History and Government paper 1
1. Identify two pre-historic sites where the remains of Kenyapithecus were discovered. (2 marks)
i. Fort Ternan
ii. Lake Turkana Basin
iii. The Samburu Hills
iv. Around Lake Baringo
2. State two ways in which the migration of the Cushites into Kenya affected the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
i. They adopted female circumcision.
ii. They adopted the taboo against eating fish.
iii. There was conflict between them.
iv. They traded with each other.
v. They adopted age-set systems.
3. Identify the main economic activity of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)
– Pastoralism/livestock keeping
4. State two factors which enabled the Arabs to sail from Oman to the Kenyan Coast. (2 marks)
i. There were ports/harbours along the Coast.
ii. Presence of winds/monsoon winds.
iii. The knowledge of boat making.
iv. The knowledge of map reading.
5. State two conditions which one must fulfil in order to get Kenyan citizenship by registration. (2 marks)
i. One must lawfully resident in Kenya continuously for at least seven years
ii. A child who is not a citizen must be adopted by a Kenyan citizen
iii. A person must be married to a Kenyan citizen for at least seven years
6. State two ways in which poverty undermines unity in Kenya. (2 marks)
i. It creates a state of fear/suspicion.
ii. It creates violence/lawlessness.
iii. It divides people on basis of their economic status.
7. Identify one political factor which causes conflicts in Kenya. (1 mark)
i. Greed for power.
ii. Lack of democracy.
iii. Many political parties.
iv. Exclusion from government/leadership.
8. Identify the main disadvantage of democracy. (I mark)
– The majority usually ignores the intrest of minority/it promotes dictatorship by the minority.
9. State two ways in which the Bill of Rights promotes the interest of youth in Kenya. (2 marks)
. i. It guarantees them access to relevant education/training.
ii. It guarantees them the freedom to associate.
iii. It guarantees them access to employment opportunities.
iv. It protects them against harmful cultural practices/exploitation.
v. It guarantees them the freedom to be represented.
10. Give two similar effects of the Maasai and Wanga collaboration with the British. (2 marks)
. i. Their leaders were elevated/made paramount chiefs.
ii. Their warriors were hired as British agents/mercenaries.
iii. They lost their independence.
iv. They got material benefits.
11. Identify the main reason why the local government was established in Kenya during the colonial period. (1 mark)– To link the central government with the local communities.
12. Give one reason why the government encouraged settlers to come to Kenya during the colonial period. (1 mark)
i. In order to exploit the agricultural potential of the country.
ii. To assist in meeting administrative costs/expenses.
iii. To produce raw materials required for British industries.
iv. To check the immigration/influence of Asians.
13. State one reason why the Africans in Kenya started independent schools during the colonial period. (1 mark)
i. They wanted quality education.
ii. They wanted to lead their own schools.
iii. In order to accommodate those denied education opportunities by missionary/ government schools.
iv. To cater for majority of Africans in the rural areas.
v. To give opportunity to learn in schools where they could express themselves/cultura practices.
14. Identify the main voting system used in Kenya during the general elections. (1 mark)
– The secret ballot.
15. Outline one function of the speaker of the County Assembly in Kenya. (1 mark )
i. He/she chairs debates/proceedings in the Assembly.
ii. He/she moderates debates/discussions in the Assembly.
iii. He/she keeps records of proceedings of the Assembly.
iv. He/she presides over the swearing in of new members.
v. He/she forwards bills to the Governor for assent.
16. Identify one type of ownership which is spelt out in the African Socialism adopted in Kenya after independence. (1 mark)
i. Nationalization/state control of factors of production.
ii. Free enterprise/private ownership.
iii. State and private partnership.
17. Identify the two types of expenditure by the National Government of Kenya.
i. Capital/development expenditure.
ii. Recurrent expenditure.
SECTION B (45 marks)
Answer any three questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.
18. (a) Apart from the Akamba, identify five other Eastern Bantu communities which settled in Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
i. The Aembu.
ii. The Ameru.
iii. The Agikuyu.
iv. The Mijikenda.
