Meaning of Human Resource
Human Resource is a set of practicing policies , practices and programmes designed to maximize both personal and organization goals . It is the process of binding people and organization together so that the objective of each are achieved.
Features of Human Resource Management
- Comprehensive function – Human resource management is concerned with managing people as work. It covers all type of people at all levels, in the organization.
- People oriented- Human resource management is concerned with employees as individuals as well as group. It is the task of dealing with human relationships within an organization. It is the process of achieving the best fit between individual s, jobs, organizations and the environment.
- Action oriented – Human resource management focuses on action rather than on record keeping or procedures.
- Individual oriented – Under human resource management, every employee is considered as an individual so as to provide services and programmes to facilitate employee satisfaction and growth.
- Development oriented – Human resource management is concern with developing potential of employees so that they get maximum satisfaction from their work and give their best effort to the organization.
Objectives of Human Resource
- To help the organization attain its goals by providing well-trained and well-motivated employees.
- To employ the skills and knowledge of employees efficiency and effectively i.e. to utilize human resource
- To enhance job satisfaction and self actualization of employee by encouraging and assisting every employer to realize his/her full potential.
- To establish and maintain productive, self -respecting and internally satisfying working relationships among all the members of the organization.
- To bearing about maximum individual development of member of the organization by providing opportunities for training and advancement.
- To secure the integration of all the individual and group with the organization by reconciling individual /group goals with those of an organization.
- To develop and maintain a quality of work life(QWL) which makes employment in the organization a desirable personal and social
- To maintain high morale and good human relations within the organization.
- To help maintain ethical policies and behavior inside and outside the organization.
- To manage change to the mutual advantages of individual, group the organization and the society.
- To recognize and satisfy initial needs and group goals by offering appropriate monetary and non-monetary incentives.
Requirements for attaining the above objectives
- Recruiting the right personnel possessing necessary skills and attitude.
- Developing clearly defined objectives and policies through common understanding and mutual
- Communicating and explaining the goals to be achieved and the contribution expected of every ember of the
- Dividing the tasks properly with clear cut authority , responsibility and relationship of one position with another.
- Maintaining sound industrial and human relations so as to secure the willing co-operation of all.
- Providing suitable monetary and non-monetary rewards for the contributions of
Importance of Human Resource Management
The significance of human resource management can be discussed at four levels – corporate, social, profession and national.
Significance of an enterprise
Human resource management can help an enterprise in achieving its goals more efficiently and effectively in the following ways.
- Attracting and retaining the required talent through effective resource planning, recruitment selection , placement , and orientation compensation and promotion policies.
- Developing the necessary skills and right attitude among the employees through training development .
- Securing willing co-operation of employees through
- Utilizing effectively the available human
- Ensuring that the enterprise will have in future a team of competent and dedicated
Process Of Developing Human Resources
Human resource planning is the process by which management determines how an organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired man power position.
Characteristics of Human Resource planning
- Human resource planning like all planning is forward looking or future oriented. It involves forecast of the man power needs in a future time periods so that adequately and timely provision may be made to meet the needs.
- Human resource planning is an ongoing or continuous process.
- It is the primary responsibility in management so as to ensure effective utilization of the organization’s human resource.
- Human resource planning is an integral part of corporate planning.
- Human resource planning is a system approach to human resources.
Objectives of human resource planning
To ensure optimum use of existing human resource;
- To forecast future requirement s for human resource.
- To provide control measures to ensure that necessary human resource are available as and when required.
- To link human resource planning with organizational planning
- To access the surplus and shortage of human resources.
- To anticipate the impacts of technology on jobs and human resources.
- To determine levels of recruitment and training.
- To estimate the cost of human resources and housing needs of employees.
- To provide a basis for management development programme.
- To facilitate productivity bargaining .
- To meet the needs of expansion and diversification programme.
Need and importance of Human Resource Planning;
- To carry on it s work and to achieve its objectives, every organization requires employees with adequate knowledge , experience and Human resource planning is helpful in selection and training activities.
- Human resource planning identifies gaps in existing man power in terms of their quantity and talents
- Provision for replacement of personnel can be through human resource planning that is replacing retired employees who die, resign and become incapacitated due to
- Human resource planning facilitates expansion and diversification of an organization.
- Human resource planning creates awareness about the effective utilization of human resource throughout the organization.
- Human resource planning is helpful in effective utilization of technological To meet the challenge of new technology existing employees need to be retrained and new employees may be recruited .
- With the help of human resource planning areas of surplus man power can be anticipated and timely action can be taken .
- Human resource planning is useful in anticipating the cost of human resource which facilitates the budgeting It also helps in controlling human resource costs through effective utilization .
- Human resource planning facilitates career succession planning in organization.
- Human resource planning helps in planning for physical facilities.
