African consciousness.

ii. The introduction of the Apartheid Policy which segregated the Africans/ advocated for separate development.

iii. Introduction of pass laws which forced Africans to carry passbooks thus controlled their movement. iv. The spread of Christianity which preached equality for all people thereby arousing Africans’ consciousness about their position in society.

v. Influence of Pan-Africanists like W.E.B. Dubois who encouraged Africans on their rights.

vi. Africans resented the alienation of the land by Afrikaners which forced them to depend on them for survival.

vii. Africans resented the Conciliation Act of 1924 which made it illegal for Africans to form trade unions.

viii. Lack of African representation in the Parliament denied them a forum for airing their demand/grievances.

ix. The Communist Act of 1950 outlawed any opposition to apartheid thereby provoking resentment from Africans.

x. Native Areas Act of 1923 restricted the number of Africans who could reside in the urban areas.

xi. The banning of all non-white political parties denied Africans a platform through which they could air their grievances.

xii. Urbanization in South Africa provided a favourable environment for growth of nationalism.

xiii. Participation in the World War II exposed many Africans to democratic ideologies.

xiv. Exploitation of African labourers especially in the mines provoked Africans to agitate for self determination

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

22. (a) Identify three political causes of the First World War. (3 marks)

i. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.

ii. Arms race.

iii. Formation of alliances.

iv. Development of nationalism.

v. Desire for revenge.

vi. Rivalry over colonial possession.

vii. The Moroccan crisis.

viii. The Italo-Turkish dispute over Libya.

ix. The Balkan crisis/wars.

(b) Explain six effects of the Second World War. (12 marks)

i. Many people both soldiers and civilians lost their lives during the war.

ii. It led to widespread suffering/misery as many people were displaced when their homes were destroyed.

iii. It led to rise of debts as countries involved borrowed a lot of money to finance the war/ economic depression/ economic slump.

iv. Property was destroyed as bombs were used thereby impoverishing the people.

v. It led to emergence of USA and USSR as super powers with different ideologies.

vi. It led to establishment of Communist governance in Eastern Europe like Hungary and Czechoslovakia.

vii. Germany was partitioned into East and West thereby creating Capitalist and Communist Germany.

viii. It caused the fall of dictators in Europe like Hitler of Germany/Mussolini of Italy.

ix. People were displaced from their areas thereby becoming refugees like the Jews/Stays/Poles.

x. It led to rise of nationalism in Asia/Africa following the return of ex-servicemen who organized/formed political movements.

xi. The USA introduced the Marshall Plan to assist weakened European powers.

xii. It led to improvement in military technology/industries leading to the production of advanced military hardware/arms race.

xiii. It led to increased dependency of European powers on their colonies for raw materials for their reconstruction programmes.

xiv. It changed the status of women as they were now recognized as able decision makers/leaders of families during the absence of their husbands.

xv. It led to the formation of the United Nations Organization to replace the League of Nations which had failed to maintain World peace/security.

xvi. The atomic bombs used against Japan released radioactive substances which negatively affected lives of many people.

xvii. Agriculture and industry were disrupted due to lack of equipment, raw materials and human resources.

xviii. External trade almost came to a standstill due to fear and insecurity.

xix. There was high inflation rate which led to high cost of living.

xx. Division of Europe into two opposing blocs; the Eastern and Western.

xxi. The myth of European military superiority was destroyed due to the defeat of the British and the American forces in the Far East by the Japanese.

xxii. Creation of the state of Israel to settle the displaced Jews.

xxiii. The war created unemployment due to destruction of industries.

xxiv. It led to the spread of infectious diseases like tuberculosis, venereal diseases like syphilis.

xxv. Permanent ill health and shortening of life for millions of people as a result of captivity/ starvation/ famine.

23. (a) State three ways in which the Government of Tanzania nationalised resources following the Arusha Declaration. (3 marks)

i. Africans were put in control of the factors of production.

ii. Africans were put in charge of means of production.

iii. Marketing of the produce was placed in the hands of Africans.

iv. The distribution of government resources was done by the Africans.

(b) Discuss six political challenges which were experienced in the Democratic Republic of Congo at independence. (12 marks)

i. Competition for political dominance by political parties polarized the country thereby undermining unity.

ii. Ethnic differences undermined nationalist cause thereby dividing the country.

iii. The mutiny staged by Africans soldiers created a state of lawlessness in the country.

iv. Secession of some regions/Kasai/Katanga caused instability in the central government hence weakening it.

(v) Political assassination created differences among leaders/followers thereby creating tension in the country.

vi. Africans were ill-prepared for independence hence the go adequate personnel with management/professional ski to run the government.

vii. Personality differences among leaders ignited confi too.

viii. Belgium interference in the affairs of the country of the Africans/UNO interference.

(ix) The killing of Belgium nationals followin tay mutiny created a state of lawlessness. Political and ideological differences be umumba and Kasavubu.

24. (a) State three ways in which the Monarch is important in Britain. (3 marks)

i. It contributes to better unders ding) between Britain and other countries.

ii. It provides continuity to the executive authority.

iii. It is a symbol of Commonwealth unity

iv. It sets the standards for s e.

v. It inspires the head of ke ent with a senses of responsibility/dignity.

vi. It acts as a useful counsellor of the head of the government.

(b) Explain six responsibilities of the State governments in the United States of America. (12 marks)

i. They establishthe law courts which administer justice in the states.

ii. They allow for the formation of Local government which cater for the people’s interests/provide services in the rural areas.

iii. They provide educational services to the people.

iv. They maintain law and order through state police department which ensures adherence to the law.

v. They generate revenue required to finance their operations.

vi. They regulate labour/industry/ trade in the state by making appropriate legislation.

vii. They regulate commerce/trade in order to ensure stability in the sector.

viii. They provide health services to the people.

ix. They provided recreational services to the people.

x. They make/passes laws for the state/do legislation.

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