KCSE Past Papers 2018 History and Government (311/2)

Questions and Answers

History and Government paper 2

1. Identify one type of early manuscript which is likely to contain information on History and Government. (1 mark)

(i) Stone tablets

(iii) Clay tablets.

(ii) Scrolls

(iv) Parchments

2. Give two developments which were made by Homo erectus that improved his way of life. (2 marks)

(i) They made better toolslacheulian tools.

(ii) They developed speech/could communicate with others.

(iii) They invented fire.

(iv) They moved to warmer regions.

(v) Created leisure activities/art work.

(vi) Started cloth making/animal skins.

(vii) Lived in caves/rock shelters for security.

3. State one similar factor which contributed to the development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt.(1 mark)

(i) The presence of indigenous crops/animals.

(ii) The presence of fertile soils/silt deposits.

(iii) The presence of floods along river valleys.

(iv) Availability of farming tools/plough.

(v) Use of irrigation methods/shadoof/ canal/basin.

(vi) Political stability.

4. State two advantages of using animal transport. (2 marks)

(i) They are cheap to obtain/ maintain.

(ii) They can be used in inaccesslble areas.

(iii) They can sense danger.

(iv) They can provide door to door service/convenient to use.

(v) They are hardy/can withstand harsh environmental conditions.

(vi) They are safer /accidents are rare.

5. Outline two factors which facilitated the spread of iron working technology in Africa during the ancient times. (2 marks)

(i) It spread through warfare.

(ii) Through giving/receiving of gifts.

(iii) Through Bantu migration.

(iv) Through trade.

(v) Through agriculture.

(vi) Through intermarriage.

6. Identify two features of the direct rule as applied by the British in Zimbabwe. (2 marks)

(i) It was dominated by European officials.

(ii) The British used company rule/British South African Company.

(iii) The Africans held low positions in government.

(iv) The settlers had considerable influence in government.

(v) The British regarded Zimbabwe as a white man’s country.

(vi) It embraced racial segregation.

(vii) There was land alienation.

(viii) There was a Legislative Council dominated by White settlers.

7. Give the main reason why the European countries formed alliances before the outbreak of the First World War. (1 mark)

To assist/help each other in case of military attack on any of their members.

8. State the main reason why countries establish diplomatic relations. (1 mark)

In order to promote international cooperation/mutual understanding among nations.

9. Identify one economic factor which contributed to the collapse of the East African Community in 1977. (I mark)

(i) The belief/perception that Kenya was benefiting more than the other members.

(ii) Inadequate funds/capital to finance industrial development.

(iii) Unfavourable trade tariffs.

(iv) Lack of common currency.

10. Name the two financial institutions which were established by the United Nations after the Second World War. (2 marks)

(i) The World Bank/The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

(ii) International Monetary Fund.(I.M.F)

iv) It was held in order to settlc disputes.

(i) It v as a symbol of unity.

l1. State two ways in which poverty has undermined economic development in Tanzania since independe nce. (2 marks)

(i) It has reduced the purchasing power of many people/unable to access goods/services.

(ii) It has made it difficult for Tanzania to compete favourably with other countries.

(lii) It has resulted to dependency on foreign aid/loans.

(iv) It has made it difficult to fully exploit the resources/minerals/land.

(v) It has led to low infrastructure development /roads/ railways.

12. Give one function of the Odwira festival among the Asante during the l9th Century. (1 mark)

(i) It was held to honour/appease the dead.

(ii) It was held in order to pay allegiance to the King/Asantehene.

(iii) It was held in order to entertain people.

13. State two social factors which caused the Majimaji rebellion. (2 marks)

(i) The Germans anti-social behavior/rape/adultery/fornication.

(ii) The Germans’ disrespect towards African traditional practices/beliefs/values.

(iii) Kinjeketile’s ‘magic water’/cult instilled confidence in the people.

(iv) The ruthlessness/brutality of Germans to Africans./flogging/harshness

14. State two ways in which the Royal Fire was important in the Mwene Mutapa Kingdom. (2 marks)

(i) It symbolized the authority of the King.

(ii) It was a sign of loyalty to the King.

(iii) It was a symbol of unity among them.

