SUMMARIES OF INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS NOTES

Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements

The IASB Framework was approved by the IASC Board in April 1989 for publication in July 1989, and adopted by the IASB in April 2001.

This Framework sets out the concepts that underlie the preparation and presentation of financial statements for external users.

The Framework deals with:

  • the objective of financial statements;
  • the qualitative characteristics that determine the usefulness of information in financial statements;
  • the definition, recognition and measurement of the elements from which financial statements are constructed; and
  • concepts of capital and capital maintenance.

 



The objective of financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of an entity that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions. Financial statements prepared for this purpose meet the common needs of most users. However, financial statements do not provide all the information that users may need to make economic decisions since they largely portray the financial effects of past events and do not necessarily provide non-financial information.

In order to meet their objectives, financial statements are prepared on the accrual basis of accounting.  The financial statements are normally prepared on the assumption that an entity is a going concern and will continue in operation for the foreseeable future.

Qualitative characteristics are the attributes that make the information provided in financial statements useful to users. The four principal qualitative characteristics are understandability, relevance, reliability and comparability. In practice a balancing, or trade-off, between qualitative characteristics is often necessary.

The elements directly related to the measurement of financial position are assets, liabilities and equity.

These are defined as follows:

  • An asset is a resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity.
  • A liability is a present obligation of the entity arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the entity of resources embodying economic benefits.
  • Equity is the residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities.

 

The elements of income and expenses are defined as follows:

  • Income is increases in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of inflows or enhancements of assets or decreases of liabilities that result in increases in equity, other than those relating to contributions from equity participants.
  • Expenses are decreases in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of outflows or depletions of assets or incurrences of liabilities that result in decreases in equity, other than those relating to distributions to equity participants.

An item that meets the definition of an element should be recognised if:

  • it is probable that any future economic benefit associated with the item will flow to or from the entity; and
  • the item has a cost or value that can be measured with reliability.

 

Measurement is the process of determining the monetary amounts at which the elements of the financial statements are to be recognised and carried in the balance sheet and income statement. This involves the selection of the particular basis of measurement.

The concept of capital maintenance is concerned with how an entity defines the capital that it seeks to maintain. It provides the linkage between the concepts of capital and the concepts of profit because it provides the point of reference by which profit is measured; it is a prerequisite for distinguishing between an entity’s return on capital and its return of capital; only inflows of assets in excess of amounts needed to maintain capital may be regarded as profit and therefore as a return on capital. Hence, profit is the residual amount that remains after expenses (including capital maintenance adjustments, where appropriate) have been deducted from income. If expenses exceed income the residual amount is a loss.

The Board of IASC recognises that in a limited number of cases there may be a conflict between the Framework and an International Accounting Standard. In those cases where there is a conflict, the requirements of the International Accounting Standard prevail over those of the Framework. As, however, the Board of IASC will be guided by the Framework in the development of future Standards and in its review of existing Standards, the number of cases of conflict between the Framework and International Accounting Standards will diminish through time.

 



 

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS (IAS)

IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the basis for presentation of general purpose financial statements, to ensure comparability both with the entity’s financial statements of previous periods and with the financial statements of other entities. To achieve this objective, this Standard sets out overall requirements for the presentation of financial statements, guidelines for their structure and minimum requirements for their content.

A complete set of financial statements comprises:

 

  • a balance sheet;
  • an income statement;
  • a statement of changes in equity showing either:

 

  • all changes in equity, or
  • changes in equity other than those arising from transactions with equity holders acting in their capacity as equity holders;

 

  • a cash flow statement; and
  • notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes.

 

The financial statements shall be identified clearly and distinguished from other information in the same published document.

Financial statements shall be presented at least annually.

Financial statements shall present fairly the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an entity. In virtually all circumstances, a fair presentation is achieved by compliance with applicable IFRSs.

An entity whose financial statements comply with IFRSs shall make an explicit and unreserved statement of such compliance in the notes. Financial statements shall not be described as complying with IFRSs unless they comply with all the requirements of IFRSs.

When preparing financial statements, management shall make an assessment of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. Financial statements shall be prepared on a going concern basis unless management either intends to liquidate the entity or to cease trading, or has no realistic alternative but to do so. When management is aware, in making its assessment, of material uncertainties related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt upon the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern, those uncertainties shall be disclosed.

The presentation and classification of items in the financial statements shall be retained from one period to the next.

Except when a Standard or an Interpretation permits or requires otherwise, comparative information shall be disclosed in respect of the previous period for all amounts reported in the financial statements. Comparative information shall be included for narrative and descriptive information when it is relevant to an understanding of the current period’s financial statements.

Each material class of similar items shall be presented separately in the financial statements. Items of a dissimilar nature or function shall be presented separately unless they are immaterial.

