Meaning of Human Resource

Human  Resource  is  a set of practicing policies , practices  and programmes designed  to  maximize  both   personal  and organization  goals . It is the process of binding   people and organization together so that the objective of each are achieved.

Features of Human Resource Management

  1. Comprehensive function – Human resource management is concerned   with managing   people as work. It covers all type of people at all levels, in the organization.
  2. People oriented- Human resource management is concerned with employees as individuals as well as group. It is the task of dealing with human relationships within an organization. It is the process of achieving   the best fit between individual s, jobs, organizations and the environment.
  3. Action oriented – Human resource management focuses on action rather than on record keeping or procedures.
  4. Individual oriented – Under human resource management, every employee is considered as an individual so as to provide services and programmes to facilitate employee satisfaction and growth.
  5. Development oriented – Human resource  management  is concern with developing  potential of employees so that  they  get  maximum  satisfaction  from their  work  and give   their  best  effort  to the  organization.

Objectives of Human Resource

  1. To help the organization attain its goals by providing well-trained and well-motivated employees.
  2. To employ the skills and knowledge of employees efficiency and effectively i.e. to utilize  human  resource
  3. To enhance  job  satisfaction and self  actualization of employee by encouraging  and assisting  every  employer to  realize  his/her  full potential.
  4. To establish and maintain productive, self -respecting and internally satisfying working relationships among all the members of the organization.
  5. To bearing about maximum individual development of member of the organization by providing opportunities for training and advancement.
  6. To secure  the integration of all the individual  and group with the organization by  reconciling  individual /group  goals  with those  of  an organization.
  7. To develop and maintain a  quality  of work  life(QWL) which  makes  employment  in  the organization  a  desirable  personal  and social
  8. To maintain high morale and good human relations within the organization.
  9. To help maintain ethical policies and behavior inside and outside the organization.
  10. To manage change to the mutual advantages of individual, group the organization and the society.
  11. To recognize and satisfy initial needs and group goals by offering appropriate monetary and non-monetary incentives.

Requirements   for attaining the above objectives

  1. Recruiting the right  personnel possessing  necessary  skills and attitude.
  2. Developing clearly  defined objectives and policies  through  common  understanding  and  mutual
  3. Communicating and explaining  the goals  to be achieved  and the contribution  expected  of  every  ember  of the
  4. Dividing the tasks   properly  with  clear cut  authority , responsibility and relationship of one  position with another.
  5. Maintaining sound  industrial and human  relations so as to secure  the  willing  co-operation of all.
  6. Providing suitable  monetary  and non-monetary   rewards for the contributions of

Importance of Human Resource Management

The significance of human  resource  management   can be discussed   at four levels – corporate, social, profession and  national.

Significance of  an  enterprise

Human   resource  management  can help an  enterprise in achieving    its goals  more  efficiently and effectively in the following  ways.

  1. Attracting and retaining  the required   talent through    effective  resource  planning, recruitment  selection , placement , and orientation compensation and promotion policies.
  2. Developing the necessary skills and right  attitude among  the employees through  training  development .
  3. Securing willing  co-operation of employees through
  4. Utilizing effectively  the available human
  5. Ensuring that  the   enterprise  will have in future  a team of  competent  and dedicated

Process Of Developing Human Resources


Human  resource  planning  is the process by  which management  determines how an organization should   move from its current  manpower position to  its  desired  man power position.

Characteristics of Human Resource planning

  1. Human   resource planning like all planning is forward looking or future oriented. It involves forecast of the man power needs in a future time periods so that adequately and timely provision may be made to meet the needs.
  2. Human   resource planning    is an ongoing or continuous process.
  3. It is the primary responsibility in management so as to ensure effective utilization of the organization’s human resource.
  4. Human resource planning is an integral part of corporate planning.
  5. Human resource planning   is a system approach to human  resources.

Objectives of human resource planning

To ensure optimum use of existing human resource;

    1. To    forecast  future   requirement s for  human  resource.
    2. To provide control  measures to ensure that necessary  human  resource  are available  as and  when required.
    3. To link  human  resource  planning  with  organizational planning
    4. To  access the surplus  and shortage of  human resources.
    5. To anticipate the impacts of technology on jobs  and human  resources.
    6. To determine  levels of   recruitment  and   training.
    7. To estimate  the cost of  human  resources  and housing  needs of employees.
    8. To provide  a basis  for   management  development  programme.
    9. To facilitate  productivity   bargaining  .
    10. To meet the needs of expansion  and diversification programme.

