INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION QUESTION AND ANSWERS

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION

QUSTION ONE

Outline four benefits of e-mailing memos in an organization

  • Emails are easy to-use.

You can organize your daily Correspondence, send and receive electronic memos and save them on computers

  • Emails are fast.

Memos are delivered at once around the organisation. No other form of written communication is as fast as an email.

  • Language




The language used in emails is simple and informal.

  • You can attach the original message for clarity

When you reply to an email you can attach the original message so that when you answer the recipient knows what you are talking about. This is important if you get hundreds of memos a day.

  • Environmental friendly

Emails do not use paper. They are environment friendly and save a lot of trees from being cut down.

 

QUSTION TWO

Enumerate five benefits of using electronic data interchange in an enterprise

Remove document re-keying

By removing the manual keying of Key business documents such as orders, invoices acknowledgments and dispatch notes your company can benefit significantly by:

  • Reduced labour costs
  • Elimination of human keying errors
  • Faster document processing
  • Instant’ document retrieval
  • Remove reliance on the postal service

Eliminate Paper

Paper-based trading relationships have some inherent disadvantages when compared with their electronic trading equivalents’/which include:

  • Stationery and printer consumable costs
  • Document storage costs.
  • Lost documents
  • Postage costs

 Reduce lead times and stockholding    

  • Electronic trading documents can be delivered far more quickly than their paper counterparts, thus the turnaround time from order to delivery can be reduced
  • By using EDI for forecasting and planning, companies are able to get forward, warning of likely orders and to plan their production and stock levels accordingly.
  • Companies receiving advanced shipping notes or acknowledgments know in advance what is actually going to be delivered, and are made aware of shortages so alternate supplies can be sourced.
  • Integrating electronic documents means they can be processed much faster, again reducing lead times and speeding up payments.

Increase quality of the trading relationship

  • Electronic trading documents when printed are much easier to .read than copies, faxed or generated on multi-part stationery by impact printers.
  • Accurate documents help ensure accurate supplies.
  • Batches of electronic, documents are usually sequentially numbered, therefore missing documents can easily be identified, not causing companies to wade through piles of paper.

Competitive Edge

Because electronic data interchange (EDI) makes you attractive to deal with from your customers point of view and you are in their eyes cheaper and more efficient to deal with than a competitor trading on paper, your costs, will be lower because you will require less, manpower to process orders, deliveries or payments

QUSTION THREE

Explain the following terms

Multimedia communication



It is a technique (as the combining of sound, video, and text) for expressing ideas (as in communication, entertainment, or art).in which several media are employed. Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed, or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance…

Multimedia devices are electronic media device used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from’ mixed media in fine art; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope,

VOIP

This is an acronym for Voice over Internet Protocol. It is a technology that allows telephone calls to be made over computer networks like the Internet. VOIP converts analog voice signals into digital data packets and supports real time, two-way transmission of conversations using internet Protocol (IP). VOIP calls can be made on the Internet using a VOIP service provider and standard computer audio systems. Alternatively, some service providers support VOIP through ordinary telephones that use special adapters, to connect to a home computer network.

EFT

Electronic funds transfer. (EFT) is the electronic exchange, transfer of money from one account to another, either within a single financial institution or across multiple institutions, through computer based systems. The growing popularity of EFT for online bill payment is paving the way for a ‘paperless universe y/here checks, stamps, envelopes, and. paper bills are obsolete. The benefits of EFT include reduced administrative costs, increased efficiency, simplified bookkeeping, and greater security. However, the number of companies who send and receive bills through the Internet is still relatively, small

Summarize eight benefits that could accrue to an entrepreneur from a well-designed customer oriented website

 

  • Reaching a wider Audience

The first and perhaps most obvious advantage of a business website is the potential for reaching a wider audience-. The internet is used by literally millions of people

Building a website for your business will mean you could potentially reach these otherwise unreachable customers..Your business might be local, but you might have the potential to sell your products or services to a wider market, whether it is people in the next town, the nation as a whole or even the international market. Data shows that internet shopping is still on the rise, so taking your business online will potentially allow you to take advantage of the growth and expand your business. Even if you have no intention of using a business website to sell, you still might want to let customers know about your business. People commonly research businesses online before actually visiting the business location. So having a well-designed website will help encourage them to come and visit you or be able to find your business in the first place.