Omissions or misstatements of items are material if they could, individually or collectively, influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances. The size or nature of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor. If a line item is not individually material, it is aggregated with other items either on the face of those statements or in the notes. An item that is not sufficiently material to warrant separate presentation on the face of those statements may nevertheless be sufficiently material for it to be presented separately in the notes.  Assets and liabilities, and income and expenses, shall not be offset unless required or permitted by a Standard or an Interpretation.

An entity shall present current and non-current assets, and current and non-current liabilities, as separate classifications on the face of its balance sheet except when a presentation based on liquidity provides information that is reliable and is more relevant.

All items of income and expense recognised in a period shall be included in profit or loss unless a Standard or an Interpretation requires otherwise.

An entity shall present an analysis of expenses using a classification based on either the nature of expenses or their function within the entity, whichever provides information that is reliable and more relevant.

An entity shall disclose, in the summary of significant accounting policies or other notes, the judgements, apart from those involving estimations, that management has made in the process of applying the entity’s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements.

An entity shall disclose in the notes information about the key assumptions concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the balance sheet date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year.

An entity shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the entity’s objectives, policies and processes for managing capital.



 

IAS 2 Inventories

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for inventories. A primary issue in accounting for inventories is the amount of cost to be recognised as an asset and carried forward until the related revenues are recognised. This Standard provides guidance on the determination of cost and its subsequent recognition as an expense, including any write-down to net realisable value. It also provides guidance on the cost formulas that are used to assign costs to inventories.

Inventories shall be measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

The cost of inventories shall comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

The cost of inventories shall be assigned by using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) or weighted average cost formula. An entity shall use the same cost formula for all inventories having a similar nature and use to the entity. For inventories with a different nature or use, different cost formulas may be justified. However, the cost of inventories of items that are not ordinarily interchangeable and goods or services produced and segregated for specific projects shall be assigned by using specific identification of their individual costs.

When inventories are sold, the carrying amount of those inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which the related revenue is recognised. The amount of any write-down of inventories to net realisable value and all losses of inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period the write-down or loss occurs. The amount of any reversal of any write-down of inventories, arising from an increase in net realisable value, shall be recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in which the reversal occurs.

 

 

IAS 7 Cash Flow Statements

The objective of this Standard is to require the provision of information about the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an entity by means of a cash flow statement which classifies cash flows during the period from operating, investing and financing activities.

Cash flows are inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents. Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits. Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

Information about the cash flows of an entity is useful in providing users of financial statements with a basis to assess the ability of the entity to generate cash and cash equivalents and the needs of the entity to utilise those cash flows. The economic decisions that are taken by users require an evaluation of the ability of an entity to generate cash and cash equivalents and the timing and certainty of their generation.

The cash flow statement shall report cash flows during the period classified by operating, investing and financing activities.

 

Operating activities

Operating activities are the principal revenue-producing activities of the entity and other activities that are not investing or financing activities. Cash flows from operating activities are primarily derived from the principal revenue-producing activities of the entity. Therefore, they generally result from the transactions and other events that enter into the determination of profit or loss.

The amount of cash flows arising from operating activities is a key indicator of the extent to which the operations of the entity have generated sufficient cash flows to repay loans, maintain the operating capability of the entity, pay dividends and make new investments without recourse to external sources of financing.

An entity shall report cash flows from operating activities using either:

 

  • the direct method, whereby major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments are disclosed; or
  • the indirect method, whereby profit or loss is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a noncash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments, and items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows.

 

Investing activities

Investing activities are the acquisition and disposal of long-term assets and other investments not included in cash equivalents. The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from investing activities is important because the cash flows represent the extent to which expenditures have been made for resources intended to generate future income and cash flows.

The aggregate cash flows arising from acquisitions and from disposals of subsidiaries or other business units shall be presented separately and classified as investing activities.

 

 

 

Financing activities

Financing activities are activities that result in changes in the size and composition of the contributed equity and borrowings of the entity. The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from financing activities is important because it is useful in predicting claims on future cash flows by providers of capital to the entity.

An entity shall report separately major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments arising from investing and financing activities.

Investing and financing transactions that do not require the use of cash or cash equivalents shall be excluded from a cash flow statement. Such transactions shall be disclosed elsewhere in the financial statements in a way that provides all the relevant information about these investing and financing activities.

 

Foreign currency cash flows

Cash flows arising from transactions in a foreign currency shall be recorded in an entity’s functional currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the cash flow.

The cash flows of a foreign subsidiary shall be translated at the exchange rates between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the dates of the cash flows.

Unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in foreign currency exchange rates are not cash flows. However, the effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents held or due in a foreign currency is reported in the cash flow statement in order to reconcile cash and cash equivalents at the beginning and the end of the period.