Human Resource Planning has increased due to following reasons:
- Employment situation – Number of educated unemployed is increasing and there is acute shortage for a variety of skills. This situation requires more effective recruitment and retraining of people.
- Technological changes- wide spread and rapid changes in production technology marketing methods and management techniques are having profound effects on the content and converts of jobs.
- Organizational changes-size of the firm is increasing rapidly changes in environment requires changes in organization structure and activities which affects requirement for human
- Demographic changes – The profile of the workforce in terms of age, sex, education, technical skills and social background is changing.
- Shortage of skills- Organization has become increasingly complex and requires a wide-range of specialized skills. These skills are scarce and problems arise when employees with these skills leave an organization.
- Legislative controls – Law with regard to working conditions, working hours, weaker sections. Therefore managers must look ahead and foresee man power problems with the help of systematic human resource planning..
Process of Human Resource Planning ( Accessing Human Resource Requirements)
The major stages involved in human resource planning are given below;
1. Analyzing organizational plans
The objectives and strategic plans of the company are analyzed organization structure and job design should be made clear and changes in the organization structure should be examined so as to anticipate its manpower requirement. A company’s plans are based on economic forecast, company’s sales and expansion forecast and the labour market forecast.
2. Forecasting demand for human Resource (Manpower forecasting)
On the basis of corporate and functional plans and future activity levels, the future needs for human resources in the organization are anticipated. The number of people and the skills level needed in future depend on reductions and sales budgets in a manufacturing enterprise.
3. Forecasting supply of Human Resource
Every organization has to sources of supply of human resource- internal and external. Internally human resources can be obtained for certain posts through promotion and transfers. Human resources flow in and out of organization due to several reasons. Man power inventory helps in determining and evaluating the quantity and quality of the internal human resources. It reveals what exist in stock of man power and what can be expected in future.
4. Estimating manpower gaps
Net human resource requirement or manpower gaps can be identified by comparing demand forecasts and supply forecasts. Deficits suggest the number of persons to be recruited similarly gaps may occur in terms of knowledge, skills and aptitudes.
5. Action planning
Once the manpower gaps are defied, plans are prepared to bridge these gaps. Plans to meet the surplus man power descries in brief the tasks, duties and responsibilities which need to be charged foe effective job performance.
Training is the process of increasing the knowledge and skills for doing a particular job . It is an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. The purpose of training is basically to bridge the gap between job requirement and present competence of an employee.
Need for training
Training is requiring on account of the following reasons:
Job requirement- Employees selected for a job might lack the qualification required to perform the job effectively. New and inexperienced employees require detailed instructions for effective performance on the job.
- Technological changes – Technology is changing very fast. Now automation and mechanisation have are been increasingly applied in offices and service sector.
- Organisational viability – In order to survive and grow, an organization must continually adopt itself to the changing environment. With increasing economic linearization and globalization, business firms are experiencing expansion growth & diversification.
- Internal mobility – Training becomes necessary when an employee moves from one job to another due to promotion and transfer.
Advantages of training
- Higher productivity- Training helps to improve the level of performance. Trained employees perform better by using better method of work.
- Better quality of work – Informal training , the best methods are standardized and taught to employees.
- Cost reduction – Trained employees make more economical use of materials and machinery .
- Reduced supervision- Well trained employees tend to be self –reliant and motivated.
- Low accident-rate – Trained personnel adopt the right work method and make use of the prescribed safety devices
Reasons for training
- The installation of new equipment or techniques which require new or improved
- A change in working method.
- A change in product , which may necessitate training
- A realization that performance is inadequate.
- Labour shortage, necessitating the upgrading .
- A desire to reduce the amount of
- Promotion or transfer of individual employees
Benefits of training
Training is useful to employees in the following ways.
- Self confidence- Training helps to improve the self confidence of an employee.
- Higher earnings- Trained employees can perform better and herby earn more .
- Safety – Training helps an employee to use various safety devices. We can handle the machines safety and become less prone to
- Adaptability- Training enables an employee to adopt to changes work procedures and methods.
- Promotion – Through training employees can develop himself and earn promotions.
Types of Training
1. Orientation training
Induction or orientation training seeks to adjust newly appointed employees to the work environment. Every new employees need to be made fully familiar with his job, his superior and subordinates.
2. Job training
It refers to the training provided with a view to increase the knowledge and skills of an employee for improving performance on the job.
3. Safety training
Training provided to minimize accidents and damage to machinery. It involves instruction in the use of safety devices and in safety consciousness.
4. Promotion training
It involves training of existing employees to enable them to perform higher-level job.
5. Refresher training
When existing techniques become absolute due to the development of better techniques employees have to be trained in the use of new methods and techniques with the passage of time employees may forget some of the methods of doing work. Refresher training is designed to revise and refresh the knowledge and to update the skills of the existing employees.
