1. (a)
Pure research Applied research
Studies any problem. Studies problems with important social consequences
Aims at contributing to theory and techniques of the discipline Aims at solving problems.
Requires mainly technicaljudgments. Requires a sense of what the situation and personalities can bear.
Concludes in generalization Studies individual cases without the objective to generalize
Reports in technical language of the discipline Reports in common language.

 Should express the relationship between two or more variables.
 Possibilities for empirical verification and testing.
 The problem should be related and unambiguously in the form of questions.
 The research problem should neither too narrow nor vague.
 Should add knowledge to improve current practices.

 Non-availability of sufficient data.
 Availability of resources
 Knowledge and skill of the researcher
 Availability of time
 External and uncontrollable factors
 Suggesting theories.
 Testing theories
 Describing social phenomena

 less expensive than census
 Less time consuming
 Creates suitability in most situations
 Reliable.
 It is scientific in nature.
2( a)
 Defining the population or universe to be surveyed
 Specifying the sampling frame
 Specifying sampling unit
 Specifying the sampling methods
 Determining the sample size
 Specifying the sampling plan
 Selection of the sample.
 empirical problems
 Analytical problems
 Normative problems.
 introduction
 Statement of the problem
 Review of the previous studies
 Scope of the study
 Objectives of the study
 Hypothesis of the study
 Chapter arrangement
 Finding , suggestions and conclusions


 Religion and customs
 Personal experience and individual reaction
 Exception of an accepted theory
 Folk wisdom or current popular beliefs and practices.
 Analogies.

 saves the researchers time and energy
 Ensures a proper time schedule
 Builds confidence and hope in the mind of the researcher,
5 (a)
 interviews
 Questionnaire
 schedule
 Diaries.

 Data collection.
 Data editing
 Checking reliability and validity
 Data analysis



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