Job Analysis Methods

Three of the most frequently used methods of job analysis are:-

  1. Observation

It is a method used to analyze jobs that are relatively simple and straight forward.

The person making the analysis observes the individual or individuals performing the job and takes pertinent notes describing the work. The information includes such things as what was done, how it was done, how long it took, what the job environment was like and what equipment was used.

Two types of observation methods used are Motion Study and Time Study.

Motion Study is the job analysis method that involves determining the motions and the movements necessary to perform a task or a job, and then designing the most efficient methods for putting those motions and movements together.

Time Study is a job analysis method that determines the elements of time required to perform the job, the order in which those elements occur and the times required to perform them effectively. The objective of a time study is to determine how long it should take an average person to perform the job or task in question.

  1. Interview Method

This method requires the person conducting the job analysis to meet with and interview the jobholder. Interviews can either be structures or unstructured.

Unstructured interviews have no definite checklist or pre-planned format. The format develops as the interview unfolds.

A structured interview follows a predesigned format.

  1. Questionnaires

The questionnaire method can obtain information from a large number of employees in a relatively short time period. For this reason, questionnaires are used when a large input is needed and time and cost are a limiting factor.

The questionnaires typically contain both close ended  and open-ended questions.

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