Various ways in which a lease agreement may be determined in relation to the law of property

  1. Notice – applies to leases for undefined duration.
  2. Effluxion of time or expiration of time.
  3. Forfeiture –under the forfeiture clause or breach.
  4. Surrender –to the immediate landlord.
  5. Merger –tenant acquires the reversion, the lease and reversion must be vested in the same person.
  6. Enlargement – a lease may enlarge to a fee simple if the tenant executes a deed of enlargement.
  7. Becoming a satisfied term: if a lease is granted as a security for the payment of money, the term becomes satisfied and the lease automatically ceases when all the money has been paid.
  8. Disclaimer: a right to disclaim a lease arises only by statute. The effect of a valid disclaimer is the same as if there had been a surrender.
  9. Frustration: in National Carriers Ltd. V. Panalpina Ltd (1981)the House of Lords held that the doctrine of frustration can apply in a rare case to a lease of land so as to bring the lease to an end.
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