 

Cash and cash equivalents

An entity shall disclose the components of cash and cash equivalents and shall present a reconciliation of the amounts in its cash flow statement with the equivalent items reported in the balance sheet.  An entity shall disclose, together with a commentary by management, the amount of significant cash and cash equivalent balances held by the entity that are not available for use by the group.

 

IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the criteria for selecting and changing accounting policies, together with the accounting treatment and disclosure of changes in accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and corrections of errors. The Standard is intended to enhance the relevance and reliability of an entity’s financial statements, and the comparability of those financial statements over time and with the financial statements of other entities.

Accounting policies

Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements. When a Standard or an Interpretation specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, the accounting policy or policies applied to that item shall be determined by applying the Standard or Interpretation and considering any relevant Implementation Guidance issued by the IASB for the Standard or Interpretation.

In the absence of a Standard or an Interpretation that specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, management shall use its judgement in developing and applying an accounting policy that results in information that is relevant and reliable. In making the judgement management shall refer to, and consider the applicability of, the following sources in descending order:

 

  • the requirements and guidance in Standards and Interpretations dealing with similar and related issues; and
  • the definitions, recognition criteria and measurement concepts for assets, liabilities, income and expenses in the Framework.

 

An entity shall select and apply its accounting policies consistently for similar transactions, other events and conditions, unless a Standard or an Interpretation specifically requires or permits categorisation of items for which different policies may be appropriate. If a Standard or an Interpretation requires or permits such categorisation, an appropriate accounting policy shall be selected and applied consistently to each category.

An entity shall change an accounting policy only if the change:



 

  • is required by a Standard or an Interpretation; or
  • results in the financial statements providing reliable and more relevant information about the effects of transactions, other events or conditions on the entity’s financial position, financial performance or cash flows.

 

An entity shall account for a change in accounting policy resulting from the initial application of a Standard or an Interpretation in accordance with the specific

transitional provisions, if any, in that Standard or Interpretation. When an entity changes an accounting policy upon initial application of a Standard or an Interpretation that does not include specific transitional provisions applying to that change, or changes an accounting policy voluntarily, it shall apply the change retrospectively. However, a change in accounting policy shall be applied retrospectively except to the extent that it is impracticable to determine either the period-specific effects or the cumulative effect of the change.

Change in accounting estimate

The use of reasonable estimates is an essential part of the preparation of financial statements and does not undermine their reliability. A change in accounting estimate is an adjustment of the carrying amount of an asset or a liability, or the amount of the periodic consumption of an asset, that results from the assessment of the present status of, and expected future benefits and obligations associated with, assets and liabilities. Changes in accounting estimates result from new information or new developments and, accordingly, are not corrections of errors. The effect of a change in an accounting estimate, shall be recognised prospectively by including it in profit or loss in:

 

(a) the period of the change, if the change affects that period only; or  (b)  the period of the change and future periods, if the change affects both.

 

Prior period errors

Prior period errors are omissions from, and misstatements in, the entity’s financial statements for one or more prior periods arising from a failure to use, or misuse of, reliable information that:

 

  • was available when financial statements for those periods were authorised for issue; and
  • could reasonably be expected to have been obtained and taken into account in the preparation and presentation of those financial statements.

 

Such errors include the effects of mathematical mistakes, mistakes in applying accounting policies, oversights or misinterpretations of facts, and fraud.

Except to the extent that it is impracticable to determine either the period-specific effects or the cumulative effect of the error, an entity shall correct material prior period errors retrospectively in the first set of financial statements authorised for issue after their discovery by:

 

  • restating the comparative amounts for the prior period(s) presented in which the error occurred; or
  • if the error occurred before the earliest prior period presented, restating the opening balances of assets, liabilities and equity for the earliest prior period presented.

 

Omissions or misstatements of items are material if they could, individually or collectively, influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements.

 

IAS 10 Events after the Balance Sheet Date

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe:

 

  • when an entity should adjust its financial statements for events after the balance sheet date; and
  • the disclosures that an entity should give about the date when the financial statements were authorised for issue and about events after the balance sheet date.

 



The Standard also requires that an entity should not prepare its financial statements on a going concern basis if events after the balance sheet date indicate that the going concern assumption is not appropriate.

Events after the balance sheet date are those events, favourable and unfavourable, that occur between the balance sheet date and the date when the financial statements are authorised for issue. Two types of events can be identified:

 

  • those that provide evidence of conditions that existed at the balance sheet date (adjusting events after the balance sheet date); and
  • those that are indicative of conditions that arose after the balance sheet date (non-adjusting events after the balance sheet date).

An entity shall adjust the amounts recognised in its financial statements to reflect adjusting events after the balance sheet date.

