TOPIC 1: MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND SERVICES:
Definition of terms
Management refers to the process of coordinating the total resources of organization towards the accomplishment of the desired goals of that organization.
Or: it refers to the art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals.
Information Centre is an integrated system which is composed of several interacted and independent activities namely: Acquisition of materials, Organization of materials, Storage of the materials, and Provision of the materials.
Or it refers an organization that deals with the acquisition, processing, storage, repacking, dissemination, marketing and publicity of information. e.g. Libraries, archives, record centers, documentations centre, publishing firms, Database (data centers), Media houses and Cyber cafes.
A manger is a human being who utilizes the force of other human beings working under him for their benefit and the benefit of the organization by forecasting, organizing, directing and controlling people and other resources.
These recourses can be classified as:
- Financial or capital resources.
- Human resources.
- Material or physical resources.
Features/ Characteristics of Management
- It is a Purposeful activity
It is a tool which helps use of human being and physical resource of the pre-determined goals and exists for achievement of specific objectives.
- It is an integrative force
It integrates human, physical and financial resource; It lies on cooperation of everybody.
- It’s a continuous process
It is a dynamic and ongoing process because it involves human problems and issues which is concerned with the identification of the problems and taking appropriate way to solve it.
- It is a group of activity
Management is very much less concerned with individuals.
- It is a goal oriented
Success of any management activity is accessed by its set predetermined goals and objectives.
- It’s a Pervacy
It is required in all types of organization whether it is political, social, cultural or business because it helps and directs various efforts towards a directive issue.
- It is an art of science
Management contains a systematic theoretical knowledge and also practical knowledge.
- It is universal
Management applies in every situation.
- It is social process
Management is done by people through people and for the people.
- It is multi – disciplinary
Management has to deal with human behavior under dynamic condition it depends on a wide knowledge derived from several discipline.
- It is intangible
Management is unseen or irreversible force but one can feel the pressure of management in form of results.
Objectives of management
- Human and social justice.
Management serves as a tool of uplifting as well as betterment of society though increased productivity and employment.
- Maximum Prosperity for Employment And Employees.
Management ensures smooth and coordinated function of an organization.
- Maximum result with minimum efforts.
Concerned with thinking and utilizing human, materials and financial resource in such a manner that we achieve the best combination.
- Increase the efficiency of factors of production.
Though proper utilization of various factors of production the efficiency can be increased to a great extend which can be reduced through.
Importance of Management
- It helps in achieving group goals
It arranges the factor of production assembles and organizes their resources interprets the result in effective manner to achieve goal. It directs group effort toward achievement of pre-determined goals by defining objectives of an organization clearly whir will be no wastage of time, money and effort.
- Reduces cost
It gets maximum result minimum input by proper minimizing and by using maximum input and getting maximum output. Management uses physical human and financial resources in such a manner which result in best combination.
- Optimum utilization of resources
Management utilizes all the physical and human resources productively. It makes use of experts this service lead to use of their skill proper utilization and avoid wastage if the employee machines are producing its maximum there under employment of any resources.
- Establishment equilibrium
It enables the organization to survive in challenging environment.
- Essential for prosperity of society
Efficient management leads to better economic progress which helps in terms to increase the welfare of people good management makes a different task easier by avoiding of scares resource.
Level of Management
Level of management refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization.
Three main levels of management are:
- Top level
- Middle level management
- Lower level management
Top Level management/ Strategic level/ Administrative level management
Upper level of management in an organization that usually includes board of directors, managing director, deputy director, managing directors officers and deputy chief executive officers.
Role of Top level management
- Lays down the objectives and role principles of the organization.
- Issues necessary introductions for preparation of departmental budget procedure and schedules.
- It prepares strategic plans and policies for the enterprise.
- It appoints executive for middle level e.g. departmental managers.
- It controls and co-ordinates the activity of all the departments.
- It is responsible for maintain the contact with the outside world.
- Providing guidance and direction.
- Responsible towards shareholders for the performance enterprise.
Middle level of management
In management of many companies middle level makes the largest group and usually includes the branch manager, chief librarian, marketing manager, human resource manager and departmental managers.
Role of middle level of management
They execute the plans of operation in accordance with the policies and directives of the top management.
- Makes plans for deserve units of the organization
- Participates in employment and training of lower level management
- Interprets and explain policies form the top level to lower level management.
- Responsible for coordinating activities within their divisions (department)
- Send important report to the top level
- Evaluate performance of junior mangers
- Responsible for inspiring lower level management towards their better achievements.
Lower level management/ opposition/ first line management
This management level comprises of people who supervise workers of a company and usually include supervisors, departmental heads and foremen.
Roles of lower level management
- Assigning jobs and tasks to various workers
- Guide and interact workers for day to day activities
- Responsible for quality as well as quantity of production
- Motivates workers
- They are the image builders of the enterprise
- Ensure discipline in the enterprise
- They are arranging necessary materials, machines tools for getting things done.
- Supervise and guide the subordinate
- Help in solving the grievances of the workers
- Communicate workers problems, suggestion and recommendatory appeals to the higher level.
Managerial work involves activities and therefore consists of actions. They listen, talk, write, meet, observe and participate. Managerial activities consist of three major processes namely:
- Information gathering
Mangers collect information from several sources within outside the organization.
- Information analysis
Mangers continually analyze the information using different methods.
- Decision making
After analyzing the information they make decision and take actions.
- The most common areas of management are:
- Marketing management.
- Operational management.
- Financial management.
- Staffing human resource management
Marketing management involves marketing managers who are responsible for pricing, promoting the product and distributing the services and products of the organization. They conduct market research plan and oversee the distribution network.
Operation management involves operation mangers who are responsible for the actual creation of the goods and services for the organization. Their responsibilities include: production, inventory and plant layout.
Financial management involves finance mangers responsible for managing the financial resources of the organization (financial allocators)
Human resource management involves managers responsible for managing the human resource of the organization.
Management functions refer to the set of activities inherent in most managerial jobs.
These management functions are:
Staffing is a function of managing the organization structure and keeping it manned. It involves the executive functions such as selection, compensation, training, promotion, retrenchment of employees, remuneration, performance appraisal, transfer and manpower planning.
Planning is the process of settling organization goals/ objective and deeming ways and means of achieving them.
Or It refers to an arrangement of doing something considered in advance. Or It is deciding on advance what to do, how to do and who to do it.
Planning is a thinking process organized foresight the vision based on facts and experience that is required for intellectual action.
The purpose of planning is to provide management with a blue print of what they should be doing in future.
The planning process consists of the following steps:
- Establishing long-term goals and objectives this is usually done by top management. The development of strategic plans serves as the broad and general guidance that would determine the organization future activities.
- Developing tactical plans- these are middle term plans of the organization they stem from the strategic plan.
- Developing operational guidance for short term activities that will help in accomplishing strategic plans.
- Developing strategic plans – this severs as the broad and general guidelines they would determine the organization future activities
It refers to the process of grouping activities and resources in a logical and appropriate way.
Or It is establishing of a formal structure of authority which is well detained and co-ordinate towards the attainment of specific objectives.
Or It is the creation of department, sections and positions in an organization
Or it refers to Pattern of library organization varies from library to library depending upon: Library objective, Nature of users, Type of staff, Finance, Building, Altitude of higher authorities and Philosophy of the chief librarian
In the choice of pattern of organization centralized administrative and decentralized service should be the basic consideration.
In case the goal and objective of a library are changed the organizational structure become large and more people join it hence structure get complex
This involves guiding and directing employees towards organization goal attainment.
Or It is the continuous task of taking directions and incorporating them in specific and general orders and serving these orders.
Directing entails issuing of orders and instructions, monitoring employees, managing the group process as well as dealing with conflict and change.
Library administrator such as chief librarian or his deputies are constantly expected to issue orders which lay down library policies
Directing is a complex process of getting things done through people. It offers the greatest challenge to a manager.
Decision making which is extremely important directing consists of the following steps:
- Finding occasions for working decision (intelligence activity)
- Finding possible causes of action (design authority )
- Choosing among course of action (choice authority
Directing involves the following:
This is concerned with inter – relating parts of an organization so as to archive common purpose (unity of action)
Coordinating will ensure that all departments an sections are working together towards the attainment of organization goals
Coordination is only possible though person -to- person relationships
It’s the process of monitoring and adjusting organization activates towards goal attainment.
Controlling involves the collection evaluation and comparison of information about the task performed or achieved with the standards. The aim of this is to identify the deviations and come up wither corrective measures on what remedy should be taken.
- The control process entails:
- Establishment of standards.
- Measurement and comparisons with actual performance and standards.
