IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS IN THE VARIOUS SECTORS

IMPACT OF HIV/AIDs IN THE VARIOUS SECTORS

1. Education.

Negative impact

  • Loss of skills as a result of death of teachers and student
  • Reduces and declines performance of both teachers and students.
  • High dropout of student especially for girls who take care of sick at home
  • A large proportion of funds are ghptowards recruitment of new staff to replace the weak and the dying staff.
  • The rate of absenteeism for teachers and staff is high i.e. it reduces lab our productivity

2. Industry and trade sector

Loss of productivity due to reduced labour

Reduces capacity for investment as resources are channeled towards the treatment and care of the sick employees

Reduces opportunity for overseas employees

3. Agricultural sector

Reduced productivity  fund that need to be directed towards enhancing the agricultural sector as form of incentive which are challenged towards treatment and  management of  HIV/AIDs

Reduced capacity for investment by industries   in the agriculture sector due to loss of skills

Reduces output because subsistence forming is practiced as opposed to large scale farming

4. Health sector

Funds that could be directed to preventive medicine are channeled towards treatment and management of HIV/AIDs

A mention is generated towards treatment and management of HIV/AIDs at the expenses of a terminal disease e.g. cancer.

A strain on the medical facilities mainly because a large proportion of the hospital beds are occupied by the related diseases

A lot of funds in the health sector are channeled towards purchasing ARVs at the expense of drugs for treating diseases.

Home Individual

Loss of lives

Reduced purchasing due to reduction of income

Orphans are forced to dropout from school as they are forced to work to cater for their needs.

 

SOCIAL / ECONOMIC IMPACTS

There is reduction of life expectancy

Retarded economic growth resulting from loss of human capital this is due to management of HIV/Aids   instead of out bed patients.

Loss of income due to death of parents and reduction in the productivity of this working which ultimately translate to increase in the number of dependency

Many orphans are left to be cared for by elderly thereby unable to access quality education

Stigmatization of the affected and infected

Compulsory HIV/AID testing without prior consent of the patient undermines the dignity of those being served.

Quarantine / separation of people suffering from HIV/AIDs contributed to stigmatization of   the people.

 

MYTHS MISCONCEPTION OF HIV/AIDS

Sexual intercourse with a virgin cure HIV/AIDs

Sexual intercourse with a virgin does not cure AIDs but it increases chance of infecting the virgin with AIDs

Sexual Intercourse with a animal cures HIV/AIDs

HIV/AIDs is transmitted by mosquitoes

Showering after sexual intercourse with a person who infected with HIV prevents HIV/Aids

Sharing of items like cloths food etc

HIV Aids is transmitted by a Mosquito

Since many of the areas of infection, immunity and treatment overlap, we have already encountered the general principle of HIV/AIDs transmission in other lesson. It is now placed to discuss transmission of HIV/Aids in details

HIV is transmitted through body fluids. The fluids. The fluids include:

  1. semen
  2. vaginal fluid
  3. blood

The modes of transmission include.

  1. Sexual intercourse. This is Intercourse with an infected person.
  2. Infected blood produce. This is when someone comes in to contact with the blood i.e. during blood transfusion that is contaminated blood.
  3. Receiving an injection from unsterilized useof syringes or surgical instrument have not been properly sterilized
  4. Mother to child transmission-During pregnancy child birth and breast feeding one can not get HIV/AIDs from
  5. Casual contact with infected person. This include handshaking, hugging caring for people with HIV/Aids
  6. Food prepared or served by HIV/Positive people or using their utensils
  7. Saliva or tears (that include the intimate contact of kissing
  8. People with HIV coughing or splitting
  9. Toilet or toilet seat and hand wash basins
  10. Swimming pools or public showers
  11. Visiting your doctor or dentist
  12. Donating blood
  13. Using an infected person’s telephone
  14. Contact with animals.