15. Give one function of the Court of Justice qf the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. (1 mark)

(i) To interpret the provision of the treaty/its application.

(ii) To hear/adjudicate any disputes among member states.

16. State one way in which Angola was affected by the Cold War.(1 mark)

triggered civil wars/ political instability ln the country.

(ii) Angola received military/economic assistance.

17. Name the country in Africa which was created to settle freed slaves.(1 mark)


SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in ltte space provided at the end of question 24.

18. (a) Highlight five changes which marked the Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (5 marks)

(i) Fallows were abolished.

(ii) Inter-cropping was introduced.

(iii) The use of iron hoes/p1oughs/seed drills/thresher machine.

(iv) Introduction of crop rotation.

(v) The use of machines/machinery in farming/harvester/harrows.

(vi) Land enclosure system was introduced/fencing.

(vii) The Royal Agricultural Society was established.

(viii) Scientific principles of farming were applied/selective breeding/cross breeding. (ix) Use of fertilizers.

(x) Use of pesticides/fungicides.

(b) Discuss five effects of the Agrarian Revolution in the United States of America. (10 marks)

(i) The invention of new farm machines enabled farmers to put more land under cultivation.

(ii) It enhanced agricultural research/scientific inventions which resulted into better crop inventions which resulted into better crop varieties/animal breeds.

(iii) There was improved transport infrastructure which speeded up the movement of farm produce.

(iv) The use of machines on farms replaced human labour. There was an lncrease in food production which stimulated population growth. It led to the expansion of agricultural related industries which processed/packaged/preserved farm produce. Increased food production led to expansion of trading activities. Use of fertilizers/hybrid seeds increased food production.

(v) It led to the expansion of urbanization. Many parts of the U.S.A were open up for farming/settlement.

19. (a) Identité five effects of scientific inventions on medicine.(5 mark)

(b) Describe five factors which have influenced industrialisation in India.

(i) It resulted with the discovery/manufacture of preventive/curative drugs.

(ii) It has led to the development of vaccines.

(iii) It has prolonged life/increased life expectancy.

(iv) It has led to the production of advanced medical equipments.

(v) It has led to the decrease in mortality rate.

(vi) It has led to improved health/wellbeing of life.

(vii) It has created job opportunities.

(viii) Overdependence on drugs /weakened immunity./drug abuse.

(ix) It has led to increased immorality due to use of contraceptives.

(x) Transplant of body parts is possible now.

20. (a) State five functions of the ancient city of Athens. ( 5 marks)

(i) It was an educational centre.

(ii) It was a centre of sports.

(iii) It was a religious centre.

(iv) It was a recreation centre/provided entertainment/music.

(v) It was a cultural/theatre/arts centre.

(xi) It was a tradingcommerclal centre.

(vii) It was a transport/communication centre.

(viii) It was an administrative centre.

(b) Describe five challenges experienced in the city of Johannesburg. (10 marks)

(i) There exists a huge gap between the wealthy Europeans and the poor/Africans. (ii) High unemployment rate among the people led to a rise in criminal activities.

(iii) High rate of infection of HIV/AIDS pandemic has increased the cost of treatment/loss of lives.

(iv) There is air/land/water pollution caused by emission of poisonous gases from the industries.

(v) There is inadequate housing which has led to the development of slums/shanties.

(vi) There is discrimination where Africans are mistreated/despised in work places/mines.

It experiences industrial unrest/strikes by the industrial workers.

(viii) There are inadequate social amenities duc to high population.

(ix) Traffic jams are rampant due to many vehicles on the road.

(x) Congestion due to rural-urban migration.

21. (a) State five factors which influenced the British to use indirect rule in Northern Nigeria. (5 marks)

(i) It was cheap/cost-effective method of administration.

(ii) The existence of an elaborate system of government/administration/Shona/Islam.

(iii) They did not want to stir up African resistance.

(iv) The system had succeeded in other parts of the wor1d/India/Uganda.

(v) The British lacked enough personnel to admlnister the vast territory.

(vi) Poor transport/communication lnfrastructure.

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(ii) The existence of an elaborate system of government/administration/Shona/Islam.