Under taking corrective measures
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS)
It refers to framework of both human and computer based system that process and report timely, relevant and accurate information .This information is for mangers in decision making process various levels of management. Management information system is an organized method or system that provide timely relevant and accurate information about the operation of an organization and its transactions.
Components of Management information systems
A system is a group of components: people or equipment that the aim at providing management with its information needs. Management information systems consist of the following inter-related components: Mangers, Information requirements, Data source, Data bank, Decision.
They are a person who waits to use the information from MIS for decision making process in this various level within organization.
- Information requirements
This involves the gathering of the needed information that will be used to provide timely and relevant information needed by the mangers. Common types of information which are required by mangers include:
- Information on budgets
- Cost reports
- Statistical information
- Data sources
This involves the process of identifying the systems, people, organization documents or place where the much need raw (unprocessed information) data can be found. It is also a media that carries information. The source would be in the form of reports e.g. financial reports, administrative reports memorandum and meetings.
- Data banks
This involves the use of data base or files e.tc. To store or record all the collected information in a sequence that allows easy and quick retrieval of the needed information.
It refers to a choice made by an individual or individual about what should or should not be done in a given situation. Or It refers to a cause of action chosen as the most available way or meaning for achieving an objective or solving a problem.
Information is processed data that has been assembled in such a way as to be meaningful to the end users
Importance Of Information
1. As a support in decision making
Mangers in the process of decision making usually use information as a support. This helps in reducing uncertainty which sometimes occur in the decision making process.
2. Auditing purposes
Information regarding the financial dealings of the stored in the data bank is usually used to provide historical evidential useful for auditing process
3. Performance control
In order to evaluate the performance of an organization we must have information on its annual productivity and the projects output. Information on actual performance of an individual or a unit department measured according to the standards is the basis of control.
Qualities of effective management information systems
- Low cost/ economical
A good management information system should operate at the lowest cost as much as possible
The system should allow for expansion of the existing structure to accommodate additional needs of the organization it the need arises in future.
The system should allow for control of information so that the right amount of information ends in the right hands.
A good MIS should generate information fast enough for decision making.
The system should be able to produce reliable information and should perform the designated functions without failure.
Levels Of Management Information System
- Transactions or operational level function
- Strategic business unit
- Strategic or decision support system.
- Transaction level
It’s the lowest and largest level of management. This level involves maximizing the output from the resources found in the organization.
This level deals mostly with decision that covers relatively narrowed time frame. It’s the level that supports day – to –day business operating transactions
The mangers at this level lead information that is detailed and focused on the present and the daily business conserved. This type of decision made at this level is structural and unstructured (a structured decision is one that is predictable and is made by following a level set of procedure
- Tactical level
This level deals with decision that conveys a broader range of time and it requires more experience. The information required at this level is relatively summarized and given in the form of report. The mangers at this level deal with semi-structured decisions. These types of decisions are made with a back of clearly defined procedures e.g. decision whether or not purchase a computer and what source to purchase.
- Strategic level
It is the top most level in an organization. Mangers at this level provide the overall purpose and scope of the organization decision at this level is unstructured and involves the subjection judgment of the decision maker
For example designing on a fire year goal for a company or evaluating future financial resource. The information at this level is highly summarized an acquired exclusively from external source.
Management Roles and Skills
Another useful perspective of describing mangers job is in terms of their role and skills. Skills are the various talents the manager needs to perform their roles effectively
Management role for under modern theory and were developed by Henry mitzberg and he became up with different roles
This authority is accompanied by a certain amount of status Mitzberg came up with three categories of roles namely: Interpersonal roles, Information roles, Decisional roles
The manager is the figurehead as he represents the organization
As a leader the manger directs, motivates the employees and doesn’t deal with behavior process
This role deals with people outside the organization establishing a good working relation with people working outside the organization and this is for betterment of the organization
The manager is a monitor and this role dictates over rising various activities in and out of the organization
In this role the manger relays information that he has obtained though monitoring to the appropriate people in the organization.
Spokes – person
The manger presents information its meaning content and answers questions in the organization
The manger should be able to allocate resource adequately and tackle any disturbances within the organization. Some should also be able to initiate growth in the organization: the manager is an entrepreneur, Resource allocator, Disturbance handler.
Principles of Management
It refers to the technique that can be adopted to facilitate the management of an organization for the overall goal attainment. Henry Fayol came up with the following principles
- Division of labour
Tasks have to be divided. It’s necessary to divide duties and activities especially in a large organization. Division of labour will lead to specialization hence efficiency and minimizes confusion.
Authority should be given according to a person status or position. It can be statuary or personal nevertheless on individual should be given authority equal to his or her responsibility.
There should be obedience diligence and respect in an organization. This should be equally applicable to both management and staff.
The best to establish and maintain discipline is to prove good leadership to the staff hence reduce disputes with justice and enforce penalty without prejudice.
- Unity of command
It demands that subordinate should receive commands or order form only one person unity of command provides security against confusion. This can be achieved through the development of an organization structure which defines the flow of communication.
- Scalar chain
This principle implies that authority and responsibility should flow in a clear line from top to bottom
- Subordinate of individual to general interest
These demands that individual to interest must be second to those of the organization i.e. the primary concern of an individual should be to growth of the organization
In an organization it refers to the best possible arrangement to achieve and confusion in an organization e.g. order can be created in a library by having section that are closely related side by side. Order facilities clear identification of functions an minimizes conflicts and confusion in an organization e.g. order can be created in a library by having selection that are closely related side by side.
- Unity of direction
This demands that there should be only one head and one plan for all operation which have the same objectives. Unity of direction in a library is achieved when the information centre is properly arranged so that there is only one head. Say the librarian and done plan to make sure that when everybody pull resource the plan can be achieved
- Centralization/ decentralization
Centralization is the cementing force in an organization which brings about concentrated effect towards achievement of the organization objective. Centralization demands certain decision and activities should be centralized e.g. an information centre e.g. university system selection of materials may be decentralized which a processing and ordering may be utilized.
This refers to equal treatment of all staff in an organization preference treatment should be based on the superiority of the individual and remuneration must be base on work done or qualifications e.g. salary scale should be based on education ability, experience and level of responsibility.
- Stability of tenure of personnel
Personnel should be motivated. This prevents high turnover
The organization should provide an opportunity and subordinates to ensure their initiatives order to give them satisfaction.
- Span of control
It refers to a number of persons a leader must deal with directly. The span of control should not be so wide although this can be influenced by certain factors e.g the number can depend on the size of the information centre, kind of activities allocated to different supervisors.
- Espirt de corps
An organization heads employee who should stay as one (demands that unity and harmony should exist) this is because there is strength in unity. The above principle are flexible information personnel can use those principles and others that seem fit for their information centers. The overall efforts should be directed to achieve the common goal of the organization.
Revision Exercise 1
- Give appropriate examples of management in your organization
- Explain the function of management
- Highlight the components to management information centers
- Give the main roles of mangers
- Define the following terms as used in management of information centres
- Explain the Principles of Management
- Describe the levels of management
TOPIC 2: RULES AND REGULATION
Rule refers to a statement highlighting what should and what should not be done in a given environment e.g library. It can also refers to an established or guide of an action set by an authority or It is something set by the authority for guidance and directions.
Regulation is to control according to the rules of a system. E.g. according to the rules of library and information centre.
Significance /Importance of Rules
- They are informative and hence inform the reader of the resources found in an information centre.
- They can enable a user to get maximum services out of the limited information resources available.
- Rules governing the number of items to be used ensure equality in usage of information material among users
- These are rules governing the provision of reservation of item are in great demand such rules prevent misuse of information materials
- Rules facilities consistency in library procedures and activities opening hours and closing hours
- They enhance control of behavior which in turn leads to sound and codical conduct among users e No smoking
- They provide uniformity in treatment of all users and hence protect staff and property
- They ensure a conducive working environment for all in the information centre
- They promote respect for the supervisors
- They create good relationship among staff and users
Purpose of rules and regulation
- They facilitate control of authorities and behavior of users in information centers
- They ensure a conducive working environment for all in the information centre
- limit the abuse of other users in the information centers
- they harmonize the relationship between the staff and users
Areas Covered By Rules And Regulation
- Opening hours
Rules and regulation which facilitates consistency in library procedures and activates for instance the time it opens and the time it closes.
- Administration requirements
Includes those students who are legible for membership e.g. academic is staff and students.
- Regulation requirements
Requirements like national identification card
- Loan conditions
Specify the number of item to be borrowed at a time. This depends on the circulation system in use e.g. The brown system uses one item e.g. authorized borrower may take books for a period of one weak as long as there are enough copies of the book. It also indicates reservation conditions of information material.