Factors responsible to the spread of HIV/Aids

  1. Growth of shanty structures around town as a result of high cost of housing in urban areas hence making others to engage in prostitution as to get money
  2. Workers relocation cases where a spouse has to work away from each other.
  3. Minimal access to HIV information or education especially for people living in remote areas
  4. Under employment
  5. Instability politically
  6. Inadequate or inequality between men and women which denies women the power to make decision

Vulnerable routes

1. Vagina:

Thinner tissue lining of the vagina in ad descent girls and the position of a zone of cells around the cervix which are more exposed in younger women and progressively less exposed during the ageing and progressively less during the ageing process less profuse mucus in the vagina

HIV also targets lymphocytes and macrophages this may be present in the vagina as a result of any inflammation however caused

2. Foreskin

Has less Keratin than the penis so while intact easily allows HIV to penetrate the skin and affects semen directly and indirectly

Liable to tears and ulceration but even without this the uncircumcised is 8 time move vulnerable to HIV Aids

3. Anus

The extreme thinners of protective tissue lining the rectum makes it easily to damage

Unprotected anal intercourse carries the greatest HIV risk with homosexual men having a higher prevalence than receptive women because of both passive and active roles.

 

Vulnerable group for HIV/Aids

This refers to people with higher chances of contracting HIV virus

The military people

Those people living around the roads

The commercial sex workers

Specific objectives

By the end of this of this chapter the trainee should be in a position to:

Explain the meaning of body Immunity

Effect of HIV and Aids of on body Immune system

INTRODUCTIONS

The body has a two –part Immune system which workers together to protect it from harmful micro organism such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites, it is divided in to two:

Innate Immunity

This is the front-line defense which equips us from before birth to deal with the various microorganisms that we are likely to meet in our normal everyday lives

Innate Immunity Include:

Antibodies formed by a mother and passed on to the developing foetus and through infant breasting feeding

Tears containing the enzyme lysosome, to protect one eye from bacteria

Saliva in the mouth, also containing the anti-bacterial lysosome

Mucus and chemicals co-existing but with quite differing functions in the urethra Uretes (water tubes) and vagina

When the barriers of the innate immunity are penetrated ,while blood cells leukocyte.(phagocytes or devouring cells) and other while cells (principally serotoxin or natural cell-Killing cells)surround and a number of other naturally-produced substances such as interfere and a range of blood proteins (called the complement system combine to help in the destruction process.

Adaptive Immunity

Adaptive Immunity is the second line of defense and is called into service when the defenses of the innate immunity are breached well beyond the capability of its response, Its defense, instead of being a  general reaction is much more  specific as it adapts to the particular organism present hence adaptive immunity is often referred to as specific immune system to identify the invading micro-organism as being foreign to any of the body’s own protein  these foreign  or devouring cells) and other  while cells (principally  serotoxin or natural cell-killing cells) surround and attempt to destroy  the  invader. At the same time a number of other naturally-produced substances such as interferon and a range of blood proteins called the complement system) combine to help in the destruction process.

Adaptive Immunity

Adaptive Immunity is the second line of defense and is called into service when the defenses of the innate immunity are breached well beyond the capability of it response. It defense, instead of being a general reaction is much more specific  as it adapts to the particular organism present hence adaptive immunity is often referred to as specific immunity.

The role of the adaptive immune system to identify the invading micro-organism as being foreign to any of the body own protein (these foreign to any of the body own proteins these foreign protein are called antigens (antibody regenerators) from Greek works meaning against and engender)

The response can be either humeral or cellules based on the type of invade

Humoral Immunity

Deals infections arising in the inter-cellular body fluid or humors

Deals infection arising in the inter-cellular body fluid or humors

Is primarily a response to bacteria?

As the B-lymphocytes multiply they form plasma cell which in turn makes antibodies which bind to the antigens

Cellular Immunity

Responds mainly to virus and parasite that hide inside the cells. As we have seen, some viruses provoke a reaction that brings lasting protection

 

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