Need and  importance  of Human  Resource Planning;

  1. To carry on it s  work   and  to achieve its objectives, every  organization  requires employees  with adequate  knowledge , experience  and  Human resource  planning  is helpful  in selection   and training   activities.
  2. Human resource planning  identifies gaps in existing man power in terms of their    quantity and talents
  3. Provision for  replacement of  personnel can be  through  human   resource planning   that is replacing   retired  employees who die, resign  and become  incapacitated due to
  4. Human resource planning  facilitates expansion and diversification of an organization.
  5. Human resource  planning  creates  awareness about the effective  utilization of human  resource   throughout the organization.
  6. Human resource planning  is helpful in  effective  utilization of technological  To meet  the challenge of new  technology existing  employees need to be  retrained  and new  employees  may  be  recruited .
  7. With the help of human resource  planning  areas of surplus  man  power  can be anticipated  and timely  action  can be taken .
  8. Human resource planning  is useful  in  anticipating  the cost of human  resource  which   facilitates  the budgeting  It also helps  in controlling  human  resource costs  through  effective  utilization .
  9. Human resource planning   facilitates  career  succession planning  in organization.
  10. Human resource planning   helps  in planning  for  physical facilities.

Human Resource  Planning  has increased due to following  reasons:

  • Employment  situation – Number of educated  unemployed  is increasing  and   there is acute  shortage for a variety  of skills. This  situation  requires more  effective  recruitment  and retraining of people.
  • Technological changes- wide spread and rapid  changes  in production   technology  marketing  methods and management  techniques are having  profound  effects on the content and  converts of jobs.
  • Organizational changes-size of the firm is increasing   rapidly changes in environment  requires  changes  in organization structure and activities which  affects  requirement  for   human
  • Demographic changes – The profile of the workforce in terms of age, sex, education, technical skills and social background is changing.
  • Shortage of skills- Organization has become  increasingly complex  and requires a wide-range  of  specialized skills. These skills are scarce and problems arise when  employees with these skills leave  an organization.
  • Legislative controls – Law with  regard to working  conditions, working   hours, weaker sections. Therefore managers must  look ahead and foresee man power  problems with the help of  systematic human  resource planning..


Process of Human Resource Planning ( Accessing  Human  Resource Requirements)

The major stages involved in human resource planning  are given below;

1. Analyzing  organizational  plans

The objectives and strategic  plans  of the company are analyzed organization structure and job  design should be made clear  and changes in the  organization structure  should  be examined  so as to anticipate  its  manpower requirement. A company’s  plans are based on economic forecast, company’s  sales and expansion forecast and the labour  market  forecast.

2. Forecasting  demand for human Resource (Manpower forecasting)

On the basis of corporate and functional plans and future activity levels, the future needs for human resources in the organization are anticipated. The number of people and the skills level needed in future depend on reductions and sales budgets in a manufacturing enterprise.

3. Forecasting  supply of Human Resource

Every organization has to sources of supply of human resource- internal and external. Internally human resources can be obtained for   certain posts through promotion and transfers. Human resources flow in and out of organization due to several reasons. Man power inventory helps in determining and evaluating the quantity and quality of the internal human resources. It reveals what exist in stock of man power and what can be expected in future.

4. Estimating manpower gaps

Net human resource requirement or manpower gaps can be identified by comparing demand forecasts and supply forecasts. Deficits suggest the number of persons to be recruited similarly gaps may   occur in terms of knowledge, skills and aptitudes.

5. Action planning

Once   the manpower   gaps are defied, plans are prepared to bridge these gaps. Plans  to meet the surplus  man power  descries in brief the tasks, duties and responsibilities which  need to be charged  foe  effective job  performance.



Training  is the process  of  increasing  the  knowledge and skills for doing   a particular  job  . It  is an  organized  procedure by which  people learn  knowledge and skills  for a definite  purpose. The  purpose  of  training  is basically  to  bridge the gap  between  job  requirement and present  competence of an  employee.

Need  for training

Training  is requiring on account  of the following reasons:

Job requirement- Employees selected for a job  might  lack  the qualification required to perform  the  job   effectively. New  and inexperienced  employees require detailed instructions for  effective  performance on  the job.