- Loan duration
It indicates the times a user should stay with information material e.g. one week.
- Loan privileges
Loan privileges specifies the users who are entitled to borrow the information materials, the rules regarding the loss tickets, and the renewals procedure
Penalties specify an overdue charges e.g. a charge of 10/= per day, it specifies consequences of the loss of an item (information material) and it also specifies the consequences of damaged materials.
- General rules
These outline the expected conduct or behavior of users within the library e.g. no smoking, eating and drinking is prohibited in the library.
Factors to Consider When Formulating Rules and Regulation
- The kind of services offered
The kind of services offered i.e reprographic services will tend to adopt its own rules. This will ensure that the rules cover each scope of authorities provided in the library.
- Nature of information material
Different types of information material require different user’s privileges and individuals
- Type/ nature of information material
Different users have different information needs e.g. in an academic library the users privileges may be different from the students.
- Type of information centre
Different information centers have different users, different types of material and hence rules can be formulated to be compared with the organization goals and objectives e.g. registry 5.Circulation policy
The rules and regulations to be formulated must be compatible and support the overall circulation policy of an information centre (Library)
Examples of rules and regulations formulated for a Library.
- The librarian shall be responsible for the safe custody of library materials.
- No item shall be taking out of the library unless it has been officially issued out.
- All members of staff who wants to use the library must register in a form.
- Material on loan can be renewed every two weeks.
- The reader will be held responsible for any damage/ loss of the item under their custody.
- Silence should be observed in the library for the convenience of other readers.
- Smoking, eating and drinking is prohibited in the library.
- Overcoats and bags should not be brought to the library.
- The librarian is empowered to suspend or terminate any person breaking these rules.
Kenya National Archives (KNA) Rules and Regulation for the Users
- Access to public archives shall normally be by permitted, Access the application form
- Any researcher wishing to use the facilities offered by KNA must apply to the director. Chief Archivist for a permit upon the forms provided and satisfactory completed. The office of the director issues permits after payments of prescribed fees, Applicant must be above 18 years and must have been recommend in writing by a person in a recognized position or person who can satisfy the archivist of their suitability to be allowed access to the record, The applicant must agree to comply with the rules made by the director in accordance with the public archives’ act 1965
- Period of holding a permit should not exceed 12 months. For special circumstances the director has the prerogative to determine. Renewal of such permits to be made to the office of the director.
- Permit is never transferable; the directors or an authorized person on behalf must sigh it such a permit audit the bearer to the Archives search few rooms during office hours.
- Visitors must sign the visitors book in Kenya National Archives search room once every day on which the attendance register will be made
- A permit entitles the bearer to consult those records which have been in existence for a period register will be made.
- Researchers is not permitted to have on production more than six documents any one time, no documents to be held on reserve overnight except on request.
- No material is to be removed from the search room. Consultation of the same is always in the search room under the supervision of a member of the KNA staff. Materials to be retuned that use will cause further determine fragile or damage
- Pencil or ball point pens are to be used in the search room. No typewriters in search room. Incase use of typewriters is authorized the search room supervisor will provide appropriate facilities to avoid unconvincing other users. Copies (microfilm) may be supplied to users on payments, However the number of copies the and whole substantial part of the record group or series of record will be provided.
- Researcher must handle all records carefully and must mark fold, tear or otherwise harm them in any way even tracing is not allowed.
- No smoking, eating or drinking are permitted into the search room.
- Where any extensive use has been made of KNA records in the compilation of any unpolished or published work the user will be expected to present a copy of such work to the KNA.
- Permit may be withdrawn at desecration without prior note for any infringement of these regulations or for any other reason which the director shall deem sufficient. The access appreciation form is a vital document to any archive because the formulized procedure and applicants are held responsible for what they do. Formulizing access to archives means the archive can take action against researchers who may violet the access condition, also the information provided in the access form is input as the archivist can use as a source for defining trends concerning the use of the archive and for planning other programmers such as a source for defining trends concerning the use of the achieve and fro planning other programmers such as microfilming of potential high image records. The procedure for obtaining access to all records may also include the issue of an annual recorder ticket or some other form of written permission to each approved applicant
Revision Exercise 2
- Explain factors to consider when setting up rules and regulations in an information centre
- Discuss the significance of rules and regulation in an information centre
- Highlight 5 areas that can be covered by rules and regulation of a documentation centre
- Give the differences between Rules and Regulations
TOPIC 3: SECURITY SYSTEMS IN AN INFORMATION CENTRE
Security is the protecting and safeguarding or information materials against loss or damage.
Security system refers to the method or means of protecting information materials against loss or damage.
Significance of Security Systems
- To prolong the life of information materials.
- To protect the information materials against loss.
- To protect the information materials against damage.
- To ensure cost is reduced specially those associated with replacement.
- To ensure constant availability of information.
Types of security systems
Two basic types of security systems are
- Mechanized computerized
- Manual human security
- Mechanized security system
This involves the use of mechanized devices in the protection of information materials against loss or damage.
Examples of mechanized systems are:
- Book sensing unit
It’s an electric security system where books and other bound volumes are magnetically sensitized then shelved. The staff at the counter desensitizes the book before issuing them. This is done to deactivate the alarm system at the exits which only responds to sensitized documents. when a user returns a document after issuing the circulation staff discharge it and then sensitize it again before is is shelved.
- Closed circuit television (CCTV)
This system relays user’s activities to a central location in an information Centre which can be constantly observed by personnel.
- Two way mirror
A security staff stationed behind a mirror strategically placed so as to show a good view of the reading area can observe the users activities.
Strength of the mechanized system
- It is reliable and does not suffer from human weakness e.g. sickness
- Less labour intensive
- Reduces the need for many security staff
- Maintenances cost is low
- System is more efficient in detecting stolen materials
- Large volume of work since the machines detect large of work
Limitations of the mechanized system
- Requires a qualified personnel
- High initial cost
- Power dependent
- Course users embarrassment especially with long delays
- Create a lot of work especially where the document has to be sensitized and unsensitized
- Manual/ Human Security Systems
This system comprises of the staff of the information centre or security personnel (watchmen) keeping valiance at the entrance and exit door and the information centre.
Advantages of Manual/ Human Security Systems
- Does not rely on power
- Can be applicable to all forms of documents
- Unnecessary user embarrassment is avoided
- Cheap to introduce and operate
- Ease of human judgment i.e. for torn materials security personnel can decide to repair
Disadvantages Manual/ Human Security Systems
- Not reliable i.e. the system operation can be affected in case of sickness
- Slow and cumbersome/ tedious
- Some hidden materials cannot be easily found
- Loss of materials is likely if the staff become dishonest
- Requires more staff
Minimizing the Loss of Information Materials
Information materials vulnerable to destruction and loss if not properly handled. These information materials can be easily at the user availability if proper care is given. Theft is deliberately stealing an information material by a user.
The following measures can be put in place to minimize theft of information materials.
- Restoration of security systems
- Keeping vigilance at the exit
- Minimizing the member of entry and exit doors
- Information centers should have clear employment policy that can enable them to employ honest workers
- Formulation of severe penalties for those caught steeling
Minimizing loss through damage
- Strong reinforcement of rules and regulations in information centers e.g. eating and drinking.
- Installation of fire detectors
- Use of fire extinguishers
- Use of fire proof storage equipment
- Regular inspection of fire equipment systems
Threats of information materials
Information materials are prone to the following threats: Dust, Fire, Insects, Rodent, Floods, Man
Insects feed on the information material and feed on the book binding, they stain and discolor the information materials and they also chew the information materials.
- Ensure good housekeeping in the information centers
- Ensure that outside the building is kept clean
- Ensure that materials are regularly used to make the insects run away
- Put some insects replant chemicals on the shelves
- Fill all cracks of holes in the walls, floors and ceiling.
Fire cause un-replaceable damage to information materials by completely destroying them and also stains the information materials that are particularly burned.
- Ban smoking in an information centre
- Electrical installation should be done by professionals
- Ensure the information centers has fire proof shelves and cabinet
- Have enough fire extinguishers which are checked regularly
- Install lighting arrests.
Causes of fire are: Smoking, Short circuit of electricity supply, Arsonists (deliberate burning) and Lightening
Under rodents we have rats and mice
Damage they cause
- The gnaw materials and use them to make nests
- They chew paper
- They urinate on papers hence staining it
- They damage structures i.e. doors and windows to gain access to information and material
- They chew electric wire causing them to short circuit
- Poisoning them with use of poison
- Total ban of eating to be restricted in the library
- Clear all old furniture and equipment form the building
- Regular clearing of the information centre.
