MAN-MADE RESOURCES

Meaning of man-made resources

These are resources that are changed from their present stage that stage that can be utilized by man. These are resource made by man after exploiting the natural   resource e.g. dams, roads etc.

What you must do

  • Ensure conditions are suitable to carry out maintenance and repairs
  • Identify the items that need maintenance and repair and the work required
  • Choose the hand tools and equipment that are most appropriate for the maintenance and repair that is needed
  • Protect the immediate surrounding areas throughout the preparations and the work
  • Use the appropriate method to prepare damaged areas or surfaces for repairs
  • Use approved safe working practices throughout maintenance and repair, ensuring electrical supplies are safely isolated, where necessary
  • Use the right techniques for achieving maintenance and repairs and make sure that your work does not have an adverse effect on the finished appearance of the items and surrounding area
  • When replacing items check that replacements function the same manner and operate safely
  • Check that the area functions properly following maintenance and repair and that the appearance of the work area matches that of the immediate surrounding area, as far as is possible
  • Report to the relevant person any maintenance and repair requirements that you are not competent to carry out or any cleaning that is required
  • Clean tools thoroughly after use and return them and any unused materials to the right place

Knowledge requirements

What you must know

  • How weather and other site conditions (such as heat, snow, ice or mud) may influence the way you carry out your work
  • Where maintenance and repair is required and how site conditions can affect your ability to carry out the work
  • The type of maintenance and repair that is required and its extent
  • The tools and equipment available for use and which are the most appropriate for the work
  • Why it is important to protect the surrounding area and the most effective and appropriate method to do this
  • The necessary preparatory work to carry out before conducting repairs and why it is important that this is done
  • Approved, safe working practices for carrying out the work
  • Suitable techniques for carrying out maintenance and repairs to ensure the appearance  of the items and surrounding area remains intact
  • The characteristics of items to be replaced and why it is important to retain them
  • How to check that the items function correctly when maintenance and repair is finished and why this should be done
  • Reporting procedures for any maintenance and repair that you are not competent to carry out
  • The correct way to clean tools and equipment and why it is important to do this when you have finished using them
  • The correct place to store tools and equipment and any un-used materials

Monitoring policies on how to use resources   effectively

The legal and policy framework regarding natural resources is still evolving and presents good opportunities for strengthening community rights. However, there are some areas of concern; some important policy instruments still need to be put in place and the application of these policies and regulations has major shortcomings, in terms both of capacity and commitment. Ongoing decentralization processes and devolution of rights and responsibilities to local communities is revealing the tensions in resources where land and natural resource policy mixes a powerful role of the state with the need to strengthen community rights. Devolution of rights policy is being driven more by informal “pilot” and ad hoc approaches than through central level processes, and in fact there are pressures to move in the opposite direction, where powerful interests are involved

Educating people on the proper use of man made resource effective or sustainable

Man made resources such as historical places, objects and manifestations of cultural, scientific, symbolic, spiritual and religious value are important expressions of the culture, identity and religious beliefs of societies. Their role and importance, particularly in the light of the need for cultural identity and continuity in a rapidly changing world, need to be promoted. Buildings, spaces, places and landscapes charged with spiritual and religious value represent an important element of stable and humane social life and community pride. Conservation, rehabilitation and culturally sensitive adaptive reuse of urban, rural and architectural heritage are also in accordance with the sustainable use of natural and human-made resources. Access to culture and the cultural dimension of development is of the utmost importance and all people should be able to benefit from such access.