(b) Describe the political organisation of the Akamba during the pre-colonial period. ( 10 marks)
Describe the political organization of the Akamba during the pre-colonial period.
i. The homestead/musyi was the smallest/basic political unit and was headed by the father.
ii. There existed a wider territorial grouping/clan/mbai which comprised of related families.
iii. Each clan had a council of elders which settled disputes among the people.
iv. There existed a council which comprised of elders knowledgeable in law/ customary law which judged cases in the community.
v. Above the clan, there was territorial grouping/kivalo which comprised of warriors/fighting unit who defended the community.
vi. There were age-sets and age-grades in the community, each with specific role to play.
vii. Above junior elders were medium elders/Nthele who assisted in the administration of the community.
viii. There existed the council of senior elders/Atumia ma kivalo which participated in making judgements on serious issues in the community.
ix. There were senior most elders/Atumia ma Ithembo who participated in religious matters such as offering sacrifices.
x. They had a decentralized system of government.
19. (a) State five social effects of the Uganda railway on Kenya during the colonial period. (5 marks)
i. It speeded up the movement of missionaries into the interior.
ii. It influenced the development of roads/telecommunication.
iii. It led to the creation of African reserves.
iv. It led to the development of urban centres.
v. It led to the migration of Indian coolies into the country.
vi. It promoted the interaction of people/movement.
(b) Explain five ways in which colonial land policies in Kenya undermined African economy during the colonial period. (10 marks)
i. Africans were pushed to the infertile land/overcrowded reserves which were less productive for agriculture.
ii. They created a class of landless people/squatters who settled on settler farms in exchange for their labour/forced labour.
iii. They alienated Africans from their lands thereby undermining farming activities.
iv. Africans were dispossessed of their land and therefore could not get title deeds which they could use to access credit/loans to develop their lands.
v. Taxes/poll/hut tax were introduced which forced Africans to offer their labour on settler farms at the expense of their own.
vi. African land tenure system was disrupted thereby undermining the traditional economic set up.
vii. Development of classes within the African society emerged, thus the few who could afford to buy land became wealthy.
20. (a) Give five early political organisations formed in Kenya up to 1939. (5 marks)
– Kikuyu Association.
– Kikuyu Central Association.
– East African Association/ Young Kikuyu Association.
– Kavirondo Taxpayers Welfare Association/ Young Kavirondo Association.
– Ukamba Members Association.
– Coast African Association. Taita Hills Association.
(b)Explain 5 factors that promoted the growth of african nationalism between 1945 and 1963
i. Acquisition of independence by India and Pakistan in 1947 and Ghana in 1957 respectively encouraged Kenyan nationalists.
ii. Ex-servicemen who had participated in the World Wars used their experience to organize/lead the independence struggle.
iii. Trade union movements advocated/educated workers on their rights/provided for/ agitated for independence.
iv. The Mau Mau movement/uprising and its activities hastened the independence as they fought for land rights among other grievances.
v. The United Nations Organization after the World War II in 1945 advocated for granting of independence to the nations still under colonialism.
vi. The formation of political parties like KANU and KADU which mobilized Africans against colonial rule.
vii. The Labour Party in Britain was in favour of decolonization of her former colonies, hence inspired the nationalists. viii. The Pan-African congress of 1945 encouraged the Africans to liberate themselves from colonial rule.
ix. Acquisition of Western education by many Africans enabled them to understand political developments; thereby demanding for independence.
x. Signing of Atlantic Charter of 1941 which advocated for decolonization.
21. (a) Outline five features of African Socialism in kenya (5 marks)
i. It emphasizes on freedom from exploitation/discrimination.
ii. It allows different forms of ownership of property/resources.
iii. It advocates for mutual social responsibility.
iv. It stresses on political democracy.
v. It emphasizes on social justice.
vi. It emphasizes on equitable distribution/ use of resources.
vii. Progressive taxation to ensure equitable distribution of wealth/income.
(b) Explain Five ways in which the harambee has promoted social development in kenya since independence (10 marks)
. i. Funds have been raised which have enabled sick people to receive specialized treatment locally/abroad.
ii. It has promoted interaction of people during harambees thereby promoting unity in the country.
iii. It has enabled the construction of social amenities like hospitals/schools/ religious institutions and stadia.
iv. It has promoted sporting activities by financing training/competition both locally/abroad.
v. It has inculcated the spirit of hard work/patriotism among people.
vi. It has promoted education by providing scholarships to needy students.
vii. It has supplemented government efforts in the provision of services to the people.
SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.
22. (a) Give the composition of the County Assembly in Kenya. (3 marks)
i. Elected members.
ii. Nominated members.
iii. The speaker, who is ex-official.
(b) Explain six factors which undermine the provision of services by the County Government in Kenya. (12 marks)
i. Corruption/Embezzlement of funds by some officers denies them funds required for effective service delivery.
ii. Over employment by counties results in bloated wage bills at the expense of development projects.
iii. Inadequate/insufficient funds makes it difficult for them to meet all of their obligations.
iv. Interference by the National Government/politicians which creates conflicts of interest.
v. Delay in disbursement of funds by National Government slows down/halts operations/service delivery.
vi. Poor infrastructure/roads in some counties slows down movement of goods and services.
vii. Tribalism/favoritism in employment creates division/conflicts/misunderstanding amongest communities living in the County.
viii. Duplication of roles between the County government and National Government leads to wastage of resources.
ix. Uncollected garbage/dumping of waste leads to the pollution of the environment.
x. Traffic congestion in major cities/ towns slows down the movement of people/ wastage of time.
xi. Inadequate skilled personnel causes delays in the provision of specialized services.
xii. Increase in the number of street children/families poses a threat to security.
xiii. High population in some counties making it difficult to provide quality services.
xiv. Rivalry /wrangling among leaders in the counties undermine the government’s operations.
xv. Natural calamities in some counties like floods lead to diversion of some resources to address the emergencies which are usually costly.
23. (a) Outline three qualifications for a person to contest for Presidency in Kenya. (3 marks)
(I) One should be a Kenyan citizen by birth.
(ii) Be nominated by a political party/be an independent candidate.
(iii) Be qualified to stand for election as a member of parliament.
(iv) Should be nominated by not fewer than two thousand voters from each of a majority of the counties.
(v) Be of sound mind.
(vi) Not have served for more than two (2) consecutive terms as president.
(vii) Must be a registered voter.
(viii) Does not owe allegiance to a foreign state.
(ix) One should not have been declared bankrupt by the court of law.
(x) One must meet the requirements of Chapter Six of the Constitution of Kenya/ integrity.
(b) Discuss six functions of the Cabinet in Kenya. (12 marks)
(I) It performs any duties delegated to it by the president.
(ii) It appoints board members of the parastatals in their respective ministries.
(iii) It initiates new bills/government bills which are debated in the parliament.
(iv) It formulates policies/programmes of the government and interprets them to the people.
(v) They coordinate/control activities in the respective ministries.
(vi) It updates the president on the progress of activities taking place in the ministries.
(vii) It advises the president on matters pertaining to the administration/governance of the country.
(viii) Through the Minister for Finance, it prepares the budget which shows government expenditure/sources of revenue.
(ix) Provide parliament with full and regular reports concerning matters under their control.
24. (a) Name three groups which provides health services in Kenya. (3 marks)
(ii) Non-government organizations.
(iii) Religious groups/institutions.
(iv) Private institution/companies.
(v) Charitable organizations.
(vi) International organizations.
(b) Explain six factors which have undermined government effort in the provision of health services in Kenya. (12 marks) .
(i) Inadequate funding by the government which has resulted into provision of poor services.
(ii) Corruption in the health sector has made it difficult for the government to provide equipment/facilities/medicine required.
(iii) Inadequate hospitals/dispensaries/health centres makes it difficult for many people access health services/high population.
(iv) Poor payment/remuneration of health workers has demoralized them hence making them less productive/brain drain.
(v) Frequent/industrial unrests by health workers has resulted into death/suffering of many patients.
(vi) Inadequate facilities/ equipments has made it difficult for the public to access qual services.
(vii) Poor supervision of health workers has led to infiltration of the sector by unqualifii health providers.
(viii) The spread of HIV/AIDS pandemic/terminal diseases like cancer has increased the cost of treatment/medication.
(ix) Poverty/cost sharing policy has hindered some people from accessing health services.
(x) The unforeseen high rate of accidents/injuries has strained the scarce resources