Fools are usually caused by heavy rains, burst pipes and blocked rivers.
Damage caused by floods
- Staining the information materials
- Head to running of ink from the paper
- Lead to fungal attack as the moisture content is raised up
- Crumbling of paper is caused.
Preventive measures against floods
- Roofs should not be flat or leaking
- Windows and doors should have sheds
- Repair leaking roofs
- Ensure proper maintenance of tap and pipes to avoid own flooding
- Drainage systems should not be passed near buildings
Dust stains the information materials.
Preventive measures against Dust
- Use of curtains to prevent dust
Man is arguably one of the major factors of deterioration to information materials
Damage coursed by man
- Mishandling of materials
- Photocopying – continuous photocopying of the spine of the book
- Vandalism and mutilation
Preventive measures against man
- Information centers must have rules and regulation for handling information materials
- Libraries should provide enough equipment for transport of materials
- Libraries should have staff user program covering techniques in holding materials
Revision Exercise 3
- Explain measures that can be taken to minimize damage to information material by insects.
- Describe the significance of security systems in an information centre
- Describe the various security measures that can be used to protect against damage of material by biographical agents
- Describe the significance of security systems in an information centre
TOPIC 4: GOALS AND OBJECTIVE IN AN ORGANIZATION
A goal is a broad statement of where the organization wants to be at a specified time in future.
Goals provide a clear purpose or direction for organization
Function of goals
- Goals provide a standard performance e. they focus attention on activates of organization and direction of the efforts of the members towards achieving a goal
- Goals provide basis for planning and management control related to the activities of the organization e.g. a library
- Goals provide guidance for decision making and justification for action taken. Goals therefore help reduce uncertainty. Goals will give a defense against possible criticism
- Goals comes as a basis for organization changes and development
- Goals help to develop commandment in individuals and groups for the outside of the organization
- Goals can provide a basis of motivation for the employees.
It refers to a statement of what the individual are aiming to achieve in a key are of responsibility
Functions of objectives
- To formulate targets
Objectives provide mangers with specific targets without the mangers at all levels would find it difficult to co-ordinate decision i.e. mangers may pursue their own in the absence of formal organization objectives
- It acts a measuring tool
These tools for measuring are meant to establish how wal organization as well as individual has performed mangers. Objectives as established standards against which performance can be measured.
The vital process of getting an employee to agree to pursuer given objective gives the individual a stake in the successes of the organization
Since objective represents challenges (something to be researched for ) they provide motivation aspects because individual feel good about themselves with what they do when they have successfully achieved a fair and challenging objective
Objective should be SMART
S – Specific
M – Measurable
A – Achievable
T – Timely
N/B Organization cannot operate without goals and objective
Organizational Structure is an administrative layout of the organization, a pattern of relationship among position in the organization among members of the organization. The purpose of organization structure is division of work among members of the organization as well as co- ordination of these activates so that they are directed towards achieving the goal and the objective of the organization. The structure defines task responsibilities work roles, relationship and channels of communication. A structure is therefore the administrative layout of the organization.
Objective of an organization structure
- To facilitate economies and efficient performance of the organization e.g. in the allocation of resources.
- Enable one to monitor activities of the organization.
- Provides accountability for the area of work undertaken by group and individual members of the organization.
- Co-ordination of different parts of the organization towards common goals
- A structure should enhance flexibility to respond to future demands and development of the ever changing environment condition.
Importance of organization structure
- It shows the flow of authority and responsibility.
- It provides order and clarifies relationships as well as showing the status of various positions
- It helps staff members an interest outsiders to know how library is organized
Figure 2: Kenya National Library Service Organization Structure
Advantages of Functional Design/ Organizational Structure
- Efficient use of resources by grouping common task together resources can be well utilized in addition each department is able to serve other department efficiently.
- There is an independent skill development i.e. more intensive training of members is positive within departments.
- Provides clear career paths i.e. employee have a clear understanding of the job requirements and even the path that will lead to promotion.
- Enable strategic decision to be made at the top. A centralized decision structure facilities unity of direction.
- Enhances co-ordination within functions i.e facilitates efficient communication process between members within a department and other outside the department.
Disadvantage of a functional design
- Show decision making because of different mangers coming up with various plan which has to be communicated to the other mangers for the fiscal decision to be made.
- Decision are made at the top
- Poor co-ordination access functional, unwillingness among members to support others can lead to poor co-ordination
- Performance responsibility is unclear, the failure and success of the organization are outcomes of all activates within the organization. The contributions of each department can’t be clearly known.
- Members can be less innovative because the member becomes focused only on the departmental rather than overall goal.
- Limited management training with limited training management mangers will be well equipped to solve problems in large organization
Revision Exercise 4
- Give an illustration of an organization structure for any of the following information centers
2. Discuss the significance of goals and objectives
3. Discuss the different types of structure in an environment
TOPIC 5: COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
Collection development refers to the process of systematically building collection to serve study, teaching, research and recreational needs of the users.
Levels of Collection Development
There are three main levels of Collection Development namely: Collection development as a planning function, Selection and Acquisition.
Collection development as a process includes:
- User needs assessment or user studies
User studies refer to investigations of the use and user including non-users and potential users and uses of documents, information, communication channel, information services. User needs assessment identifies the following: An actual user is one who has expressed his or her information needs, A potential user is one who has not expressed his or her information needs, A collection development as a planning process caters for both actual and potential users, Users assessment aims at evaluating or accessing how well information center currently meeting the needs of the users and what other types of resources and services can be provided in the future.
Importance of Information Assessment
Information Assessment will aid in determining the role and the value of the information centre. The centre may be providing exactly the information or service required by the users, but unless they perceive that this information is exactly what they need they will likely not even go to the library.
Ways of Identifying User Needs in an Information Centre
- Form existing information source e.g textbooks, manuals, periodicals, journals, serials, and articles.
- Through setting up questionnaires
- Through offering interviews to the library users who are unaware of library services.
- Through conducting user statistics
Questions useful in the user’s needs assessment are:
What is the objective of the user? Are there staffs that never use the library? If so why? What have the users expressed as interest in receiving? How are we doing and how can we get better? How often do users derive what we provide? How often do we do something on time? How helpful and profit are we? How would you relate the quality of our service What problems do they encounter in accessing information? In what areas do they believe there is no information to be had?
- Policies formulation/ Collection development policy
Collection development policy refers to a recorded document highlighting how collection development should be done.
It is a necessary tool leading to consistent and informed decisions. They are therefore necessary planning documents.
Reasons for having a collection development policy
- The policy forces the information personnel to think through the goals of the information centers and to commit themselves to those goals. They are able to identify the long and short term needs of users and to establish priorities for allocating funds.
- The policy ensures that the information centre will commit itself in serving all past of the use community both present and future needs for every user.
- It helps set standards for the selection and weeding of materials
- It help minimize personal bias by selectors and to highlight imbalances in selection criteria
- A collection development policy serves as an in service training tool for new staff.
- It provides a means of staff self- evaluation and for evaluation by outsiders.
- It provides information to assist in budget allocation
- It contributes to operation efficiency in terms of routine decisions
- It serves as a tool of complaint handling with regard to inclusion and exclusion
Formulations of collection development include:
- Mission and vision of the organization
Includes mission of the present organization as well as that of the library e.g. The Mission Of Wakulima Public Library Is To Provide Information Service That Support The Leaning Of All Member Of The Community And Promote An Enjoyment Of Reading.
A vision statement addresses the future of the information centre this may also include long and short term goals and any relevant objective related and information resource,
- Audiences and purpose of the policy
The purpose of should discuss information centers management planning and students and consistency to whom is the policy addressing i.e. staff, student pupils, professionals handicapped.
- Community and user group defined
What are the characteristic of the user’s e.g. Children, adult’s etc. their age, gender, occupation, education level discipline interest – in additional which “ group” do or do not use the information centre.
- Description of the types of program and service
Which needs have been met by the information centers – educational recreation and social and reach needs must be met by this library
- A brief general description of the collection and information resources
General provide a description of collection in size, language primary formats and reading or, information level- at what rate are they growing or being maintained at a stable size.
- Any cooperative or collaborative collection development issues e.g. resource sharing inter library loaning.
It is a method of locating and acquiring the items that are selected for or identified as appropriate for collection. Or it’s a process of obtaining informative materials and resources through any method deemed appropriate e.g. purchase, donation, gifts and exchanges.
Acquisition process develops a library collection that would support the objectives of then organization within which nit is established.
