THURSDAY: 2 September 2021. Time Allowed: 3 hours.
Answer ALL questions. Marks allocated to each question are shown at the end of the question. Show ALL your workings.
1. Explain four characteristics of alternative investments that differentiate them from traditional investments.(4 marks)
2. Evaluate four types of taxation that could be levied on alternative investments products. (4 marks)
3. Differentiate between the following types of stripped mortgage backed securities (MBS):
Principal only (PO) strips. (2 marks)
Interest only (JO) strips. (2 marks)
4. An analyst has gathered the following data to value a real estate investment trust (REIT):
REIT valuation projections and assumptions
Appropriate discount rate 8.5%
Expected dividend per share (DPS), 1 year from today Sh.1.00
Expected dividend per share (DPS), 2 years from today Sh.1.06
Long term growth rate in dividends, starting in year 3 5.0%
The intrinsic value of the REIT on a per share basis using the two step dividend discount model. (4 marks)
5. Bermuda Life Insurance Company (BLIC) is an active lender on commercial real estate property and has provided you with the following information relating to property A:
- The loan term is 5 years.
- Interest rate of 5.75% interest only.
- Maximum loan to value (LTV) of 75% and minimum debt service coverage ratio of 1.5 times.
- The net operating income is as provided below:
Year 1 2 3
Net operating income (Sh.) 2,775,840 2,859,119 2,994,889
- The appraised value of the property is Sh.48 million.
The maximum loan amount on the property. (4 marks)
(Total: 20 marks)
1. Explain two uses of Monte Carlo Simulation Model in valuation of mortgage backed securities (MBS). (4 marks)
2. Alfred Ngugi is evaluating an agency collateralised mortgage obligation (CMO) structure using the Monte Carlo Simulation Model based on a 10% volatility assumption:
Tranche Z-spread Option adjusted spread (OAS)
A 200 170
B 185 150
C 250 140
Determine the option cost (in basis point) for each tranche. (2 marks)
Determine which tranche appears to be most attractive. (2 marks)
3. Examine four advantages of investing in a real estate operating company (REOC). (4 marks)
4. Fahari Real Estate Investment and Business Advisors does valuation on behalf of clients buying and selling real
estate. The firm has been provided with the following data regarding Boma apartment complex as well as recent sales in the area:
Boma apartment complex Sh.”000″
Gross potential rental income 300,000
Estimated vacancy and collection losses 6%
Repair and maintenance 30,000
Interest on proposed financing 27,500
Additional information on buildings recently sold:
Office buildings Apartments
Net operating income 750,000 150,000
Sales price 5,000,000 1,250,000
All incomes are on annual basis.
Determine the value of Boma apartment complex. (5 marks)
Describe three challenges of using comparable companies to value private targets. (3 marks)
(Total: 20 marks)
1. Discuss three reasons for creating collateralised debt obligations (CDOs). (6 marks)
2. In relation to commodities investment:
Differentiate between “basis” and “calendar spread”. (2 marks)
Outline three roles of commodity indexes. (3 marks)
The November price of an agricultural commodity is Sh.2.50 per kilogram, the effective interest rate is 1% and the storage cost per kilogram are Sh.0.05 per month. The commodity is stored from November to February.
Compute the February arbitrage free price. (3 marks)
3. Fund A with an initial investment of Sh.20 million liquidates with Sh.24 million cash after one year. The hurdle rate is 15% and the incentive fee is 20%.
Determine the distribution to fund manager assuming:
The fund uses a hard hurdle. (3 marks)
The fund has a soft hurdle and a 50% catch up rate. (3 marks)
(Total: 20 marks)
1. Summarise five unique risks of investing in hedge funds. (5 marks)
2. Christopher Wamalwa, an investor in real estate in Kwetu County is considering taking a residential mortgage facility offered by Nyumba Housing Finance to construct a rental apartment.
- The mortgage company advanced him Sh.6 million repayable within 30 years.
- The interest rate is 12% per annum payable on a monthly basis.
- Payment consist of both interest and principal.
Construct a constant payment mortgage (CPM) schedule for the first six months. (7 marks)
Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of using constant mortgage amortisation (CMA) approach in analysing mortgage payments. (2 marks)
3. Alex Mutiso owns a mall using mortgage financing, spread over ten years period.
- The beginning mortgage balance in month 33 is Sh.297,825.
- Prepayment in month 33 is Sh.1,841,347.
- Outstanding loan amount is Sh.358,326,766.
Single monthly mortality rate (SMM). (2 marks)
Conditional prepayment rate (CPR). (2 marks)
Interpret your answers in (i) and (c) above. (2 marks)
(Total: 20 marks)
1. Explain the following terms in the context of private equity:
Carried interest. (1 mark)
Claw-back provision. (1 mark)
Vintage year. (1 mark)
J — curve effect. (1 mark)
2. Suggest two reasons why leveraged buyout funds (LBO) are less risky compared to venture capital funds.(4 marks)
3. Hekima fund has a 2 and 20 fee arrangement with no hurdle rate and a net asset value (NAV) of Sh.500 million. The NAV increased to Sh.625 million at the end of year before fees. Management fees are distributed annually based on the start of the year NAV.
Annual management fee. (1 mark)
Incentive fee. (1 mark)
Total annual fee. (1 mark)
Ending NAV after fees. (1 mark)
Percentage return net of fees. (1 mark)
4. You have recently landed a job as the Chief Investment Officer (CIO) at Delta Limited. One of your client is considering investing in real estate and you are now evaluating three potential real estate investment options as follows:
Direct investment in a hotel building:
Expected net operating income (years 1 — 7) Sh.7 million
Expected net operating income (year 8) Sh.8.5 million
Required return on equity investment 12%
Net operating income growth rate after 8 years 3.5%
II Real estate investment trust (REIT)
Recent net operating income Sh.140 million
Non cash rents Sh.10 million
Full year adjustments for acquisition Sh.10 million
Other assets Sh.40 million
Total liabilities Sh.250 million
Current market price per share (MPS) Sh.130
Outstanding ordinary shares 12 million
Going in capitalisation rate 8%
Net operating income growth rate 2.4%
III Real estate operating company (REOC)
Expected adjusted funds from operation (AFFO) in year 8 Sh.14.5 million
Holding period 7 years
Present value of all dividends for 7 years Sh.42 million
Outstanding ordinary shares 2 million
Capitalisation rate 8%
Growth rate from year 8 2.4%
- The hotel building under consideration has existing tenant with long-term lease that will expire in seven years.
- The real estate operating company (REOC) terminal value at the end of the seven years is to be based on a price to adjusted funds from operations (AFFO) multiple of 12 times (12x).
The estimated value of the hotel building using the discounted cash flow approach. (3 marks)
Determine whether the real estate investment trust (REIT) is fairly priced using the net asset value (NAV) approach. (3 marks)
The estimated value per share of the real estate operating company (REOC). (1 mark)
(Total: 20 marks)