  • Anyone, Anywhere & Anytime

An advantage of having a website is your business information and details about your products and services can be accessed by anyone, no matter where they are on the planet or what time of day it is. The internet is online 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. So even if your business isn’t open your website will be.

If you have a contact form or another way for people to be able to contact you even if it is as simple as your e-mail address on your website, then people can potentially get in contact with you, whether you’re in front of a computer or not

In the modern age, people are using their mobile phones more and more to browse the internet, find out about businesses and even buy products and services. So even if your website is just a short description of your business it might help customers find your location while they are on the move. This is especially important for restaurants, pubs and other eateries, but is also a relevant consideration for most other businesses.

  • Easy Access to Business Information

With a website, customers can easily access information about your business. They can see what products or services you sell, your prices, your location and much more. Whatever you decide to tell them, they can find it with a few clicks of a mouse

  • Keeping It Fresh

Once a website is designed, you can keep it up-to-date to be relevant to your business and encourage more visitors (and potential sales). More and more people are using a blog to promote their business. In fact, research shows that businesses that “blog get more traffic onto their website. So using a blog to keep content fresh and attract attention could mean a big difference to your business.

  • Publicity & Advertising

You may think of the advantages of a website in terms of advertising and publicity for your business. The costs of having a business website are actually quite low. The ongoing costs are minimal, but the potential return on investment could be quite significant. Think of the business website in terms of advertising for your business and you’ll be more likely to see die value.

  • Links From others & Viral Marketing

With a website and the current use of social media and marketing, it is quite possible for a good idea, clever product or business service to go “viral”. Word spreads like wildfire across the internet and even the smallest business can get worldwide recognition without any effort on their own part. Viral marketing is a boom in recent years.

If your business is good, people will link to it, people will talk about it and they will share their thoughts. Recognition of your business and. your brand will grow.

 

Securing your brand online

Having a website for your business is not just an advantage; it’s an essential way to protect your business brand online. There is a risk that if you don’t have a business website and secure a domain name relevant to your business then someone else will do it for you. The act of cyber squatting is now less prevalent since the introduction new laws to combat it, but there is still a. risk of someone innocently taking your preferred domain name. Others with a gripe against your business might use a website or social media accounts to damage your business reputation. Getting there first will allow you to protect and secure your business brand online.

 

  • Offer convenience

It is far more convenient for a person to research a product on the Internet than it is to get in a car drive somewhere and look for pr ask someone for information on a product. Also a potential customer won’t have to judge a call centre agent to determine whether he/she has: their best interests in mind, or just wants to make a sale. The potential customer can visit your website whenever they like in their own privacy and comfort, without the stresses and distractions that exist in the real world

  • Improve credibility

A website gives you the opportunity to tell potential customers what you are about and why you deserve trust and confidence. In fact, many people use the internet for pre-purchase research so that they can determine for themselves whether a particular supplier or brand’ is worthy of their patronage, and won’t take them for a ride.

  • Diversify Revenue Streams

A website is not just a medium for representation of your company, it is a form of media from which everybody can acquire information. You can use this media to sell advertising space to other businesses. A recent trend has risen where businesses feature their very own directory of complimentary services, where the visitor can search for information on a business that will enhance the use of your service. The business sells complimentary businesses a listing in their directory. A good example is a catering company featuring a directory with businesses such as event co-coordination, electronic equipment rental companies, etc

QUSTION FOUR

Examine five guideline for conducting an effective online research.

  • Know where and how to search efficiently to find the best information for your purposes
  • Make good decisions regarding the quality and appropriateness of your-information sources, including assessing whether a resource, is trustworthy and up-to-date
  • Know who has rights to the work you use
  • Know how to properly give others credit for their ideas
  • Know the extent to which you can ethically remix or synthesize ideas and information in your own work

QUSTION FIVE

 Examine the term “Bluetooth technology”

Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data.over short distances (using short-wave length radio transmissions; in the ISM band from 2400-2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecoms vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.