Acquisition policy refers to a recorded statement highlighting how the acquisition process should be done./
Methods of Acquisition
These refer to the actual buying of information materials and this method involves the transfer of ownership based on financial considerations.
Gifts and donations
It refers to a method that involves the transfer of ownership of records and has no financial consideration. The information centre may receive donation or gifts of material from other sources. These gifts may be solicited or unsolicited the centre may accept unsolicited gifts/ donations conditions for the acceptance of gifts or donations into the collection development policy. In particular information center should decide Whether all gifts will be accepted regardless of conditions imposed by donor, Whether gifts/donations will be accepted only if they are no conditions attached, Some donors want their bequest to be published. This is achieved with a bookplate and the library may like to design or purchase some for inclusion in the donation item, however it is important to carefully consider the gifts in the light of the collection development policy. It is essential that the inclusion of the donation into the collection meets the criteria set out in the policy. If the gifts is not suitable, the collection development policy should clearly and sensitively state the methods for disposal of unwanted gifts and donations , It is essential however to ensure that the resources are appropriate to the information needs of the user group and as such must always be evaluated against the collection development policy.
Gifts and donation should be based on the following factors:
- The donor must be legitimate owner of the records
- The gift or donations must be very clear, meaning that the donor must state that the records are being donated and nothing more. The gifts or donations must be received by the receiver
- The records must be delivered to the institution being donated to if possible an agreement to documents the transaction to seat the deal might be necessary.
Is the statutory obligation on publishers and distributors to deposit at least one copy of every publication, free of charge in designated legal deposit libraries.
Certain materials that cannot be purchased can be acquired through exchange. In such a case it is necessary to work out on an exchange agreement. The success of an exchange program depends on the availability of the information materials and the willingness to participate in it.
Membership to Society
Sometimes a library can become a member of a society where it becomes possible to get some information materials free of charge or at a lower cost e.g. Library Society of Kenya
Challenges faced by an acquisition librarian
- Inadequate funds
- Difficulty to locate available resources due to deficiencies in bibliographic control
- Extensive supply of publications makes choice extremely difficult when funding is limited.
- Varied user population – varied resources
- the different formats in which the information is repackaged
- the cost of resources
- The speed of supply of information- deleyance leads to obsolescence of information resources.
An acquisition process involves: Selection, Ordering, Receiving and processing.
Refers to a collection development process involving a decision on which material to add to the stock and what quality in relation to other materials taking into consideration the information user needs.
- Identification of user needs and verify what users require.
- Location and availing the selection tools to the users.
- Recording and indicating titles of the material required this could be done if you have published catalogue you can tell the various stakeholders to tick the required materials.
- Accession register
- Book reviews
- Publishers’ guide literature.
Evaluation of selection tools.
Factors considered in evaluation of selection tools are: Currency, Purpose of the selection tool, Authoritativeness, Scope, Completeness of the tool, Availability
After the selection process when resources have been selected to meet the needs of the collection or when request has been received an order must be placed with a particular supplier.
- On approval each item should be recorded on an order form
- Arrange the order form according to some criteria e.g. by subject.
- Compile and record a list of items to be ordered. Order slips should include the author title, education, volume, number of copies and the price.
- Order slips should be put in a file (order file) this saves time and effort by avoiding an international duplication.
- Identify a supplier and make the order according to the official purchasing of procedure in the organization
- Send the order to the supplier after filing the order slips (order list) await receipt of order.
Problems in Ordering
Cancellation, Failure to publish, Out of print materials, Gray literature, Claim periods, Tittle changes
Receiving refers to taking something offered or delivered into one’s possession. e.g. taking library and information materials to the library.
- Sort mail before opening and ensure correct destination
- Open deliveries carefully to avoid damaging contents
- Locate the packing slip and invoice (sometimes sent separately) non- urgent materials without accompanying invoices or a copy of the order can be set aside to be dealt with at a laer date or when the invoice arrives
- Check if the materials are in good condition
- Locate any urgent materials required special handling
- if the material received is satisfactorily the date of receipt and actual cost of the item added order form
- Update library records to reflect the in process nature of the item
- Update the school library budget
- Send invoice for payment to appropriate authority (usually the school bursar)
- Catalogue items
- Notify user of arrival of materials or prepare new resource list
It refers to the act of arranging and describing the records/ archival materials of an archival institution for storage and use. Or it refers to making information materials ready for shelving.
Importance of processing information materials
- It makes information materials ready for use
- It brings order in retrieval of information materials
- It protects information materials against loss and damage
- It saves time in retrieving information materials
- It provide guidance on how to prepare a variety of information materials for circulation
It refers to the process of removing ephemeral or useless information materials from a collection.
It should be a continuous evaluation process intended to remove those materials which are no longer useful in the circulation.
Materials to be weeded
- Older books or materials may contain out of date ideas
- Books or materials that corrupt morals or racist
- Books using old fashion words may be hard for students to understand.
- Books that are falling a part
- Gifts materials should be carefully scrutinized.
Censorship – involves an attempt to judge or criticize or suppress ideas or philosophies which according to the one censoring are either harmful to society.
- Evaluation of the collection
It refers to an organized process for systematic analyzing description and information collection. Collection assessment help to clarify the goals of the information Centre in their context and budgeting, in fact the data simplified can be used to set funding priority collection.
Collection assessment can be classified into two namely:
- Assessment if this collection is described according to different subjects formats.
- Evaluation looks at collection appropriateness to the users.
Various ways of doing evaluation and assessment are: By list checking, Consultant expert, directly examining the convection by checking shelf list. It is a good way to make sure that the needs of the students and staff of a school is being met and resource is being kept up- to- date. The purpose of collection evaluation is to ensure that the collection reflects the reasons it has established and maintained.
Collection process should be ongoing and it should take into account the following:
- Capacity of the collection to meet the information needs
- Resource which are no longer relevant to the school needs
- Online subscription verse hardcopy
- Technological developments
- Access to computer verses had copy materials
- Staffing space and funding levels
- License and access conditions of online resources
- Conservation and preservation
Conservation involves process or operations libraries with an intention of prolonging the lifespan of the materials also it refers to the process of monitoring the physical condition of materials and taking actions to prevent further deterioration.
The information personnel must decide what methods to use to prevent materials deterioration, also at what point is an item to be replaced, what is the reason of conversation problems and if it is climate control infections off insects.
Conservation constitutes two main aspects;
- Care and maintenance of the material under good and proper conditions for the sake of this upkeep (preservation)
- Treatment this deals with practices applied to those materials in whish damage has already occurred (restoration) e.g. Fumigate, restoration is a curative measure. In fact a consequence of insufficient preservation. Good housekeeping practice can help increase the life span of information materials.
Preventive Conservation refers to the action taken before damage has occurred that will cause any deterioration.
Factors affecting Collection development in an information centre
Factors affecting collection development in libraries and other related information centers are:
- Number of employees consultant and outside and where these individual work.
- Service level required by various groups. The library must decide how current and how comprehensive the collection must be to satisfy the research needs of clients there needs to be determined.
- Acceptable turnaround times for users request
- Charging back to departments/ clients for rendered
- Emphasis on journals for current information needs
- Supplementing the collection with on-line informing resources.
- Physical working space
- Need for end users to access information when library staff is not represented.
The collection development planning process, highlighted by the invaluable collection policy statement provides a means by which the library selects and manages its collection of information resources. This guidelines are in effect, within which complex decisions are made with consistency reason, while a special librarians collecting is most often governed consensus deems collection policies useful as librarian aim to describe their collection in terms of depth and extent of coverage, types of materials collected, exchange agreements and the many other special consideration that the information person tend to encounter:
- The number of information users in information centers.
- The users level of education and reading abilities.
- Whether you need multiple copies (form lessons).
- Any title you particularly need.
Revision Exercise 5
- Define the term collection development
- Explain the significance of the following terms
- Acquisition , Weeding , Conversation and preservation , Collection assessment
- Discuss the methods of acquiring the information materials
- Explain the procedures used when acquiring information materials
- Discuss the factors affecting the collection development of Libraries
TOPIC 6: CIRCULATION SYSTEM IN AN INFORMATION CENTER
Circulation systems refer to a system that involves the circulation of information materials to the users in an information centre.
The circulation of information materials ensures that the information materials equality shared among users. Though not all information materials are circulated without restrictions, some information materials like reference source of materials are restricted to internal use only depending on the policy of information centers.
Charging / issuing – refers to the recording of the loan of the materials
Issues charge – refers to the actual record of the loan
Discharging – refers to the collection of the records when the materials are retuned by the owner.
Functions of a circulation section/desk
- Keeping vigilance at the entrance and exit.