  1. Technological changes – Technology is  changing  very  fast. Now  automation  and mechanisation have  are been increasingly applied  in offices and service sector.
  2. Organisational viability – In order to survive  and  grow,  an organization must continually  adopt itself to the changing  environment. With  increasing  economic  linearization and  globalization, business firms  are  experiencing  expansion growth  & diversification.
  3. Internal  mobility – Training  becomes necessary when  an  employee moves from one job to another due to promotion and transfer.

Advantages of training

  1. Higher  productivity- Training  helps  to improve  the level of performance. Trained  employees perform better  by using  better  method of work.
  2. Better  quality  of work – Informal  training  , the  best  methods are  standardized  and taught  to  employees.
  3. Cost  reduction – Trained  employees make more  economical use of materials and machinery .
  4. Reduced  supervision- Well trained  employees  tend to be self –reliant and motivated.
  5. Low  accident-rate – Trained  personnel  adopt the  right  work  method   and make use of the prescribed safety devices

Reasons for training

  1. The installation of new equipment or techniques which  require  new  or improved
  2. A change in  working method.
  3. A change in product , which may necessitate  training
  4. A realization that performance is inadequate.
  5. Labour shortage, necessitating the  upgrading .
  6. A desire to  reduce  the amount  of
  7. Promotion or transfer of individual employees

Benefits  of training

Training  is useful  to employees in the following  ways.

  1. Self confidence- Training  helps to improve the self  confidence of  an employee.
  2. Higher earnings- Trained employees can  perform better  and  herby earn more .
  3. Safety – Training helps  an employee to use   various  safety devices. We  can handle   the machines safety  and  become less prone to
  4. Adaptability- Training enables an employee to adopt  to changes  work  procedures and methods.
  5. Promotion – Through training  employees can develop himself  and earn promotions. 

Types of Training

1. Orientation training

Induction   or orientation  training seeks to adjust newly appointed   employees  to the work  environment. Every  new  employees need to be made fully familiar with his job, his  superior  and subordinates.

2. Job  training

It  refers to the training  provided  with a view  to increase the knowledge  and skills  of an employee for improving  performance on the job.

3. Safety  training

Training   provided to minimize  accidents  and damage to machinery. It  involves   instruction in the use of  safety devices and in safety  consciousness.

4. Promotion  training

It involves training of existing  employees to enable  them  to perform higher-level  job.

5. Refresher  training

When existing   techniques become  absolute  due to the development of better  techniques employees have to be trained  in the use of new  methods and techniques with the passage   of time  employees may  forget  some of the  methods of doing  work. Refresher training   is designed  to revise  and refresh the knowledge and to update the skills of the existing  employees.

6. Remedial  training

Such  training  is arranged to  overcome  the shortcoming  in the behavour  and performance of old  employees.

Identifying  training  needs

7. Organisational  analysis

It  involves a study of the entire  organization in terms of its objectives, its  resources  allocation and utilization, growth  potential and  its  environment. Its  purpose  is to determine  where  training  emphasis  should be placed within the  organization.

8. Tasks or role analysis

It  is  a systematic   and detailed  analysis  of job  to identify  job  content  the knowledge, skills  and aptitudes required  and the work   behaviour. On the art of the job  holder particular attention should  be paid to the tasks to  be  performed, the methods to be used, the way employees  have learnt these  methods and the performance standards  required  of employees.

9. Manpower analysis.

In this   analysis  the persons  to be  trained  and the changes  required in the  knowledge, skills and aptitudes of an employees are determined . First, it is necessary to decide  whether  performance of an individual is substandard and  training is needed. Secondly it is determined whether the employees are capable  of being   trained.  Thirdly  the specific areas  in which  the individual  requires  training  will improve  the employees  performance or not is determined.

Objectives of training

  1. To impart to new  entrants the basic  knowledge  and skills required for efficient performance of definite
  2. To assists the employees to  function more  effectively  in their   present  position by exposing  them  to the  latest  concept, information and  techniques & developing skills they would require in their  particular
  3. To build up a  second  line  of competent  officers and  prepare  them  to occupy  more  responsible
  4. To broaden the minds   of  senior  managers  through  interchange of experience within   and outside so as  to correct  out loaded  caused to over specialization

Training methods & Techniques

On-Job-Training (OJT)

In this method the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught  the skills  necessary  to perform  The  trainee learns  under  the guidance  and supervision of the superior or an instructor.