6. Remedial training
Such training is arranged to overcome the shortcoming in the behavour and performance of old employees.
Identifying training needs
7. Organisational analysis
It involves a study of the entire organization in terms of its objectives, its resources allocation and utilization, growth potential and its environment. Its purpose is to determine where training emphasis should be placed within the organization.
8. Tasks or role analysis
It is a systematic and detailed analysis of job to identify job content the knowledge, skills and aptitudes required and the work behaviour. On the art of the job holder particular attention should be paid to the tasks to be performed, the methods to be used, the way employees have learnt these methods and the performance standards required of employees.
9. Manpower analysis.
In this analysis the persons to be trained and the changes required in the knowledge, skills and aptitudes of an employees are determined . First, it is necessary to decide whether performance of an individual is substandard and training is needed. Secondly it is determined whether the employees are capable of being trained. Thirdly the specific areas in which the individual requires training will improve the employees performance or not is determined.
Objectives of training
- To impart to new entrants the basic knowledge and skills required for efficient performance of definite
- To assists the employees to function more effectively in their present position by exposing them to the latest concept, information and techniques & developing skills they would require in their particular
- To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy more responsible
- To broaden the minds of senior managers through interchange of experience within and outside so as to correct out loaded caused to over specialization
Training methods & Techniques
In this method the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform The trainee learns under the guidance and supervision of the superior or an instructor.
Advantages of On Job Training
- The trainee learns on the actual machine in use and in the real environment of the job thus he is better motivated to learn and there is no problem of turnover of training skills to the job.
- This method is very economical because no additional space, equipment, personnel or other facilities are required for training .
- The trainee learns the rules and regulation and procedures by observing their day to day
- This is the most suitable method for teaching knowledge and skills which can be acquired through personal observation in a relatively short time
- Line supervisors take an active part in training their subordinates .
Disadvantages of On-Job training
- The learner finds it difficult to concentrate due to noise of the actual workplace.
- This method is often haphazard due to noise of the actual work-place.
- In this method the trainee may cause damage to costly equipment and materials.
In this method a training centre called vestibule is set up and actual job conditions are duplicated.
Advantages of vestibule training
- Trainee can concentrate on learning without disturbance of the work place noise.
- The interest and motivation of the trainee are high as the real job conditions are duplicated.
- This method is essential in cases, where on the job training might result in a serious injury, costly event or the destruction of valuable equipment and materials.
- Correct method can be taught effectively by the trained instructor who knows how to teach.
- It permits the trainee to practice without the fear of being observed and indicated by the superior .
- It is very efficient method of training a large number of employee works.
Disadvantages vestibule training.
- It is the most expensive method because of additional investment in classroom,, equipment and experts trainers.
- Training situations is somewhat artificial and the trainee does not get a feel of the real job.
- Separation of training from the supervisory responsibilities may lead to problems in the organization.
3. Apprenticeship Training
In this method theoretical instruction and practical learning are provided to trainees in training institutes.
Advantages of apprenticeship training
- The main advantages of this method are that it combines theory and practice.
- The trainee acquires skills which are valuable in the job market.
- Apprenticeship programmed provide skilled workforce to industry.
Disadvantages of apprenticeship training
- Apprenticeship training is time consuming and expensive .
- Many persons leave the training programmed midway as the training period ranges from one year to five years.
- Apprenticeship training is the oldest method of training.
Principles of training
The following guidelines can help to make training more effective.
- Clear objective- The objective and scope of a training programmed should be clearly defined.
- Training policy a clearly defined training policy serves as a guide for designing and implementing training programmes.
- Motivation- employees tend to be most responsive to training programmes when they feel the need to learn . Therefore training must be related to the needs and problems of the trainees as well as to their abilities and aptitudes.
- Reinforcement – According to BF skinner’s behavior modification model – When behaviour is repeatedly rewarded . It becomes a permanent part of one’s personality. Learning is more effective when there is reinforcement in the form of rewards and punishment.
- Organized materials- Training material should be properly organized a complete outline of the whole course should be distributed in advance coming to the class.
- Learning period- Learning takes time and teaching in segments is better then in one go several short sessions spread over a long period enables the trainee to learn reinforce and review.
- Preparing the instructor – The instructor or trainer is the key figure in training programme. The trainer should not only be a good teacher but must know the subject and the job also.
- Feedback – Trainee should be provided with information on how much they learn and how they are doing.
- Practice- Practice makes a man perfect. Skills that are practiced often are better learned and less easily forgotten. Therefore, trainee should be allowed continuous practice.
It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization
How to set out recruitment
- Through advertisement
- Through employment agencies
- From labour unions
- Through fate hiring e.g. getting people who look for employment on their own.