An entity shall not adjust the amounts recognised in its financial statements to reflect non-adjusting events after the balance sheet date. If non-adjusting events after the balance sheet date are material, non-disclosure could influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements. Accordingly, an entity shall disclose the following for each material category of nonadjusting event after the balance sheet date:

 

  • the nature of the event; and
  • an estimate of its financial effect, or a statement that such an estimate cannot be made.

 

If an entity receives information after the balance sheet date about conditions that existed at the balance sheet date, it shall update disclosures that relate to those conditions, in the light of the new information.

 

IAS 11 Construction Contracts

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment of revenue and costs associated with construction contracts. Because of the nature of the activity undertaken in construction contracts, the date at which the contract activity is entered into and the date when the activity is completed usually fall into different accounting periods. Therefore, the primary issue in accounting for construction contracts is the allocation of contract revenue and contract costs to the accounting periods in which construction work is performed.

This Standard shall be applied in accounting for construction contracts in the financial statements of contractors.

A construction contract is a contract specifically negotiated for the construction of an asset or a combination of assets that are closely interrelated or interdependent in terms of their design, technology and function or their ultimate purpose or use.

The requirements of this Standard are usually applied separately to each construction contract. However, in certain circumstances, it is necessary to apply the Standard to the separately identifiable components of a single contract or to a group of contracts together in order to reflect the substance of a contract or a group of contracts.  Contract revenue shall comprise:

  • the initial amount of revenue agreed in the contract; and
  • variations in contract work, claims and incentive payments:

 

  • to the extent that it is probable that they will result in revenue; and
  • they are capable of being reliably measured

 

Contract revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable.  Contract costs shall comprise:

 

  • costs that relate directly to the specific contract;

 

  • costs that are attributable to contract activity in general and can be allocated to the contract; and

 

  • such other costs as are specifically chargeable to the customer under the terms of the contract.

 

When the outcome of a construction contract can be estimated reliably, contract revenue and contract costs associated with the construction contract shall be recognised as revenue and expenses respectively by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the balance sheet date.

When the outcome of a construction contract cannot be estimated reliably:

  • revenue shall be recognised only to the extent of contract costs incurred that it is probable will be recoverable; and

 

  • contract costs shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

 

When it is probable that total contract costs will exceed total contract revenue, the expected loss shall be recognised as an expense immediately.



 

IAS 12 Income Taxes

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for income taxes. For the purposes of this Standard, income taxes include all domestic and foreign taxes which are based on taxable profits. Income taxes also include taxes, such as withholding taxes, which are payable by a subsidiary, associate or joint venture on distributions to the reporting entity.

The principal issue in accounting for income taxes is how to account for the current and future tax consequences of:

 

  • the future recovery (settlement) of the carrying amount of assets (liabilities) that are recognised in an entity’s balance sheet; and
  • transactions and other events of the current period that are recognised in an entity’s financial statements.

 

Recognition

Current tax for current and prior periods shall, to the extent unpaid, be recognised as a liability. If the amount already paid in respect of current and prior periods exceeds the amount due for those periods, the excess shall be recognised as an asset. Current tax liabilities (assets) for the current and prior periods shall be measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the taxation authorities, using the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

It is inherent in the recognition of an asset or liability that the reporting entity expects to recover or settle the carrying amount of that asset or liability. If it is probable that recovery or settlement of that carrying amount will make future tax payments larger (smaller) than they would be if such recovery or settlement were to have no tax consequences, this Standard requires an entity to recognise a deferred tax liability (deferred tax asset), with certain limited exceptions.

A deferred tax asset shall be recognised for the carryforward of unused tax losses and unused tax credits to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses and unused tax credits can be utilised.

 

Measurement

Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall be measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets shall reflect the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the entity expects, at the balance sheet date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.  Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall not be discounted.

The carrying amount of a deferred tax asset shall be reviewed at each balance sheet date. An entity shall reduce the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow the benefit of part or all of that deferred tax asset to be utilised. Any such reduction shall be reversed to the extent that it becomes probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available.

 

 

Allocation

This Standard requires an entity to account for the tax consequences of transactions and other events in the same way that it accounts for the transactions and other events themselves. Thus, for transactions and other events recognised in profit or loss, any related tax effects are also recognised in profit or loss. For transactions and other events recognised directly in equity, any related tax effects are also recognised directly in equity. Similarly, the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities in a business combination affects the amount of goodwill arising in that business combination or the amount of any excess of the acquirer’s interest in the net fair value of the acquiree’s identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost of the combination.

 

IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for property, plant and equipment so that users of the financial statements can discern information about an entity’s investment in its property, plant and equipment and the changes in such investment. The principal issues in accounting for property, plant and equipment are the recognition of the assets, the determination of their carrying amounts and the depreciation charges and impairment losses to be recognised in relation to them.

Property, plant and equipment are tangible items that:

 

  • are held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes; and

 

  • are expected to be used during more than one period.