- Registration of members renewal and withdrawal of membership
- Maintenance of user and stock
- Interlibrary loan program initiation and management
- Issue renewals and returns of stock
- Charging of overdue charges
- Discovery of damaged or lost materials and their replacement
- Provision for current awareness service
- Maintenance of property counter
Circulation system can either be manual or computerized and the two types of charging system are:
- Manual charging systems
- Computerized charging system
- Manual charging system
The main commonly used manual charging systems are: Browne charging systems, Newark charging systems, Book issue card (BIC) system, Ledger Charging system, and No carbon required (NCR)
Factors to consider in choosing a charging system
- Ease of use whereby a system chosen should be easy to use
- Size of stock whereby the collection of stock is considered in orders to know the most appropriate charging systems
- Clientele number like the number uses where the stock is small i.e. library can use a simple method of ensuring details of the item borrowed or borrower in a register such a method however would not be applicable in a large library with many users.
- Accuracy and effectiveness of the system i.e. choosing a system will not bring about errors.
- Amount and type of information the management would use for decision making
- Cost of the system whereby the system chosen should be affordable or afforded by information centre.
Features of a good charging system
Ideally a charging system should provide the following information
- The materials or loans
- The name and address of borrower
- Users with materials on loan
- Tittles and authors of materials on loan
- Information on issue statists
- Recurring of overdue materials
- Facilitate the operation of a reservation system
- Facilitate the monitoring the popularity of information material
NB a charging system selected should not be cumbersome and should be fast to operate
A good system should not tax the efforts of the user in charging and discharging of the information materials
- Browne charging system
This system requires the following stationary and equipment:
- A date label in each book (date slip)
- A book card containing the following:
Author ,Accession number, Title, Call number
- Borrowers card one per book in form of a pocket
- Name of the borrower
- Expiry date
- Address of the borrower
- Book pocket in each book for insertion of book cards
- Date guide
- Issue trays
If Browne charging system every member is provided with a certain number of borrows card/ ticket/ reader ticket that corresponds to the number of items that a user can borrow at a time.
The borrower card usually contain information on: Name, Address number, Expiry date of the ticket and Admission number
- Borrowers present the items to be borrowed at the issue desk together with a borrower ticket card which is equivalent to the number of item.
- Date label on the book is stamped with a due date
- Book card is removed from each book and inserted in borrowers card (one book or each borrowers card)
- Borrowers card bearing book are filed by accession number, class number or authors depending on the decision on information centre.
- The filing is facilitated by date guides in the issue log, which indicate the date when the material are sue or when borrowed.
- When a book is returned the librarian checks the date due accession number and author or call number and retrieves the book card together with borrower card/ ticket.
- Date due on the book card is cancelled and borrower given his card
- The book card is then returned into the book pocket
Advantages of Browne Charging System
- It is economical because issuing procedure are very simple and takes very little time
- Materials loaned can be at anytime be identified.
- The number of items issued to a reader at any time is controlled
- If the borrower has the ticket its prove that the borrower refunded the material
- One can locate and find overdue materials and who has them
- The methods can facilitate reservation.
- Statistic of materials issue in a day can be obtained
Disadvantages of Browne Charging System
- It is time consuming because of manual filing
- Errors can occur in filing
- If its large library the issue desk must be large enough to accommodate issue trays
- No permanent issue record is available and there is always danger of loss of cards
- Very efficient and vigilant staff is required to practice the systems
- There is danger that the readers pocket along with the book card can be filed under a wrong date guide card,
- There is no record as to whom the book was issued previously
- Newark charging system
Equipments required/ stationery required in Newark charging System are:
- Borrower card/ticket
- Book card
- Date guide
- Date slip
- Issue trays
In this system the users is issued with only one borrower card containing:
- Borrowers name
- Registration membership
- Date due
- Date of return
- Date of expiry
The book card contains the information bellow
- Call number
- Accession number
- Date due
- Borrowers name and signature
- Registration number
The book card is normally 5.5 cm long; the date label is inserted inside the book on the leaf
Details on the label include:
- Call number
- Date of issue and date due
- Rule on for overdue charge
- The user presents the book to be issued along with the borrows card
- The date due is stamped on book card borrowers card and date label
- The user sign against his registration number and name of book cards
- The book card is kept in a book tray behind an appropriate date guide.
- The book is retuned
- Date due and call number is ascertained
- Retrieval of cards
- Date of return is stamped on borrowers cards
- Due dates on book card and book label are cancelled
- Borrower is given a card (borrowers card)
- Book card is returned into the book pocket
- A back up exist on borrowers details
- Proper records for discharging and charging materials is maintained
- Overdue materials can be established
- Rules on overdue slips can remind user of due date and any information involved
- One can determine the popularity of a material on the date slip.
- Uneconomical in terms of stationary as it requires replacement
- Time consuming and labour intensive
- Large, busy library can find the system slow and inadequate
- Too procedural thereby not easy to use
- Misfiling can occur
- Require large space and staff
- Ledger charging system
In this charging system information professional opens and maintains a register. Each borrower is allocated a page or mare.
An index to name of borrower is given either at the beginning or at the end
Details in the register
At the top of the page you fine the following information: name of the borrower and a column of Date of issue, Name of author, Title, edition, Call number, Date due, Signature of borrower
A small library with a small number of users could find this method popular
- Good for small centre/ library with known users
- Register can be portable
- It’s possible to establish number of materials a user has borrowed at a given time
- Information about individual user is gathered at one point and therefore information can be established
- It’s cheap to introduce because initial coast are very low
- Simple to define and implement.
- Tedious and cumbersome
- Take a long time to establish overdue materials
- Difficult to establish material on loan by borrower, author material can loan cannot be early reserved
- Uneconomical because is limited to small libraries
- If this original register is misplaced or lost it requires a back up
- Book Issue Card (BIC) Charging System
This charging system can be used in school libraries that need to keep records of information seeking behavior (readership) of pupil.
Book pocket, Date label, Book card inserted in a book pocket, Issue tray and date guides, Details on book card include, Details about book and borrower, Date due, Author, Name of borrower
- Borrower picks a book and takes it to the counter
- Librarian remove book card form book and book pocket and enter details
- Date due is stamped on the book card, date slip and labels
- Reader is given book
- Librarian file book card either by author/date depending on requirements of librarian
- Borrower returns the book
- Librarian check due date by author or title
- The card of that book retrieved form issue tray
- Due date cancelled form the card
- Cheap and easier to operated compared to ledger system
- Facilitates identification of user interest
- Require a backup which may be expensive
- No record left in case of loss
2. The NCR (no carbon required) charging system
Equipment and stationary required for the no carbon required (NCR) charging system are:
- Borrowers or members card
- No carbon required (NCR) forms / slip
- Due date trays
Details on the NCR forms
Author, Title, Call number, Accession number, Name of borrower, Address of borrower
- The borrower brings the book to be borrowed to the counter
- The staff fills details of the book and the borrower on the NCR form
- The book date label is stamped with the due dates
- The borrower is then issued
- The librarian then files the slips (NCR) forms according to the method designed by the information centre usually by author, title or name of borrower.
- When the borrower returns the book, the librarian retrieves the slips or NCR forms from the charging trays
- He then cancels the due date on the book
- The book is then ready to be returned to the shelves
- It is easy to establish who has borrowed a certain item and also the over due
- Possible to access the reading habits of the borrower.
- Time consuming for the staff confirming details and removing of the slips
- Misfiling can occur
Strengths of Manual based Circulation System
- It is not power dependant
- Not machine dependant
- Does not require technological expertise
- One can easily change to another system without a lot of cost incurred (flexible)
- The manual system is flexible because one can change to another system at minimal cost
- It takes a shorter time to define and implement e.g. the initial cost is minimal as approved to computerized system
- Manual system does not require back up in the event of power failure
- The operation can be affected in case of sickness
- It is slow and cumbersome
- Its prone to errors misspelling
Computer Based Circulation System
Advance in computer technology enable automation as a necessary prerequisite for the provision for efficient service. When a catalogue is computerized, information amount the addition or removal of items automatically reflected.
In circulation process a database i.e. information about the borrower and the item are linked forming a file. Information about the borrower address subject registration number etc is entered in the file as well as maximum number, materials a borrow can borrow. Information about the items can include Author, Title and Edition.
Linking file, file which has fields from accession number and registration number for bowers is created. It is these files that do automatic linking of the borrowers file and the book file when a user borrows an item.