outline eight possible application of Bluetooth technology in an enterprise

  1. A Bluetooth-mouse could be used at a further distance from a monitor, and while moving about in the room.       ‘
  2. A Bluetooth-keyboard could be used further away from the monitor. This would reduce eye strain for persons who are long-sighted. Increasing the distances would also reduce exposure to electromagnetic radiation from the monitor.          .
  3. A Bluetooth-keyboard could also be used to address more than:one.computer, in a dynamic, switchless manner.
  4. Use e-mail while your portable PC is still in the briefcase! When your portable PC receives an e-mail, you’ll get an alert on your mobile phone. You can also browse all incoming e-mails and read-those you select in the mobile phone’s display
  5. A travelling businessman could ask his laptop computer to locate a suitable printer as soon as he enters a hotel lobby, and send a printout to that printer when it has been found, and replied in a positive manner;
  6. Cable-less connection to printers and faxes.
  7. Cable-less connection to digital cameras “and video projectors
  8. Cordless connection-from cell phone to hands free headset
  9. Bluetooth interface to office PBX
  10. Dial-up networking and automatic e:mail
  11. Use cell phone as office cordless phone.
  12. Use of PC or PDA as hands free phone.
  13. Automatic exchange of files, electronic business cards, calendars etc.

 

 



QUSTION SIX

 Explain the term “videoconferencing”

Conducting a conference between two or more participants at different sites, by using computer networks to transmit audio and video data for example, a point-to-point (two-person) video conferencing system works much like a video telephone. Each participant has a video camera, microphone, and speakers mounted on his or her computer. As the two participants speak to one another, their voices are carried over the network and delivered to the other speakers, and whatever images appear in front of the video camera appear in a window on the other participants monitor.

Identify three circumstances when the use of videoconferencing would be the most suitable mode of communication

  • where parties to communicate are t different locations distance
  • where there is need to hold regular meetings
  • where non-verbal communication is critical

QUSTION SEVEN

identify five key benefits that could be derived from the use of personal digital assistant (PDA) by an entrepreneur

  • They are portable as they are small and smart hand-held devices.
  • They combine multiple features where they allow one to export and import data, store various information and make to do lists.
  • One can use it as an address book and calendar simultaneously.
  • They are also convenient and easy-to-use time management tools.
  • One can also store various information in password protected databases
  • They also have an advanced RTF editor toe the notes.
  • One can also compose prioritized to do lists.

QUSTION EIGHT

Discuss six factors that an entrepreneur should put into consideration prior to commencing trading on the internet.

  • The capital requirements for such a venture, the entrepreneur should evaluate the amount of capital required and the availability of such funds.
  • The knowledge and skills required to trade online, the entrepreneur should consider whether he posses the relevant skills required to operate the computers online and trade.
  • Security of information disclosed online, the entrepreneur should consider whether he has in place adequate security to protect his business from hackers, malwares and viruses.
  • Accessibility to internet and the convenience of its access by the entrepreneurs and their clients
  • The type of products to be sold and the nature of the business, the entrepreneur should take into consideration the type of product and their nature.

Highlight eight benefits of an organizational manual to an entrepreneur

  • It is detailed and gives all the necessary information to get the job done in the quickest way possible. If persons, agencies or companies outside your company have to be contacted to complete a job, the procedures manual should give specific names, departments, addresses and phone numbers as well as a brief description of what each does, how long it will take, what you need from them and what they need from you.
  • Another important part of the manual is making sure that it is up to date. Outdated information will only confuse someone and will not get the job done. All employees should be instructed to check the procedures manual they have prepared at least once a month to see if phone numbers, names or directions need updating. Both the employee and manager should have copies that are accessible to others.
  • A manual helps to train newly recruited employees to the enterprise.
  • A manual also allows a manager to see what people are doing and estimate how long certain duties take. What is vaguely written in a job description as “handle board room reservations” could take from five minutes to hours depending on what is involved.
  • Hiring decisions – Managers can, therefore, make decisions about consolidating certain jobs when there is an obvious lack of work in some jobs and too much in others, can make hiring decisions as to whether or not extra staffing is required or whether people can be let go.
  • Another advantage of the manual is that a manager can see whether or not an employee is suited to a certain position. If the employee seems to go about tasks in the most complicated, difficult manner, obviously retraining is necessary or the employee should not be in the job. A manager should be able to see, by the step outlined in the manual, whether the job is being done as efficiently as possible.
  • A manual can help avoid confusion when someone has to step in and do a task that is not normally part of his or her job. This enables the office to run much more smoothly and gives managers a “feel” for what is going on in their departments. . ,
  • it also enables the manager to feel more confident about being in charge because he or she knows precisely what is going on in the department. Most employees will welcome the manual when they are called upon to fill in or help out because they will at least have some idea of what is to be done and how to do it.