 

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment shall be recognised as an asset if, and only if:

 

  • it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity; and

 

  • the cost of the item can be measured reliably.

 

Measurement at recognition: An item of property, plant and equipment that qualifies for recognition as an asset shall be measured at its cost. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment is the cash price equivalent at the recognition date. If payment is deferred beyond normal credit terms, the difference between the cash price equivalent and the total payment is recognised as interest over the period of credit unless such interest is recognised in the carrying amount of the item in accordance with the allowed alternative treatment in IAS 23.

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises:

 

  • its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates.

 

  • any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.

 

  • the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, the obligation for which an entity incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period.

 

Measurement after recognition: An entity shall choose either the cost model or the revaluation model as its accounting policy and shall apply that policy to an entire class of property, plant and equipment.  Cost model: After recognition as an asset, an item of property, plant and equipment shall be carried at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

Revaluation model: After recognition as an asset, an item of property, plant and equipment whose fair value can be measured reliably shall be carried at a revalued amount, being its fair value at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent accumulated depreciation and subsequent accumulated impairment losses. Revaluations shall be made with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from that which would be determined using fair value at the balance sheet date.  If an asset’s carrying amount is increased as a result of a revaluation, the increase shall be credited directly to equity under the heading of revaluation surplus. However, the increase shall be recognised in profit or loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation decrease of the same asset previously recognised in profit or loss. If an asset’s carrying amount is decreased as a result of a revaluation, the decrease shall be recognised in profit or loss. However, the decrease shall be debited directly to equity under the heading of revaluation surplus to the extent of any credit balance existing in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset.

Depreciation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life.

Depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. Each part of an item of property, plant and equipment with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item shall be depreciated separately. The depreciation charge for each period shall be recognised in profit or loss unless it is included in the carrying amount of another asset. The depreciation method used shall reflect the pattern in which the asset’s future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity.

The residual value of an asset is the estimated amount that an entity would currently obtain from disposal of the asset, after deducting the estimated costs of disposal, if the asset were already of the age and in the condition expected at the end of its useful life.

To determine whether an item of property, plant and equipment is impaired, an entity applies IAS 36 Impairment of Assets.

The carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment shall be derecognised:

 

  • on disposal; or

 

  • when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.

 

 

 

IAS 17 Leases

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe, for lessees and lessors, the appropriate accounting policies and disclosure to apply in relation to leases.

The classification of leases adopted in this Standard is based on the extent to which risks and rewards incidental to ownership of a leased asset lie with the lessor or the lessee.

A lease is classified as a finance lease if it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership. A lease is classified as an operating lease if it does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership.

 

Leases in the financial statements of lessees

 

Operating Leases

Lease payments under an operating lease shall be recognised as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern of the user’s benefit.

 

Finance Leases



At the commencement of the lease term, lessees shall recognise finance leases as assets and liabilities in their balance sheets at amounts equal to the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, the present value of the minimum lease payments, each determined at the inception of the lease. The discount rate to be used in calculating the present value of the minimum lease payments is the interest rate implicit in the lease, if this is practicable to determine; if not, the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate shall be used. Any initial direct costs of the lessee are added to the amount recognised as an asset.  Minimum lease payments shall be apportioned between the finance charge and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance charge shall be allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Contingent rents shall be charged as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.

A finance lease gives rise to depreciation expense for depreciable assets as well as finance expense for each accounting period. The depreciation policy for depreciable leased assets shall be consistent with that for depreciable assets that are owned, and the depreciation recognised shall be calculated in accordance with IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 38 Intangible Assets. If there is no reasonable certainty that the lessee will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset shall be fully depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and its useful life.

 

Leases in the financial statements of lessors

 

Operating Leases

Lessors shall present assets subject to operating leases in their balance sheets according to the nature of the asset. The depreciation policy for depreciable leased assets shall be consistent with the lessor’s normal depreciation policy for similar assets, and depreciation shall be calculated in accordance with IAS 16 and IAS 38. Lease income from operating leases shall be recognised in income on a straightline basis over the lease term, unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which use benefit derived from the leased asset is diminished

 

Finance Leases

Lessors shall recognise assets held under a finance lease in their balance sheets and present them as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. The recognition of finance income shall be based on a pattern reflecting a constant periodic rate of return on the lessor’s net investment in the finance lease.

Manufacturer or dealer lessors shall recognise selling profit or loss in the period, in accordance with the policy followed by the entity for outright sales. If artificially low rates of interest are quoted, selling profit shall be restricted to that which would apply if a market rate of interest were charged.

Costs incurred by manufacturer or dealer lessors in connection with negotiating and arranging a lease shall be recognised as an expense when the selling profit is recognised.