Actions

To promote historical and cultural continuity and to encourage broad civic participation in all kinds of cultural activities, Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities, should:

1. Identify and document, whenever possible, the historical and cultural significance of areas, sites, landscapes, ecosystems, buildings and other objects and manifestations and establish conservation goals relevant to the cultural and spiritual development of society;

2. Promote the awareness of such heritage in order to highlight its value and the need for its conservation and the financial viability of rehabilitation;

3. Encourage and support local heritage and cultural institutions, associations and communities in their conservation and rehabilitation efforts and inculcate in children and youth an adequate sense of their heritage;

4. Promote adequate financial and legal support for the effective protection of the cultural heritage;

5. Promote education and training in traditional skills in all disciplines appropriate to the conservation and promotion of heritage;

6. Promote the active role of older persons as custodians of cultural heritage, knowledge, trades and skills.

To integrate development with conservation and rehabilitation goals, Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities, should:

1. Recognize that the historical and cultural heritage is an important asset, and strive to maintain the social, cultural and economic viability of historically and culturally important sites and communities;

2. Preserve the inherited historical settlement and landscape forms, while protecting the integrity of the historical urban fabric and guiding new construction in historical areas;

3. Provide adequate legal and financial support for the implementation of conservation and rehabilitation activities, in particular through adequate training of specialized human resources;

4. Promote incentives for such conservation and rehabilitation to public, private and non-profit developers;

5. Promote community-based action for the conservation, rehabilitation, regeneration and maintenance of neighbourhoods;

6. Support public and private sector and community partnerships for the rehabilitation of inner cities and neighbourhoods;

7. Ensure the incorporation of environmental concerns in conservation and rehabilitation projects;

8. Take measures to reduce acid rain and other types of environmental pollution that damage buildings and other items of cultural and historical value;

9. Adopt human settlements planning policies, including transport and other infrastructure policies, that avoid environmental degradation of historical and cultural areas;

10.Ensure that the accessibility concerns of people with disabilities are incorporated in conservation and rehabilitation projects.

Using environmentally friendly ways to manufacture them

From small homes to large businesses, it seems like everyone is on a mission to “go green”. Going green however, can mean different things in different situations. For some companies, it can mean making a change toward actually producing eco friendly products. For others who cannot produce them, going green can simply mean using products that are more environmentally and ecologically friendly.

Eco Friendly Furniture

As companies become more aware of the effects that they have on the natural world, they also become more willing to use and employ eco friendly products in their everyday practices. The simplest way for a company to go green and make itself more eco friendly is by using eco friendly furniture. Furniture pieces represent some of the most popular eco friendly products for companies looking to jump on the green bandwagon.

Eco friendly furniture is made with environmentally friendly materials, and created in an environmentally friendly manner. Some companies may reduce the amount of material that they use in producing a piece of furniture. Other companies may use natural, raw, and/o renewable materials when manufacturing their furniture. Some parts of the furniture can be made out of recycled materials or wood from sustainable yield forests. Some furniture manufacturers have begun using bamboo, for example, in many of their products, especially since bamboo is a renewable resource that is both visually appealing and functionally sensible.

In some companies, the production process matters more than the actual materials used. These companies take a different road to going green by producing their furniture in ways that produce little or no emissions. Manufacturers may choose to use non-toxic colors or dyes in their upholstery material, or they can also elect to put their furniture together with natural glues rather than with synthetic ones.

Other Eco Friendly Products for Companies

Besides making a move to using eco friendly furniture, companies of any size can make themselves greener in a variety of ways. The changes do not have to be as dramatic as developing a new manufacturing process, but even the smallest change can have dramatic effects on a company’s efforts to help the environment.

  • Depending on what products a particular company produces, it may consider using materials that are biodegradable, recyclable, or made from other recycled products in its own manufacturing process. By doing so, companies can do their part to make sure that resources that are already limited are not overused.
  • Additionally, eco friendly products can be introduced to other aspects of a company. For example, a company can choose to be cleaned with green or natural products (Miller). Most companies that manufacture cleaning products are taking note of the changing attitudes toward the environment and are doing their best to develop natural-based cleaners for home and office use.
  • In the company restroom, companies can choose to use eco friendly soaps, recycled toilet paper and paper towels, or hand dryers that do not use paper towels. In most cases, the installation of one electric hand dryer can save as many as 34 trees in a single year.
  • Another easy way for a company to go green is to replace old light bulbs with what are known as CFL’s, or compact fluorescent light bulbs. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, just one compact fluorescent light bulb can save a home or business up to $30 a year (U.S. Department of Energy). For a small business, making the change to fluorescent light bulbs can mean a savings of more than $1300.