(iii) They did not want to stir up African resistance.

(iv) The system had succeeded in other parts of the wor1d/India/Uganda.

(v) The British lacked enough personnel to admlnister the vast territory.

(vi) Poor transport/communication lnfrastructure.

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any two question from this section.

22. (a) State three external factors which speeded up the growth of African nationalism during the struggle for independence. (3 marks)

(i) The rise of Communism in Russia condemned colonialism/supported liberation movements.

(ii) The interaction/expericnce gained by the ex-servicemen during the world wars.

(iii) The United Nations advocated for political independence.

(iv) The granting of independence to India/Paklstan.

(v) The influence of Pan-African Movement.

(vi) The Labour Party government in Britain was against colonialism.

(b) Explain six challenges which were faced by the nationalists in South Africa during the apartheid rule. (I2 marks)

(i) They were harassed/detained/jailed by security agents which demoralized them.

(ii) Political parties/Associations were banned thereby denying them their rights to associate/assemble.

(iii) They were forced into exile as they feared to be persecuted/tortured/death.

(iv) The Pass Laws introduced by the apartheid regime/government curtailed thcir movement.

(v) The regime prescribed/censored publication which denied them the right/ access to information.

(vi) Their communities were divided along ethnic lines/creation of Bantu/ and hampered the formation of a united front.

(vii) Inadequate funds made lt difficult for them to undertake their activities effectively.

(viii) The nationalists were not united, creating division among them.

23. (a) State three ways in which terrorism is a threat to international peace.(3 marks)

(i) It engages in money laundering.

(ii) It causes loss of life/destruction of property.

(iii) It engages in piracy/hijacking aeroplane.

(iv) It destabilizes governments.

(v) It causes proliferation of arms.

(vi) It makes/improvises deadly/weapons/arms of mass destruction.

(vii) It engages in propaganda/threat/causes panic/suspicion.

(viii) It causes destruction of property.

(b) Describe six achievements of the Non-Aligned Movement since its formation. (12 marks)

(i) It advocated for political freedom which led to attainment of independence of countries which were still under colonial rule.

(ii) It kept off the military activities of two superpowers which helped to reduce international tensions

(iii) It provided a forum where members voiced their concerns on international issues such as apartheid/raclal discrimination.

(iv) It encouraged its members to put their national interests before those of the superpowers.

(v) Its member states have helped to manage crises/solve conflicts thereby contributing to preservation of peace.

(vi) It condemned arms race among countries leading to reduction in the production of arms/weapons/disarmament.

(vii) It has enabled members to vote as a bloc thereby influencing world affairs.

(viii) lt has helped its members to safeguard their national security/territorial integrity.

(ix) It raised funds which were used to cushion frontline states from the effects of sanctions imposed on them by the Apartheid Regime.

(x) It has created a new scientific/technological order, so as to bridge the gap between the developed and the developing countries.

(xi) A new economic order was emerged due to increased trade among member states.

24. (a) Identify three types of Federal Courts in the United States of America. (3 marks)

(i) Supreme Court.

(ii) Court of Appeal.

(iii) Federal District Courts.

(iv) Court of Claims

(v) Court of Customs

(vi) Circuit Courts

(b) Explain six responsibilities of the Federal Government of the United States of America.(12 marks)

(i) It is in charge of foreign policy hence defines United States relations with the rest of the world.

(ii) It regulates commerce/trade with foreign nations and federal states in line with lts foreign policy.

(iii) It resolves disputes involvlng states in order to maintain harmony in the federation.

(iv) It is responsible for paying debts incurred by government.

(v) It is in charge of tax regime hence it determines levies/collection of taxes.

(vi) It enacts/passes laws which are binding to states in the federation.

(vii) It provides a common defence of the United States of America from internal /extema1 aggressors.

(viii) It builds/maintains armed forces which defend the government from external attacks.

(ix) It establishes federal courts which administer justice/interpret the constitution.

(x) It declares war when need arises in order to protect its interests.

(xi) It admits new states in thc fedcration.

(xii) It makes issues currency.

(xiii) It establishes federal states.

(xiv) It makes /issues currency/regularizes the value of the currency


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