 

Sale and leaseback transactions

A sale and leaseback transaction involves the sale of an asset and the leasing back of the same asset. The lease payment and the sale price are usually interdependent because they are negotiated as a package. The accounting treatment of a sale and leaseback transaction depends upon the type of lease involved.

 



 

IAS 18 Revenue

The primary issue in accounting for revenue is determining when to recognise revenue. Revenue is recognised when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and these benefits can be measured reliably. This Standard identifies the circumstances in which these criteria will be met and, therefore, revenue will be recognised. It also provides practical guidance on the application of these criteria.

Revenue is the gross inflow of economic benefits during the period arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an entity when those inflows result in increases in equity, other than increases relating to contributions from equity participants.

This Standard shall be applied in accounting for revenue arising from the following transactions and events:

 

  • the sale of goods;

 

  • the rendering of services; and

 

  • the use by others of entity assets yielding interest, royalties and dividends.

 

The recognition criteria in this Standard are usually applied separately to each transaction. However, in certain circumstances, it is necessary to apply the recognition criteria to the separately identifiable components of a single transaction in order to reflect the substance of the transaction. For example, when the selling price of a product includes an identifiable amount for subsequent servicing, that amount is deferred and recognised as revenue over the period during which the service is performed. Conversely, the recognition criteria are applied to two or more transactions together when they are linked in such a way that the commercial effect cannot be understood without reference to the series of transactions as a whole. For example, an entity may sell goods and, at the same time, enter into a separate agreement to repurchase the goods at a later date, thus negating the substantive effect of the transaction; in such a case, the two transactions are dealt with together.

Revenue shall be measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

The amount of revenue arising on a transaction is usually determined by agreement between the entity and the buyer or user of the asset. It is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable taking into account the amount of any trade discounts and volume rebates allowed by the entity.

 

Sale of goods

Revenue from the sale of goods shall be recognised when all the following conditions have been satisfied:

 

(a) the entity has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods;  (b) the entity retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold;

 

  • the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;

 

  • it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; and

 

  • the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.

 

Rendering of services

When the outcome of a transaction involving the rendering of services can be estimated reliably, revenue associated with the transaction shall be recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the transaction at the balance sheet date. The outcome of a transaction can be estimated reliably when all the following conditions are satisfied:

 

  • the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;

 

  • it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity;

 

  • the stage of completion of the transaction at the balance sheet date can be measured reliably; and

 

  • the costs incurred for the transaction and the costs to complete the transaction can be measured reliably.

 

The recognition of revenue by reference to the stage of completion of a transaction is often referred to as the percentage of completion method. Under this method, revenue is recognised in the accounting periods in which the services are rendered. The recognition of revenue on this basis provides useful information on the extent of service activity and performance during a period.

When the outcome of the transaction involving the rendering of services cannot be estimated reliably, revenue shall be recognised only to the extent of the expenses recognised that are recoverable.

 

Interest, royalties and dividends

Revenue shall be recognised on the following bases:

 

  • interest shall be recognised using the effective interest method as set out in IAS 39, paragraphs 9 and AG5–AG8;
  • royalties shall be recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the substance of the relevant agreement; and
  • dividends shall be recognised when the shareholder’s right to receive payment is established.

 

IAS 19 Employee Benefits

Employee benefits are all forms of consideration given by an entity in exchange for service rendered by employees.

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting and disclosure for employee benefits. The Standard requires an entity to recognise:

 

  • a liability when an employee has provided service in exchange for employee benefits to be paid in the future; and
  • an expense when the entity consumes the economic benefit arising from service provided by an employee in exchange for employee benefits.

 

This Standard shall be applied by an employer in accounting for all employee benefits, except those to which IFRS 2 Share-based Payment applies.

 

Short-term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits are employee benefits (other than termination benefits) which fall due wholly within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service.

When an employee has rendered service to an entity during an accounting period, the entity shall recognise the undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service:

 

  • as a liability (accrued expense), after deducting any amount already paid. If the amount already paid exceeds the undiscounted amount of the benefits, an entity shall recognise that excess as an asset (prepaid expense) to the extent that the prepayment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payments or a cash refund; and
  • as an expense, unless another Standard requires or permits the inclusion of the benefits in the cost of an asset (see, for example, IAS 2 Inventories and IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment).

 

Post-employment benefits

Post-employment benefits are employee benefits (other than termination benefits) which are payable after the completion of employment. Post-employment benefit plans are formal or informal arrangements under which an entity provides post-employment benefits for one or more employees. Post-employment benefit plans are classified as either defined contribution plans or defined benefit plans, depending on the economic substance of the plan as derived from its principal terms and conditions.