- Employee recommendations
- Public employment agencies
- On campus recruitment
It is an effort of the organization to select a fixed number of personnel from a large number of applications.
Types of selection test
- Achievement Test
- Intellectual test
- Personality test
It is the actual placing of the candidates on their jobs initially on probation basis after selection. This takes three month and if an employee completes this period successfully, then they become the permanent employee of the organization.
Advantages of selection tests
- It is used to weed out the large number of candidates who may not consider for employment in the organization.
- They are able to reveal the qualities and potentials of prospective employees which can not be known by other methods including personal interview.
- It is not biased and a person who does not get selected in the basis of the selection tests can be arguing that selection was unfair.
It fails to make a 100% prediction of an individual on the job success.
Its use is not economical if the number of applicants is small.
It is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.
It is broadly the nature and direction of change induced in employees through the process of training and education.
Importance of training & Development
- It increases the efficiency in work
- Increases the morale of employees.
- Brings better human relations
- Helps to reduce supervision of work
- Increases the organizational viability on flexibility
Non- financial incentives as motivator
This referees to the ranking of people in the firm. It includes rights and duties in the organization
It is a movement to a position in which responsibilities are increased. Promotion satisfies the need of human beings in the organization.
Most people prefer a responsible job, that satisfies people’s natural and inherent characteristics and they put more effort s for completing the job. Making job pleasant and interesting. By designing such that it allows the employees to satisfy their natural instinct e.g. through job enlargement and job enrichment.
Recognition of work
Appreciating the work of the subordinates does motivate them.
If worker’s job is secure, he feels happy and less worried thus being motivated.
Encouraging the team spirit
By encouraging the workers to work in cooperation and coordination in order to achieve the organization goals will motivate them.
The superior-subordinate relationship emphasis that superior takes the decision and subordinates implement them and they also be involved in making the decision .
Better channel of communication in the organization.
Transactional Analysis (TA)
It is used to develop better interpersonal interaction among individuals. It involves understanding of personality factors of individual and their ego with which they interact.
Ego – It is a person way of thinking, feeling and behaving at any time.
Importance of Transactional Analysis (TA)
- It helps to develop positive thinking about people i.e. changing negative to positive
- It motivates
- It leads to organizational development.
- Improves interpersonal relationship by providing understanding of ego. States of persons involved in interaction thus improving interpersonal effectiveness.
It is a change from one jot to another that is better in terms of status and responsibility.
Importance of promotion
- Leads to job satisfaction
- Provides motivation to employees
- Increases productivity and employees resistance to certain changes are reduced
- It provides economic and moral development in the organization.
The role of the government in resource management
Administrative duties on the government go beyond unto the resource management practices.
Various structures that are laid in the government are aimed at consolidating strength for environment policy that is connected to the external agencies responsible for environment and resource management.
To affair this, the government takes the following roles.
- Formation of policies that will guard against and for environment degradation
- Its done by allowing rules and regulation in the constitutional of a country
- It specifically provides penalties against environmental and resource management defaulters
- Improving government machinery on resource management
- The government ,and as it desires use the manpower behind it forcefully to enact the rules for environment and resource management practices e.g the police and other civil servants.
- Ratification of environment laws on resource management
- Management policies conquer with international standards
Empowerment advocacy and lobbying
In absence of preferred machinery, the government might cope with resource management practices by use of technical man power (environmentalist) to sensitize the mass on resource management issues.
It involves building capacity in people to maturely cover the needs of resource management.
Drawing mission, vision and philosophies
A mission and vision to attain realistic objectives and am by use of personal tenetism (believe) in ensuring that advocacy and lobbying cross to the trusted level e.g cut one plant two.
Training seminar and workshops.
These are facilities that are used to examine a valuable resource skills and adding up to a new ones to improve the guard of resources.
The source of such information is usually resource persons. Actively the government trains people vocationally, periodically and informally on resource management practice to highlight on the plight and isolation of the client.
Trainings provide insight examination on the resource management practices and organization.
Promotions of the use of technology in the globalization process. Substitutes of degraded materials e.g oil or water can easily be used to allow time for recycling of the natural resource required.
The government adopts law to that effect uniformly to avoid reservation and preservation of these natural resources in the environment.
Other practices in the government involve;
- Sending exports to learn from case studies on resource management from the countries.
- They can also import resource management labor specialist to promote the planning and coordination of resources using the already made practices which was successful.
Government agencies responsible for environmental conservatory
- Ministry of environment and natural resource management
- Green belt movement
- National Environment management Association (NEMA)
- United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
- University College and training Institution Society
- The local Government
Challenges of the government in resource management
- Poor Implementation records
- Inadequate infrastructure
- Poor Financial Management.
- Conflicting Government policies.
- Progressing deliveries
- Placing contract
- Satisfying payments