Job analysis is the process of determining the pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills, knowledge, abilities and responsibilities required of the holder of the job for successful job performance.
Job analysis serves as the cornerstone of all human resource functions. Jobs must be analysed before many other human resource functions can be performed. Effective recruitment is not possible unless the recruit knows and communicates the job requirements. Similarly, it is not possible to design a basic wage system without having clearly defined jobs.
Two important tasks under job analysis are:- Job Description and Job Specification
A Job Description describes a job as it currently being performed. It explains, in written form, what the title of the job is, the tasks to be carried out under the job, where it is to be done and how it is to be done.
Most job descriptions will have the following sections: The job name; A brief summary description of the job; A listing of job duties and responsibilities and an explanation of organizational relationships pertinent to the job.
A Job Specification concentrates on the characteristics required to perform the job. It describes the competency, educational qualifications and experience that the job holder should have in order to be able to perform the job