Post-employment benefits: defined contribution plans

Defined contribution plans are post-employment benefit plans under which an entity pays fixed contributions into a separate entity (a fund) and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employee benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior periods. Under defined contribution plans:

 

  • the entity’s legal or constructive obligation is limited to the amount that it agrees to contribute to the fund. Thus, the amount of the post-employment benefits received by the employee is determined by the amount of contributions paid by an entity (and perhaps also the employee) to a post-employment benefit plan or to an insurance company, together with investment returns arising from the contributions; and
  • in consequence, actuarial risk (that benefits will be less than expected) and investment risk (that assets invested will be insufficient to meet expected benefits) fall on the employee.

 

When an employee has rendered service to an entity during a period, the entity shall recognise the contribution payable to a defined contribution plan in exchange for that service:

 

  • as a liability (accrued expense), after deducting any contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for service before the balance sheet date, an entity shall recognise that excess as an asset (prepaid expense) to the extent that the prepayment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payments or a cash refund; and
  • as an expense, unless another Standard requires or permits the inclusion of the contribution in the cost of an asset (see, for example, IAS 2 Inventories and IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment).

 

Post-employment benefits: defined benefit plans

Defined benefit plans are post-employment benefit plans other than defined contribution plans. Under defined benefit plans:

 

  • the entity’s obligation is to provide the agreed benefits to current and former employees; and
  • actuarial risk (that benefits will cost more than expected) and investment risk fall, in substance, on the entity. If actuarial or investment experience are worse than expected, the entity’s obligation may be increased.

 

Accounting by an entity for defined benefit plans involves the following steps:



 

  • using actuarial techniques to make a reliable estimate of the amount of benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. This requires an entity to determine how much benefit is attributable to the current and prior periods (see paragraphs 67–71) and to make estimates (actuarial assumptions) about demographic variables (such as employee turnover and mortality) and financial variables (such as future increases in salaries and medical costs) that will influence the cost of the benefit (see paragraphs 72–91);
  • discounting that benefit using the Projected Unit Credit Method in order to determine the present value of the defined benefit obligation and the current service cost (see paragraphs 64– 66);
  • determining the fair value of any plan assets (see paragraphs 102–104);
  • determining the total amount of actuarial gains and losses and the amount of those actuarial gains and losses to be recognised (see paragraphs 92–95);
  • where a plan has been introduced or changed, determining the resulting past service cost (see paragraphs 96–101); and
  • where a plan has been curtailed or settled, determining the resulting gain or loss (see paragraphs 109–115).

 

Where an entity has more than one defined benefit plan, the entity applies these procedures for each material plan separately.

 

Other long-term employee benefits

Other long-term employee benefits are employee benefits (other than post-employment benefits and termination benefits) which do not fall due wholly within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service.

The Standard requires a simpler method of accounting for other long-term employee benefits than for post-employment benefits: actuarial gains and losses and past service cost are recognised immediately.

 

Termination benefits

Termination benefits are employee benefits payable as a result of either:

 

  • an entity’s decision to terminate an employee’s employment before the normal retirement date; or

 

  • an employee’s decision to accept voluntary redundancy in exchange for those benefits.

 

An entity shall recognise termination benefits as a liability and an expense when, and only when, the entity is demonstrably committed to either:

 

  • terminate the employment of an employee or group of employees before the normal retirement date; or

 

  • provide termination benefits as a result of an offer made in order to encourage voluntary redundancy.

 

Where termination benefits fall due more than 12 months after the balance sheet date, they shall be discounted.

In the case of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy, the measurement of termination benefits shall be based on the number of employees expected to accept the offer.

 

IAS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance

This Standard shall be applied in accounting for, and in the disclosure of, government grants and in the disclosure of other forms of government assistance.

Government grants are assistance by government in the form of transfers of resources to an entity in return for past or future compliance with certain conditions relating to the operating activities of the entity. They exclude those forms of government assistance which cannot reasonably have a value placed upon them and transactions with government which cannot be distinguished from the normal trading transactions of the entity.

Government assistance is action by government designed to provide an economic benefit specific to an entity or range of entities qualifying under certain criteria. Government assistance for the purpose of this Standard does not include benefits provided only indirectly through action affecting general trading conditions, such as the provision of infrastructure in development areas or the imposition of trading constraints on competitors.

In this Standard, government assistance does not include the provision of infrastructure by improvement to the general transport and communication network and the supply of improved facilities such as irrigation or water reticulation which is available on an ongoing indeterminate basis for the benefit of an entire local community.

A government grant may take the form of a transfer of a non-monetary asset, such as land or other resources, for the use of the entity. In these circumstances it is usual to assess the fair value of the nonmonetary asset and to account for both grant and asset at that fair value.

Government grants, including non-monetary grants at fair value, shall not be recognised until there is reasonable assurance that:

 

  • the entity will comply with the conditions attaching to them; and

 

  • the grants will be received.

 

Government grants shall be recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs which they are intended to compensate, on a systematic basis.