NB in the computerized system, manual stamping is still done on the book which the borrower is still given a membership card
- The system is less labour intensive
- It ensures speed i.e. it is fast
- More accurate and consistent
- The system is versatile – adapted to many different functions or activities ( changeable inconstant
- It occupies less space
- In the circulation process the database crated allows linking of information or records about the borrower and the book records, hence minimizing duplication and enhances of searching
- It requires a skilled personnel
- There high initial cost when starting and for maintenance
- The system is power dependant
- It causes hazards
- It is a machine dependant
- It requires back up in the event of power failure
Revision Exercise 6
- Highlight six indicators of an effective library charging system
- State advantages of proper filing at the reservation desk
- Outline 4 methods that may be used in circulation of information materials
- Explain 4 factors to consider before offering automated circulation services
- Highlight six Components of an automated Circulation system in a library
TOPIC: 7 FINANCING OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND SERVICES
Information centre are not profit making institutions and therefore require adequate funding other external sources. Funding is aimed at improving and maintaining the quality of information services within an information centre.
Reasons for funding information centers
- Funds are required to maintain the current expenditure and expenses e.g. rent, salaries, power and water.
- To enable the information centre to introduce and initiate new services
- Funds are required for the introduction of new services to the over –charging needs of the users
- Finance are required to aid in the sustenance of existing services e.g. Current awareness service (CAS) display and Selective dissemination of information (SDI)
- Funds are required to support the growth of expansion of the centre.
N/B: funding is aimed at improving and maintaining the quality of information services within an information centre.
Sources of Revenue
- Membership/ Subscription Fee
This refers to the money paid by the member of the information centre which registering to join and use the library recourse and services.
- Funds from parent organization
It’s the amount allocated for the book fund from the annual budget of the mother institution which establishes the library e.g. a government ministry, college, and parastatal organization.
- Government grants
It refers to the money allocated by the government to improve the library welfare.
- Private donations
This may be kind or in cash, by individual or organization. Usually by well-wishers or old members at a small fee.
- Sale of publications e.g. newspapers in-house publication
Libraries, mainly academic libraries usually produce small bulletin booklets which are sold to the members at small fee.
- Clarifying for provision of certain services e.g reprographic services like photocopying
Photocopying services works that needs translation etc and other specialized services are usually charged to raise some funds for the library.
- Organization of free based facilities e.g. video shows , film shows
These are usually organized in the library hall and who want to use these services pay some small fee.
- Foreign aid
Foreign friendly governments at times give assistance to the library either in kind or in cash
- Raffles and completions
- Hiring of the library hall
Budgeting refers to the plan of action in terms of cost, they are estimates of what the management thinks it would cost to execute function during a specific period. Therefore they are estimates of economic performance of a specific period.
The budget process
- Starts by issuing library task carried out, supporting services in the different sections or departments of the library
- Listing of expansion programme, new services in the next financial year
- Inputs of resources required in the above translated to money units with an allowance for inflation
- The budgets of the different units are combined to have one overall budget for the library which may be presented to the library committee before it is sent to the highest authority of a particular library for approval .
Distribution of the Library Budget
Financial requirements of information units can be divided into three parts namely: Start costs, Annual operating budget and Future costs
These refer to the costs required for starting an information unit e.g. construction of buildings, purchase of equipment, most of these costs can be categorized as capital expenditure because they are not incurred every year.
Annual Operating Budget
These are costs required for the operation of the information unit e.g. salaries and repairs. Because these costs occur every year they are also known as re- current expenditure
These are costs to be incurred in future e.g., extension of the information unit, improved equipment etc. they may be incurred as part of forward planning process
Principles of budgeting
This refers to how best to budget and facilitate the development of a budget that is exhaustive and relevant to the need of the informational centre.
Principle of responsibility
This required that the staff especially the management to be held responsible for the performance of their duties and utilization of resources. This ensures that mangers are not made responsible for either more or less the scope of their authority.
Delegations of authority and responsibility
This principles demands that authority and responsibility of budgeting to be delegated to authorized staff.
In the staff should be made responsible of their performance, then they should be involved in the planning process so that they can have a voice on planning of law these activities will be performed and estimate the use of various resources for particular task.
Factors to Consider When Budgeting
When putting forward budget proposal of information units and services the following factors should be considered:
- Size of information centre in terms of collecting, users, staff and the scale of operation
- Location and physical services
- Rising cost of inflation
- Period cover
- Assigned amount
- Purpose of the budget
- Budgetary policy
- Ares of crucial importance for the future plans.
Budgeting techniques/ Types of budgets
- Line item budgeting
- Lump sum budgeting
- Zero based budgeting
- Line item budgeting
It’s the most common in libraries or information units.
In this type the expenditure is divided into broad categories such as salaries, wages, books, periodicals, binding, and stationary, insurance. Each item is assigned a permanent vote and estimates are required under this vote. It at the end of a financial year money is left in a vote its not transferable from one vote to another without express permission.
- Easy to prepare, justify and understand e.g. in case prices of items books go up by 10% the authorities would understand the reason for a 10% increase in book allocation
- This techniques ensures that money is allocated for existing known needs
- Provides a basis for accountability
- This system nevertheless is concerned with input rather than the output
- There is a possibility of overestimating or underestimating
- In this approach no relationship exists between request made and the objectives of the library.
- It does not take into consideration programmers for the past and present to ensure continuity
- Inflexible e. money from one item cannot be sniffed to another more easily
- The authority of the librarian to make decisions regarding the allocation of the funds is limited
- It leaves little room for development.
- Lump sum budgeting method
In this approach a certain amount of money is allocated to the library and it’s upon library and decides on how the money is going to be allocated to various categories of heads. The library will therefore itemize important areas of expenditure until all the funds allocated have been accounted for.
- gives the librarian considerable freedom to allocate, funds
- Simple to develop especially on the part of allocating the funds
- It allows for the relationship between objectives and the amount being allocated funds be taken into consideration
- It is flexible money can be transferred to other items
In addition both past and present programmers are taken into consideration for effective continuity.
- The amount of money allocated cannot satisfy the current needs
- This technique may demand a lot of intellectual input or effort for the person doing the actual budgeting
- Possibility of personal preference during budgeting
- It there are no guidelines on resources utilization poor budgeting may lead and resource wastages
- Justification may be relatively difficult compared to the line item budgetary
Funds are allocated based on established standards e.g. in an accident library a a certian amount is allocated for every student and teachers. 5% of the total cost of materials set aside for stocking for every new subject or service introduced an amount of 10,0000 will be used
- The formula based beget is easy to prepare thus no skills are necessary
- There is a possibility of adequacy of budget allocation in acceptable standards are upholds
- Gives direction to resource utilization and minimize resource wastage
- Minimize personal preferences
- It is inflexible i.e. money allocated for an item cannot be easily shifted to another items
- The person preparing the budget may have no authority to make decision regarding allocation of funds.
- Standard are most often outdated
This system bases expenditure on the performance of activities and emphasis efficiency of operation. It gives justification and description of services to be achieved by a proposed programmer. This method describes in the resources manpower. Equipment or money required accomplishing programmer objective during the next financial year.
The budget is arrived at by
- Selling a library objective
- Deciding what tasks. activates need to be done to fulfill the objectives
- Determine what resources are required to carry out the task/ activities /products
- Finding out what the recourses required costs
- Doing the same as above for all the libraries objective/supporting services
- Adding together the different cost form the different objective/ program to have a total budget for the library
- This is an effective object of control because there is a yard stick, which serves as a measure of performance
- The relationship between the request made and objectives is quite evident
- This type of technique requires a lot of accurate date in order for precision
- More complex technique of budgeting
- Requires a lot of intellectual efforts often difficult to sell idea of task and performance oriented functioning managers and employees
- Dispute normally arise on the criteria and measurements of performance
- This type of budgeting is prone to fail especially if there is no sound planning system of the network.
- Zero – based budgeting
This budget is consumed from a zero base as it is was the first budget ever of the organization (starting from zero)
Constructing a zero –based budget
- Identify the basic functions in the information centre
- The organization can be broken down into departments functions covering the various units of operation.
- Set functional goals or objectives goals reference services to facilitate answering questions as fast as possible.
- Determine the cost of running each service and make the sub-total for each service
- Zero- based budgeting avoids relying on the provisions budgets i.e. weaknesses the previous budgets cannot be transferred
- The budget has a close connection between the budge and the goals
- Techniques avoids relaying on routine procedures because on must start a new
- Provides a legal basis a legal basis for expenditure e. easy to justify
- It is time consuming and difficult to develop
- This technique requires frequent fundamental review of which is impossible
Importance of budgets
- Budget serves as an effective management tool because they give direction for the implementation of policies. They therefore is an automatic and regular consideration as well as evaluation of terms plans
- Budgets provides a frank work for organization and accountability i.e transparency
- A budget provides a legal basis for expenditure of resource
- A budget enables an organization to minimize or avoid wasteful utilization of resources.