Recycling the resources

Recycling Paper Saves Resources

Forests are cut primarily to produce paper products and lumber in roughly equal volumes, although the former is growing faster. The world consumes five times more paper now than in 1950. US offices’ paper use soared from 0.85 to 1.4 trillion sheets (about 4.2 to 7 million tons) just between 1981 and 1984, as early desktop computers and laser printers were being introduced. Other countries did not lag far behind. From 1970 to 1990, paper production rose 4 % a year in Japan and in Southeast Asia, 8 %, compared with 2.5 % in the US.

Paper accounts for about 2 % of world trade and 2.5 % of world industrial production. Yet much of the paper produced is used only for a short time and then discarded. Only about a tenth of the paper stream goes into durable storage in such form as files, records and books. Much of the rest of printing and writing paper, which represented 28% of 1992 paper and paperboard consumption, find its way into the office. This paper accounts for as much as 70 % of typical office waste. During the years 1972-1987, America’s discarded office printing and writing paper grew almost five times as fast as the human population, office paper over five times and copier paper almost ten times.

Recycling plastics saves resources

The development of plastic materials has exploded in the second half of the XXth century.
Production of plastic materials in the world rose from less than 5 million tons in the 1950s to some 80 million tonnes in 1997. Consumption of plastics in Western Europe was about 28 million tons in 1997 (35% of world production).

Plastic packaging waste represents about 60% of the total plastic waste.  The distribution and industry sectors generate some 2,6 million tons out of the 9.8 million tons of post-user packaging waste produced in Western Europe. Household waste represent more than 70% of the overall plastic packaging waste.

  • Mechanical recycling of plastics saves energy

The TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) paper compared four options for the treatment of the plastic waste: municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), energy recovery or blast furnaces, feedstock recycling and mechanical recycling. It concludes that from an energy point of view, mechanical recycling is in theory the best option because it permits to save the feedstock energy that is embodied in the plastic itself (+/- 40 MJ/kg) as well as the energy used for producing the primary resin (between 40 and 50 MJ/kg). The incineration with municipal waste is generally the least favourable option in environmental terms. One main reason for this is that it allows recovering maximum 50 % of the calorific value contained in the plastic. The study concludes that mechanical recycling is favourable provided that via advanced separation and upgrading technologies a high-quality recycling can be reached.
If this is not the case (and notably when recycling only leads to “downcycling” like the use of secondary plastics in park benches, fancy ballpoints and road side guidance piles) the advantages provided by mechanical recycling might not be convincingly better than feedstock recycling or co-incineration with energy recovery (for instance in cement kilns).

  • Recycling PVC saves resources

A previous study realized by the Wuppertal Institute applied MIPS methodology to PVC drinking water pipes.
MIPS – material intensity per service unit – includes all man-induced material displacements from cradle to grave counted in mass units. The study provides an overview of processes and material input-data for the production of PVC used for drinking water pipes. It does not include the dismantling of post-consumer PVC pipes. The results show that the secondary PVC is more economical from a resources point of view than the primary

Reducing waste of resources

What exactly is “waste”?

Simply speaking, waste is anything discarded, rejected surpluses, abandoned, or otherwise released into the environment in a manner (or quantity) that could have an impact on that environment.

How can you help?

You can help by learning about and practicing the three R’s of waste management: Reduce, reuse, and recycle! Practicing all three of these activities every day is not only important for a healthy environment, but it can also be fun too. So let’s take a minute right now to learn more about waste and waste management, so you can become a key player in making our world a safe and healthy place.

Reduce

Reduce/Reduction: to make something smaller or use less, resulting in a smaller amount of waste. “Source reduction” is reducing waste before you purchase it, or by purchasing products that are not wasteful in their packaging or use. A key part of waste “reduction” is “conservation” – using natural resources wisely, and using less than usual in order avoid waste.