 

QUSTION NINE

Distinguish between fax and email

Fax refers to a system of transmitting exact copies of documents quickly and accurately over telephone lines to another fax terminal.

Email is the term used to describe a range of electronic transmission service but is commonly applied to a company’s mailbox system operated via its own computer or to one of the services provided by internet service providers.

Highlight five benefits of using telex services

  • Speed
  • Reliability of written communication.
  • 24-hour service.
  • Ability to receive messages outside office hours.
  • Foreign languages can be translated at leisure before replying.
  • Most businesses are telex subscribers, hence convenient to use.

QUSTION TEN

Outline eight benefits of blogging to business communication

Search Engine Marketing

Spidering search engines like Google love websites that are regularly updated with fresh, well written, keyword -rich content. People will he able to find your website more easily (because Google will list more pages), Google will re-index your site more frequently (meaning new pages you put online will appear in the search results more quickly) and it will also give your rankings a boost

  • Direct Communications

Over time will you will build up a readership of people who have subscribed to receive updates to your blog, because they are interested in what you have to say. Every time you publish a new article it gets pushed out to all your readers giving you the ability to communicate directly with your target- audience.

  • Brand Building

A blog is a great way to get your brand in front of thousands of people who otherwise would never know you existed.

  • Competitive Differentiation

Makes your potential customers know the difference between you and your competitors. You will tell them on your blog! Show them how you work, what sets you apart and how your solution to their challenges is unique.

  • Relational Marketing

Successful selling is all about building relationships. By posting honest, transparent, heart-felt articles on your blog you will instill trust and respect in your potential customers. The best blogs are a 2-way communication where your readers can comment on your articles. This interaction gets them more involved and more engaged.

  • Social Media Marketing

Community sites such as Face book and MySpace, and social bookmarking sites like delicious, Stumble upon and dig can produce astounding results. If you are lucky enough to have one of your blog articles go ‘viral’ on one of these sites you should brace yourself for a surge of new website visitors and possibly some high quality inbound links.

  • Media & Public Relations

The chances are that if you are running a blog but your competitors are not, most customers and media will contact you, not them,

  • Position yourself as an Expert

This attracts attention of readers.

  • Reputation Management

Blog helps to counter any negative press about your company or business.

  • Low Cost

Setting up a blog doesn’t cost very much and maintaining one costs practically nothing

                                                                                      

QUSTION ELEVEN

Write explanatory notes on the following:

Fax –



refers to a system of transmitting exact copies of documents quickly and accurately over tele phone Jines to another fax terminal. The documents are transmitted through the facsimile transmission which converts digital signals to analogue for telephone transmission and back to digital via in-built fax modems.

Telex –

is a machine which resembles a typewriter with a telephone dial. It is capable of reproducing messages transmitted from a distant teleprinter over telephone lines, thus combining the speed of a telephone with the authority of the written word. The printed copy of the messages is produced on telex at both the sending and receiving subscribers’ installations. Calls may be made to any telex subscriber within the country or abroad.

Electronic mail – 

is the term used to describe a range of electronic transmission services but is commonly applied either to a company’s mailbox system operated via its own computer or to one of the services providers.

Teleconferencing

is a telephone or video meeting between participants in two or more locations. Teleconferences are similar to telephone calls, but they can expand discussion to more than two people. Using teleconferencing in a planning process, members of a group can all participate in a conference with agency staff people. Teleconferencing uses communications network technology to connect participants’ voices. In many cases, speaker telephones are used for conference calls among the participants. A two-way radio system can also be used. In some remote areas, satellite enhancement of connections is desirable.

Explain the benefits of using M-pesa to transact business

  • It’s safer mode of transactions there is reduced risk of theft or loss
  • Convenient mode of handling money as it is less bulk,
  • easier to send money remotely,
  • lower transport costs
  • enables the user to pay bills from the phone
  • enhanced privacy when handling the money

 

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