- To facilitate a comparative evaluation of different functions and programs
- It avoids duplication of efforts.
- Explain 4 challenges encountered in the preparation of budgets for an information centre
- Highlight four reasons for budgeting in an information centre
- Highlight 6 reasons why an information centre should have income generating activities (12mk)
- You have been employed as a librarian at NSPSI College. Explain the factors you will consider when budgeting for your library resources.
Revision Exercise 7
- Explain 4 challenges encountered in the preparation of budgets for an information centre
- Highlight four reasons for budgeting in an information centre
- Highlight 6 reasons why an information centre should have income generating activities
- You have been employed as a librarian at NSPSI College. Explain the factors you will consider when budgeting for your library resources.
TOPIC 8: BUILDING FOR VARIOUS INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND SERVICES
Library building is the first essential ingredient for running and developing a proper library service. Building attracts many people who can benefit from the library. Hence the planning of library building is an important function of a library.
The efficient functioning of a library depends largely upon interior layout and design of the building. The architect as well as the librarian must be acquainted with the general principles of planning library building.
Factors to consider before constructing a library building
- A library should be planned for library work
- Every library building should be planned specially for the kind of work to be done and the community to be served
- The interior arrangement to be planned before the exterior is considered
- The plan should be adapted to probabilities and possibilities of growth architectural effect
- Simplicity of decoration is essential in the writing and reading rooms
- Modern library plans should provide accommodation for readers near the books they want to use whatever shelving is adopted.
Factors to consider in the design of information centre
- The goals and objectives of the information centre
- The services provided
- The type of users served
- The furniture and equipment used in the information centre
- The storage facilities available
Features of a good library building
- Flexible- with a layout structures and services which are easy to adopt
- Compact- for ease of movement of readers, staff and books
- Accessible- from the exterior into the building and from the entrance to all parts of a building
- Extendible- to permit future growth with minimum description
- Comfortable- to promote efficiency of use
- Constant in environment- for the preservation of library materials
- Secure- to control users behavior and loss of books
- Economy – to be built and maintained with minimum resources both information centre and staff
Sitting and locating a library building
The proper location of a library will substantially influence the extent to which the services will be made use of by the potential readers. The following factors should be considered before choosing a site and location:
- Accessible location
The location of the library should be easily accessible to attract large number of users:
Public library should be centrally situated along with other community buildings so that the reading public will find convenient access to it.
Academic library should be located centrally with respect to classroom research rooms and laboratories. There should be convenient access from these to the library.
- Size of the plot
Since a number of publications and users are increasing, the point of future growth and extension should be given due importance and weight.
- Shape of the Plot
It is convenient to build a functional building on rectangular plot of land than on a square or triangular one.
- Quiet surrounding
A library should not be in a noisy quarter but in an area, which will be quiet in areasonable measure.
Designing of Library Building
In designing library building the following points should be kept in mind:
- Convenience of the patrons i.e. those who will use the library
- Economy of operations and maintenance
- Flexibility and adaptability for future changes in public library service
- Future expansion for increases in population and increases in population and increased use of library
- Simplicity of expression in its architectural form
- An inviting and restful interior
Basic Principles of Design
- Only one entrance and one exit should be provided for the public
- It should be secured that there is no means for passing of books between the readers in the entrance or exit
- doors and windows should be protected with fire fabric for safety of books
- Each window in a reading room should be so place as to throw sufficient natural light on the reading table.
- Provision should be made for research Cubicles one for each reader
- The circulation within the building should be designed in such a way that the readers are not distracted by the traffic
- The catalogue room and the stack room are within the closest reach possible from the counter.
- The height of the unit book rack should be such that the book in the top most shelves plank can be easily picked out by a person of normal height standing on the floor
An archival building is intended to serve the following purposes:
- Conservation of archival materials
- Classification and storage
- Availing the materials to users under proper safeguards.
In order to achieve its stated functions the building must therefore be planned for choosing a site is a crucial factor into its constructions both from the function point c view (that of users) and from that of optimum conditions for document presentation. Thus the building should be:
- Situated near the users.
- The location should be easily accessible
- Site should be near the depositing board
- Environmental factor should also be considered for conservation purposes e.g. site should be protected from sunlight.
- The site should be well trained i.e. not in area subject to flooding.
- Site should not be in an industrial area
- Site not in the hearth of town
Archival building premises
The archival building should also be designed in such a manner that different types premise are provided. These premises in an archival building enable the archives carry out its functions and activities efficiency.
Record Centre building
Record centre building should be a permanent structure and constant architect should be commissioned to design it. non-combustible material should be used. The building should be designed and equipped to minimize the commonness enemies of records such as fire, rodents, humidity, excessive sunlight, pollution, theft, etc. as concerns the storage area, e floor area should be directly proposional to the records to enable the records be preserved in the building. This is where the knowledge rate of accumulation or records will assist the architect in planning of nthe building. the archihtect has to make able provision for the future expansion needs of record centre. The building should not allow direct sunlight as this causes yellowing of the paper and drying up of binding. The storage area should be air conditioned with temperatures maintained at 15 degrees celcius to 18 degrees celcius and relative humidity of 55% to 65%. In the interest of economy, the building should be atleast 3 floors large enough to accommodate all areas mentioned.
Siting and location of a record centre
- Should be located within reasonable centres from organisations likely to transfer records.
- It should also be sited near an archival institution.
- The location should be preferably away from the city centre or major towns where rents are lower and therefore lower cost of maintaining centre.
- The area choosen should be free from all dangers of flooding
- Should be free from industrial pollution
- Should be dust free area
- The building should also be isolated from other building.
General functions of a record centers
- Provide adequate security of organizations inactive records against vandalism/ unauthorized access.
- Provide plenty of cheap storage space and equipment for an organization’s inactive records
- Provide adequate protection of records against agents of destruction.
- Provide quick reference to creating agency
- Appraise records regularly in conjunction with creating agency
- Destroy valueless records in conjunction with creating agency
- Prepare disposition schedule
- Transfer records to archives/arrange for their transfer
- Organize for transfer of semi active record to record centre
- Offer advisory services to creating agencies in records management
- Acts as an intermediary between creating agencies and archival agencies.
Physical layout of a record centre
In order for a record centre to fulfill the purpose for which it has been established, it should have two major areas i.e. Stack areas and Non-stack areas
1. Stack/ Storage area(s)
The stack areas are primarily all other areas where records are stored. This area is out of bound for the public except for the staff. It should be so designed to provide physical and intellectual security of records. These distinct areas are:
Fumigation area: This is where the print records will be sprayed with a view to kill micro-organisms and insects that may have attacked the records.
Cleaning area: This is the place where dusting and mapping equipment should be kept.
Conservation and binding area: These are concerned with the repair and binding of records
Processing rooms: where records are accessioned classified and arranged. This is where filing tools are also prepared and updated.
N/B: Adequate lighting and ventilation must be provided in storage areas, which prevents accidents and does away with dark corners and keep filing mistakes to a minimum.
Good ventilation aids both employees working conditions and proper record protection and also prevents the growth of fungi and controls moisture.
The building should be firmly constructed and the walls should be fire resistant and the equipment should be made of steel; boxes should be acid free and fire resistant
2. Non Stack areas
Non stack areas are primarily all other areas where records are not stored. These are administrative and processing areas designed to facilitate the efficient and economical storage of inactive records. These may include:
- Administrative areas: this space enables personnel to perform tasks required of them. Office to be equipped appropriately (desks, computers etc)
- Receiving/ Processing area: Provides temporary storage for records as they are brought in the record centre. The area should be situated near the loading dock. It may also act as a processing room where records are accounted for and assigned a permanent address for placement in staff area. Other record centres have separate receiving and processing areas if sufficient space available.
- Staging area: Must be adjacent to receiving area. Act as intermediate storage area where boxes are stored after being received and processed.
- Reference area: Provides users with a mini-library with tables, chairs, copiers, microfilm printers and readers for viewing the records.
- Destruction/ Disposition area: it is necessary. It is where records which have reached the end of their lifecycle according to the retention schedule are kept. If destruction is in-house, a shredder and bailer may be situated in this area. Ideal location of the area should be adjacent to the loading dock because companies may opt to contract out to scrap paper dealers and others who provide destruction of records.
Revision Exercise 8
- Describe the importance of planning the design of an information centre
- Explain the factors to be considers when planning the layout of an information centre building
- Why should the information personnel be involved in the deigning of information?
- Explain the general functions of a Record Centre