Summary is also referred to as precise or abstract. It means a prose passage or composition from which all unnecessary and unrelated ideas and words have been removed.
Word precise is a French term that means exact or just. A precise is written in precise writer own words and about 1/3 of original passage.
Abstract: Its summary constructed by extracting the key sentences or a paragraph and putting them together coherently.
A precise/summary is in form of paragraphs a summary on the other hand can be in form of paragraph or inform of notes.

Objectives of Precise/Summary
Objectives of summary is To put down in short form a message which can be understood by very busy officers who do not have time to read original passage.

Qualities of good summary

  • Should be concise
    I.e. a summary should be as long or short to serve the purpose.
  • Clarity
    – It has to be clear.
  • Coherent
    I.e. it should hold together. You can use the following words to join sentences or paragraphs consequently. Moreover, however, naturally, next, thus, nevertheless, finally etc. You can also use phrases to join paragraphs or sentences e.g. equally important, in this way, on contrary, first of all, on the other hand, of course, for instance etc.

How to make summary
1. Read the passage thoroughly. Try to get general idea of passage
2. Read the passage again until you have grasped the entire meaning
3. Underline/highlight all important ideas.
4. Write down a title which sums up the theme of the passage
5. Rewrite in fewer words what the author has said, use your own language as far as possible.
6. Re-read the passage, compare you point with passage to ensure no important points have been overlooked and nothing insignificant has been included.
7. Using your points write down sum and substance of the passage in well connected and readable paragraphs. This is your rough draft.
8. Count the words in your rough draft. Make alterations if necessary to give your summary the required length.
9. Review and rephrase you rough draft where desirable.
10. Reconsider the appropriateness of your heading/title.

Title Heading
The heading can be written before the summary is made. The heading should express in few words the theme of passage. The topic should be written one line or less. More than one line may appear confusing. A summary can have many suitable headings but you should choose the best that gives the central theme or the passage.

Rules of writing summary

  1. Determine the theme of passage very carefully.
  2. A summary is not reproduction of important sentences but it’s the act of remodeling.
  3. Brevity is good but not at the expense of clarity.
  4. Your summary ought to be intelligible even to persons who have not read the original passage.
  5. Use your own language.
  6. Summary is always written in 3rd Person.
  7. Use your own discretion if the passage contains statistical information.
  8. The summary should be well proportioned.
  9. You are not to give any comments appreciative or critical on ideas expressed in the passage.
  10. Reproduce the passage to its 1/3rd.
(Visited 132 times, 1 visits today)
Share this:

Written by