You can practice reduction by selecting products that do not have to be added to landfills or the waste stream in general. This is really easy to do…

  • First and foremost, buy and use less! If all the other people on the Earth used as much “stuff” as we do in the United States, there would need to be three to five times more space just to hold and sustain everybody … WOW!   So buy only what you need and use all of what you buy. Or make sure that when you are through with something, you pass it along to other people who can continue to put it to good use. This is especially important when it comes to items where disposal is difficult or could be particularly dangerous to our environment, such as paint and chemicals (cleaners, strippers, pesticides, herbicides, etc.).
  • Start making wise “package” selections. Why is it important to consider how something is “packaged” when you consider what to buy? You can reduce waste by selecting products that are not wasteful in their “packaging”. The package surrounding the product really only needs to be designed to protect the product from damage, keep it clean and sanitary, and present product information. Yet many manufacturers make the packaging far more elaborate (and expensive!) than necessary with the hope that it will attract your attention or give the appearance that the product inside is better than it’s competitors. So keep the following package-related tips in mind no matter what you are buying:
    • Precycle by purchasing products in materials/packaging that can be readily recycled. Flashy and fun packaging costs more, usually adds little or no value to the product, and (worst of all!) can do considerable harm to our environment by creating more waste or waste disposal difficulties. So whenever you have a choice, put plain and recyclable packages high on your list to reduce packaging waste in our environment.
    • Avoid single-serve containers whenever possible. You can buy juice or water in large recyclable bottles or cans and then divide it up into smaller portions in reusable, washable containers as you need it at home or to take with you. And if you want to take juice or water with you on your bike rides or to the gym, just take it along in your own reusable sports bottle. With regard to buying bottled water, first determine if you really even need to buy bottled (packaged) water. City water (and clean well water) is usually just as healthy, much cheaper, and may even be safer than bottled water products.
    • Think BIG! Buying in “bulk” (a large amount that is not divided into separate containers) gives you the best “product to package” ratio. Many stores allow shoppers to scoop out the amount they need of bulk goods like nuts or coffee. This considerably reduces waste and packaging materials. Or you can buy in bulk by selecting bigger quantities in a single box or package — for example, buy the largest box of toothpaste, dishwasher detergent, or cereal, rather than a series of small boxes. This not only reduces the waste (from having to throw out the old containers) but it will also save you money. Packaging is expensive, so buying in larger volumes reduces the unit cost.
    • Buy concentrates rather than diluted products- the result is less waste for disposal when it is empty.
  • Refuse store bags! When you buy one or two items at a store, carry them out in your hands; or take a reusable bag with you to carry the items you buy. And don’t forget to take your old plastic and paper bags back to the grocery store for reuse or recycling. Most grocery stores have convenient paper and plastic recycling bins located near the entrance.
  • Use durable goods longer. Durable goods are sturdy things like furniture or household appliances that can (and should) be used for many years. You can save money and reduce waste by keeping these items longer and repairing them when they break, rather than buying new ones.
  • Use durable items rather than disposable items whenever possible. For example, select reusable razors rather than the disposable one that you can only use a few times and then have to throw away.
  • Say NO to junk mail! Call toll-free numbers in unwanted catalogs and ask to be removed from mailing lists. Whenever possible, use the Internet to obtain (and pay) bills, news, catalogs, stock reports and other information that usually comes to your house in a paper format. Reducing paper reduces waste.
  • Start a garden. Food that you grow yourself does not have to be “processed” or “packaged”, and no fossil fuels are needed to get it to the store and then to your house.
  • Start a compost or vermiculture to transform your household garbage (food wastes, coffee grounds, etc), into a rich earth-like material that can be added to a garden to help plants grow. Grass, leaves, paper, and some other types of food can naturally decay and turn into compost, and that compost can then be put to good use in your garden. You can also help your family replace lawns with mulched gardens that are just as pretty, but are better for our environment.

Reuse

You can “reuse” materials in their original form instead of throwing them away, or pass those materials on to others who could use them too! Remember, one man’s trash is another man’s treasure! Here are some examples of reuse.

