 To find out the hidden truth of a particular truth in regard to a particular problem.
 To highlight the significance of the phenomenon under study
 To test the hypothesis of casual relationship between variables.
 To focus on the characteristics of a particular group, individual or situation.
 To write a report based on the findings of the research.
 Saves the researcher’ time and energy.
 Helps in preparing and executing the various research activities.
 For better documentation of the research activities.
 Ensures a proper time schedule.
 Builds confidence in the minds of the researcher for proper completion of work.
 Search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding a proper and feasible solution to a problem.
 A statement capable of being tested and thereby accepted or rejected.
 The process of drawing a sample from a larger population or universe.
 Representative of the whole data
 Independently included of one another
 Adequate for deriving conclusion
 Homogeneous with other units

Null hypothesis Alternative hypothesis
Stated negatively Stated positively
Should always be specific Should always be an alternative of the null hypothesis
The researcher wishes to disapprove it The researcher wishes to approve it.
Symbolized as H0 Symbolized as Ha


 Stratified random sampling
 Systematic sampling
 Cluster and Area sampling
 Multi-stage sampling
 Sequential sampling.
 Should be capable of being tested.
 Should be specific and limited in scope.
 Should be consistent with most known facts.
 Should be clear and precise
 Should state relationship between variables
 Applied research
 Analytical research
 Descriptive research
 Exploratory research
 Experimental research
 Fundamental research
 Historical research
 internet
 Books
 Journal

 theoretical review
 theoretical framework
 empirical review
 Conceptual framework.
 Summary of variables.

b) (i) the procedure to determine quantitative measure of abstracts concepts
like leadership style, brand image, attitude, e.t.c.
(ii) Qualitative analysis refers to the analysis of the non-numerical variables used in the study.
(iii)Quantitative analysis is the analysis of the numerical variables in a particular study.




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