Sexually transmitted infection (STDs) vulnerable group of disease or infection whose predominant mode of transmission is through sexual intercourse

Stds makes one more vulnerable to HIV infection e.g. gonorrhea and genital herpes thus early treatment   to   aspect of HIV infection.

When one is infected by STDs he/ she depict the following symptoms

  • Urethral discharge
  • Virginal discharge
  • Genital ulcers
  • Long abdominal pain
  • Eye  infection  in new born
  • Swelling of scrotum

Examples of STDs


Causative agent


Neisseria gonococcus


  • Burning when passing urine
  • Discharge of pus  through the urethra  of the virginal  or sore growth  incase of oral sex,

Complication and treatment

  • Damage of fallopian duct in female  and epididymis  in male  leading  to sterility
  • Inflammation of joint, liver, heart and peritoneum may occur.

Treatment By use of effective antibiotic as the organism is resistant to several times. Noflocin is a useful anti biotic.


Bacterium Treponema palladium

Signs and symptoms

  • Sore in the genitalia and body rush
  • After some years it damages the heart aorta and the brain leading to a condition known as paralysis of the insane.

Complication and treatment

Can cause re-current miscarriage, heart problems and brain damage

Easily failed with infection of penicillin or cephalosporin’s



Causative agent – Chlamydia

Signs and symptoms

  • Swelling and ulceration of lymph nods in the grain


Narrowing of rectum and destruction of urethra





Causative agent- protozoa dichotomous virginals

Signs and symptoms

  • Burning in the virginal  and urethra
  • Greenish – yellow discharge

Complication and treatment

Treated with fasigyn (tinidazolepessarics) or cream



Causative agent – a fungus called Candida albicans

Signs and symptoms

  • Burning in the virginal  and the urethra
  • White thick discharge sometimes tiredness with blood.

Complication and treatment

May lead to pre cancer condition of the neck and womb (cervix cancer)

Treated with anti fungal passure or cream e.g. doctrimazole.



Causative agent

Herpes simplex agent

Signs and symptoms

Painful vascular rushes in the genitals

Complication and treatment

  • Figia damage unborn baby eventually treating to death.
  • Cancer of the neck of the womb no nearly the effective treatment.
  • Acyclorin may be harmful.



Causative agent

Hepatitis ‘B’ virus

Signs and symptoms

  • Yellow less of eyes (juridical ) due to  liver damage
  • Pain around right upper abdomen
  • Lead to cancer of the liver.

Complication and treatment

  • Cancer of the liver.
  • No treatment, vaccine, available also transmitted by blood transfusion.



Causative agent HIV


Many different signs but dominated by weight less and opportunistic infections.

Complication and treatment

Much complication eventually leading to death i.e. no cure


Causative agent

Chlamydia trichomatis (virus)

  • Very common in adolescence
  • Pain when passing  urine
  • Discharge and abdominal pain

Complication and treatment

  • Damage to fallopian duct
  • Inflation and sterility in both male  and female
  • Treatment doxycycline

Cause by human popilloma virus

Signs and symptoms

  • Marks around genital area
  • Invasion of the neck of the womb.

Complication and treatment

Cancer of neck of the womb

Treatment is very difficult burning the wart with podophilingetc

Relationship between STDS and HIV AIDS

  • Both are sexually transmitted
  • Both don’t have cure
  • Both require psychotherapy (counseling) for individual to cope with them.
  • In all of them individual s experience stigmatization
  • In both of them the victim should always be educated on ways  of avoiding  re infection for it  will worsen  the situation

Clinical staging of HIV / aids

Clinically HIV/ AIDS infection has been categorized into five stages

  1. Transmission  stage
  2. Primary infection
  3. Asymptomatic phase.
  4. Intermediate / asymptomatic stage
  5. Advance disease

Transmission stage

Transmission of HIV/ AIDS with the 1st stage without, with non of the subsequent stage can occur

  • Basically HIV virus is transmitted through contact with body fluids e.g sexual intercourse. accounting 80% of HIV transmission  intravenous  drug use  10% unscreened  blood transfusion  accounting  5% of HIV transmission  and exposure  to contaminated  instrument accounting  1% e.g. needle  . Mother to child transmission accounting 10% of HIV transmission.
  • Primary injection. The symptoms of injection occur normally 2-6 weeks after exposure to the virus. In 50-80% of patient the symptom are normally mild and patient might dismiss them as mild through symptoms. this might be accompanied  by swelling of the glands , sore throats  which  may persist  up to 14 days .CD4 will decline as immune  system come  into attack   from the virus  but will recover   as the immune  system  land to fight injection  through production  of antibodies.

Antibodies may become detectable  10-14 days  after the onset of  symptoms  however  depending  on the sensitivity  of the test  and level  of A HIV test may still  be negative   once natural  viral  suppression  due to immune  function  occur  the level  of virus  reaches a plateau 3-6 months after the injection has taken place.

Its during zero conversion  that the patient  is tightly  infectious and transmission of virus  is very likely  while  viral  level  remains  high in the body fluids.

The plateau in the viral level is called viral sets.

Point and may indicate this rate of viral replication e.g. disease progression is likely to be faster in those in those with high viral subsequent.


During the phase  the patient remain asymptomatic  (no signs  of HIV  / aids) although  enlarged  gland  may characterize the phase  with minor complication  which the patients  ignore  as not no medical  attention . Oral lesion may be represented as ulcers and the patients may have increased sinuses and other respiratory tract.

Many patients may take this normal   cause infection if they are unaware of their status and treat with over the counter medicine.


Here cd4 count has fallen below 500 and remain above 200. Patients begin manifesting symptom of HIV / aids and may develop a risk of bacteria pneumonias or, pulmonary TB. Also during  this stage  mouth  infection  may also  show  itself  as oral  thrush an d oral leukoplakia.


During this stage the cd4 counts fails below 200 patients may develop a variety of opportunistic infection of which include

  • Non – pulmonary TB
  • Pneumocytic pneumonia  and may be accompanied by weight loss , fatigue  and extreme  headache and the patient may  sometime  become  bad  ridden . As the CD4 count drop below 50. The condition?
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