  • Take along washable cups or travel mugs instead of disposables; a lot of restaurants and convenient stores will be glad to fill or refill your own mug.
  • When you do use disposables like plastic cups, plates, utensils, and plastic food storage bags, don’t throw them away! Wash and reuse them — most of them will last for a long time with many uses. They may not cost much to replace, but it doesn’t make any more sense to throw away those things than it does to throw away your bicycle after one use.
  • And speaking of bicycles (or other durable goods like washers, dryers, etc.) — why not repair them rather than replace them when they break? This is another form of “reuse”. New is not always better, nor it is always necessary. You’ll be helping your environment, but your pocketbook will thank you too!
  • When you do decide to replace something large and “reusable”, be sure to donate the old one to charitable outlets like Goodwill, Salvation Army, Habitat for Humanity, Vietnam Veterans, and the many others that are probably in your area. Most of the time the item can be repaired by those groups, and then redistributed into other homes rather than landfills.
  • Hold a yard sale or give-away. And ask your neighbors to join in too — this shares the work and increases the number of unused things that can find new homes and new uses. And your local recycling/solid waste office may run a “swap shop” at a recycling centers —
  • When you do need to purchase something, check those yard sales and charitable outlets first to see if they have what you need before selecting something new.
  • Use cloth gift bags and stop ripping the paper off gifts! If you remove the wrapping paper carefully, you can use it again, and there’s nothing wrong with doing just that! And don’t forget to use canvas or cloth bags when shopping so you don’t need to make the choice between “paper or plastic.”
  • Use washable table napkins instead of paper napkins — cloth napkins are usually much larger and more absorbent than paper products, and they can dress up your dinner table too!
  • New baby? Buy washable cotton diapers (look for them at yard sales or charitable outlets). Check the yellow pages to see if there is a diaper service in your area. If you select those with velcro wraps, reusable diapers are just as convenient and may even be cheaper than disposable diapers.

Recycle

Recycling occurs when you save and take reusable materials to places where they can be remade into either the same product or new products, rather than to just toss them in the trash. Making new items from recycled ones also takes fewer energy and other resources than making products from brand new materials.

Just about anything in your home (or office or school, etc.) that cannot be reused CAN be recycled into something else. You’d be amazed what can be done with a recycled product …a recycled soda bottle, for example, can be made into T-shirts, combs, or hundreds of other plastic goods that can be used for many years. Even your brand new computer case might be made from ordinary recycled plastics. And paper products can take on different forms as well — an old phone book or coloring book might become one of your school books or a composition notebook.

Conservation and sustainable management of natural and man-made resources

Research activities will be targeted to improve the knowledge basis and develop advanced models and tools needed for the sustainable management of resources and the creation of sustainable consumption patterns. This will enable the prediction of the behaviour of ecosystems and their restoration, and the mitigation of degradation and loss of important structural and functional elements of ecosystems (for biodiversity, water, soil and marine resources). Research on ecosystem modeling will take account of protection and conservation practices. Innovative approaches to develop economic activities from ecosystem services will be promoted. Approaches will be developed to prevent desertification, land degradation and erosion, and to stop biodiversity loss. Research will also address sustainable management of forests and the urban environment including planning, and waste management. The research will benefit from and contribute to the development of open, distributed, inter-operable data management and information systems and will underpin assessments, foresight, and services related to natural resources and their use.

The ever-growing resource of built structures demands conceptual, strategic and economic considerations, which not only deal with protected buildings, but reflect, on the whole, built environment and infrastructure. Abroader view of economic factors begs the question of the criteria relevant to decisions about preserving or demolishing a building. Long term and sustainable use of any artifact requires strategic approaches and skills.
‘Sustainable Management of Man-made Resources’ (SUMA) deals with fundamentals, terms, definitions and methods in the field of real-estate management. The course also engages with sustainable rationing of building stocks as well as methods of assessment and evaluation;

  • It has led to production of quality resource that can be that can be used to accomplish most task / activity.
  • It has led to sustainability. We have all the man made resources available.
  • It lowers the overall cost of production that is it cuts the cost of importing products that we can produce in our own.
  • It enhances accessibility that is when the resource is near one need not to travel far.
  • The economy of the county is improved or maintained e.g jua kali.
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