Advantages of On Job Training

  • The trainee learns on the actual machine  in use  and in the real environment of  the  job thus  he is  better motivated to learn  and there is  no problem of  turnover of training  skills to the job.
  • This method is very  economical because  no additional  space, equipment, personnel  or other facilities are  required for training .
  • The trainee learns   the rules and regulation and procedures by observing  their  day to day
  • This is the most suitable method  for  teaching  knowledge  and skills which can be acquired  through personal observation in a relatively   short time
  • Line supervisors take an active part in training  their  subordinates .


Disadvantages of On-Job training

  • The learner finds it difficult to concentrate due to  noise  of the actual workplace.
  • This method is often  haphazard due to  noise  of the actual work-place.
  • In this method  the  trainee  may  cause  damage to costly equipment and materials.

Vestibule training

In  this method  a training  centre called vestibule is set up and actual job  conditions are duplicated.

Advantages of vestibule  training

  1. Trainee  can  concentrate  on learning  without  disturbance  of the work place noise.
  2. The  interest  and motivation of the  trainee  are high as the real  job  conditions are  duplicated.
  3. This  method  is essential in cases, where  on the  job  training  might  result  in a  serious  injury, costly event  or the destruction of valuable  equipment and materials.
  4. Correct  method  can be taught effectively by  the trained  instructor  who  knows  how to  teach.
  5. It  permits  the trainee  to practice  without  the  fear  of being  observed  and indicated  by the superior  .
  6. It is  very   efficient  method   of training  a  large  number  of employee works.

Disadvantages  vestibule training.

  1. It  is the most  expensive  method  because  of additional investment  in classroom,,  equipment  and experts trainers.
  2. Training   situations is   somewhat  artificial  and the trainee does not  get  a  feel of  the  real  job.
  3. Separation  of training  from  the supervisory responsibilities  may  lead to problems in the organization.

3. Apprenticeship Training

In this  method  theoretical instruction and practical learning are provided to  trainees in training  institutes.

Advantages  of  apprenticeship training

  1. The  main  advantages of  this  method are that   it  combines  theory  and practice.
  2. The trainee acquires  skills which  are  valuable  in the job  market.
  3. Apprenticeship programmed provide skilled workforce to industry.

Disadvantages  of apprenticeship training

  1. Apprenticeship training  is time  consuming  and  expensive .
  2. Many  persons leave the training programmed midway as the training  period  ranges  from  one year  to five  years.
  3. Apprenticeship training  is the  oldest method of training.

Principles of training

The following  guidelines can help to make training  more  effective.

  1. Clear  objective- The  objective and scope of a training  programmed  should  be clearly defined.
  2. Training  policy a  clearly defined training  policy serves  as a guide for designing  and implementing  training  programmes.
  3. Motivation- employees tend to be most  responsive to training  programmes when  they  feel the need  to learn . Therefore  training  must be related to the  needs  and problems of the trainees  as well as to  their abilities and aptitudes.
  4. Reinforcement – According  to  BF skinner’s behavior  modification model – When behaviour  is repeatedly rewarded . It  becomes  a permanent part of one’s personality. Learning is more  effective  when there is  reinforcement in the form of rewards and punishment.
  5. Organized   materials- Training  material should be  properly  organized a complete outline of the whole  course  should  be distributed  in  advance  coming  to the  class.
  6. Learning  period- Learning  takes  time and teaching in segments is better  then in one  go  several  short  sessions spread  over  a long  period enables the trainee  to learn  reinforce and review.
  7. Preparing  the instructor – The  instructor  or trainer  is the key figure  in training  programme. The  trainer should not only  be a good  teacher but  must know  the subject  and the  job  also.
  8. Feedback – Trainee should be provided  with information on how much  they  learn   and how  they  are doing.
  9. Practice- Practice makes  a man perfect. Skills  that are practiced often are better learned  and less easily forgotten. Therefore, trainee should be  allowed  continuous practice.


It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization

How to set out recruitment

  1. Through advertisement
  2. Through employment agencies
  3. From labour unions
  4. Through fate hiring e.g. getting people who look for employment on their own.
  5. Employee recommendations
  6. Public employment agencies
  7. On campus recruitment


It is an effort of the organization   to select a fixed number of personnel from a large number of applications.

Types of selection test

  • Achievement Test
  • Intellectual test
  • Personality test


It is the actual placing of the candidates on their jobs initially on probation basis after selection. This takes three month and if an employee completes this period successfully, then they become the permanent employee of the organization.

Advantages of selection tests

  1. It is used to weed out the large number of candidates who may not consider for employment in the organization.
  2. They are able to reveal the qualities and potentials of prospective employees which can not be known by other methods including personal interview.
  3. It is not biased and a person who does not get selected in the basis of the selection tests can be arguing that selection was unfair.


It fails to make a 100% prediction of an individual on the job success.

Its use is not economical if the number of applicants is small.


It is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.


It is broadly the nature and direction of change induced in employees through the process of training and education.

Importance of training & Development

  1. It increases the efficiency in work
  2. Increases the morale of employees.
  3. Brings better human relations
  4. Helps to reduce  supervision of work
  5. Increases the organizational viability on flexibility


Non- financial incentives as motivator


This referees to the ranking   of people in the firm. It includes rights and duties in the organization


It is a movement to a position in which responsibilities are increased. Promotion satisfies the need of human beings in the organization.


Most people prefer a responsible job, that satisfies people’s natural and inherent characteristics and they put more effort s for completing the job. Making job pleasant and interesting. By designing such that it allows the employees to satisfy their natural instinct e.g.  through job enlargement and job enrichment.

Recognition of work

Appreciating the work of the subordinates does motivate them.

Job Security

If worker’s job is secure, he feels happy and less worried thus being motivated.

Encouraging the team spirit

By encouraging the workers to work in cooperation and coordination in order to achieve the organization goals will motivate them.


The superior-subordinate relationship emphasis  that superior  takes  the decision  and  subordinates implement them  and they also  be involved in making  the decision .

Good communication

Better channel of communication in the organization.

Transactional Analysis (TA)

It is used to develop better interpersonal interaction among individuals. It involves understanding of personality factors of individual and their ego with which they interact.

Ego – It is a person way of thinking, feeling and behaving at any time. 

Importance of Transactional Analysis (TA)

  1. It helps to develop positive thinking about people i.e. changing  negative  to positive
  2. It motivates
  3. It leads to organizational development.
  4. Improves interpersonal relationship by providing understanding of ego. States of persons involved in interaction thus improving interpersonal effectiveness.


It is a change from one jot to another that is better in terms of status and responsibility.

Importance of promotion

  1. Leads to job satisfaction
  2. Provides motivation to employees
  3. Increases productivity and employees resistance to certain changes are reduced
  4. It provides economic and moral development in the organization.

The role of the government in resource management

Administrative duties on the government go beyond unto the resource management practices.

Various structures that are laid in the government are aimed at consolidating strength for environment policy that is connected to the external agencies responsible for environment and resource management.

To affair this, the government takes the following roles.

  • Formation of policies that will guard against and for environment degradation
  • Its done by allowing rules and regulation in the constitutional of a country
  • It specifically provides penalties against environmental and resource management defaulters
  • Improving government machinery on resource management
  • The government ,and as it desires use the manpower behind it forcefully to enact the rules for environment and resource management practices e.g the police and other civil servants.
  • Ratification of environment laws on resource management
  • Management policies conquer with international standards

Empowerment advocacy and lobbying

In absence of preferred machinery, the government might cope with resource management practices by use of technical man power (environmentalist) to sensitize the mass on resource management issues.

It involves building capacity in people to maturely cover the needs of resource management.

Drawing mission, vision and philosophies

A mission and vision to attain realistic objectives and am by use of personal tenetism (believe) in ensuring that advocacy and lobbying cross to the trusted level e.g cut one plant two.

Training seminar and workshops.

These are facilities that are used to examine a valuable resource skills and adding up to a new ones to improve the guard of resources.

The source of such information is usually resource persons. Actively the government trains people vocationally, periodically and informally on resource management practice to highlight on the plight and isolation of the client.

Trainings provide insight examination on the resource management practices and organization.

Promotions of the use of technology in the globalization process. Substitutes of degraded materials e.g  oil or water can easily be used to allow time for recycling of the natural resource required.

The government adopts law to that effect uniformly to avoid reservation and preservation of these natural resources in the environment.

Other practices in the government involve;

  1. Sending exports to learn from case studies on resource management from the countries.
  2. They can also import resource management labor specialist to promote the planning and coordination of resources using the already made practices which was successful.

Government agencies responsible for environmental conservatory

  1. Ministry of environment and natural resource management
  2. Green belt movement
  3. National Environment management Association (NEMA)
  4. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
  5. University College and training Institution Society
  6. The local Government

Challenges of the government in resource management

  • Poor Implementation records
  • Inadequate infrastructure
  • Poor Financial Management.
  • Conflicting Government policies.
  • Negotiation
  • Progressing deliveries
  • Placing contract
  • Satisfying payments
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