A government grant that becomes receivable as compensation for expenses or losses already incurred or for the purpose of giving immediate financial support to the entity with no future related costs shall be recognised as income of the period in which it becomes receivable.

Grants related to assets are government grants whose primary condition is that an entity qualifying for them should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire long-term assets. Subsidiary conditions may also be attached restricting the type or location of the assets or the periods during which they are to be acquired or held.

Government grants related to assets, including non-monetary grants at fair value, shall be presented in the balance sheet either by setting up the grant as deferred income or by deducting the grant in arriving at the carrying amount of the asset.

Grants related to income are government grants other than those related to assets.

Grants related to income are sometimes presented as a credit in the income statement, either separately or under a general heading such as ‘Other income’; alternatively, they are deducted in reporting the related expense.

A government grant that becomes repayable shall be accounted for as a revision to an accounting estimate (see IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors). Repayment of a grant related to income shall be applied first against any unamortised deferred credit set up in respect of the grant. To the extent that the repayment exceeds any such deferred credit, or where no deferred credit exists, the repayment shall be recognised immediately as an expense. Repayment of a grant related to an asset shall be recorded by increasing the carrying amount of the asset or reducing the deferred income balance by the amount repayable. The cumulative additional depreciation that would have been recognised to date as an expense in the absence of the grant shall be recognised immediately as an expense.

The following matters shall be disclosed:

 

  • the accounting policy adopted for government grants, including the methods of presentation adopted in the financial statements;
  • the nature and extent of government grants recognised in the financial statements and an indication of other forms of government assistance from which the entity has directly benefited; and
  • unfulfilled conditions and other contingencies attaching to government assistance that has been recognised.

 

IAS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates

An entity may carry on foreign activities in two ways. It may have transactions in foreign currencies or it may have foreign operations. In addition, an entity may present its financial statements in a foreign currency. The objective of this Standard is to prescribe how to include foreign currency transactions and foreign operations in the financial statements of an entity and how to translate financial statements into a presentation currency. The principal issues are which exchange rate(s) to use and how to report the effects of changes in exchange rates in the financial statements.

This Standard does not apply to hedge accounting for foreign currency items, including the hedging of a net investment in a foreign operation. IAS 39 applies to hedge accounting.

This Standard does not apply to the presentation in a cash flow statement of cash flows arising from transactions in a foreign currency, or to the translation of cash flows of a foreign operation (see IAS 7 Cash Flow Statements).

 

Functional currency

Functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. The primary economic environment in which an entity operates is normally the one in which it primarily generates and expends cash.

An entity considers the following factors in determining its functional currency:

 

  • the currency:

 

  • that mainly influences sales prices for goods and services (this will often be the currency in which sales prices for its goods and services are denominated and settled); and
  • of the country whose competitive forces and regulations mainly determine the sales prices of its goods and services.

 

  • the currency that mainly influences labour, material and other costs of providing goods or services (this will often be the currency in which such costs are denominated and settled).

 



Reporting foreign currency transactions in the functional currency

Foreign currency is a currency other than the functional currency of the entity. Spot exchange rate is the exchange rate for immediate delivery.

Exchange difference is the difference resulting from translating a given number of units of one currency into another currency at different exchange rates.

Net investment in a foreign operation is the amount of the reporting entity’s interest in the net assets of that operation.

 

A foreign currency transaction shall be recorded, on initial recognition in the functional currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the spot exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

 

At each balance sheet date:

 

  • foreign currency monetary items shall be translated using the closing rate;
  • non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency shall be translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and
  • non-monetary items that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency shall be translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was determined.

 

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on translating monetary items at rates different from those at which they were translated on initial recognition during the period or in previous financial statements shall be recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise.  However, exchange differences arising on a monetary item that forms part of a reporting entity’s net investment in a foreign operation shall be recognised in profit or loss in the separate financial statements of the reporting entity or the individual financial statements of the foreign operation, as appropriate. In the financial statements that include the foreign operation and the reporting entity (eg consolidated financial statements when the foreign operation is a subsidiary), such exchange differences shall be recognised initially in a separate component of equity and recognised in profit or loss on disposal of the net investment.

Furthermore, when a gain or loss on a non-monetary item is recognised directly in equity, any exchange component of that gain or loss shall be recognised directly in equity. Conversely, when a gain or loss on a non-monetary item is recognised in profit or loss, any exchange component of that gain or loss shall be recognised in profit or loss.

 

Translation to the presentation currency/Translation of a foreign operation

The Standard permits an entity to present its financial statements in any currency (or currencies). For this purpose, an entity could be a standalone entity, a parent preparing consolidated financial statements or a parent, an investor or a venturer preparing separate financial statements in accordance with IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements. If the presentation currency differs from the entity’s functional currency, it translates its results and financial position into the presentation currency. For example, when a group contains individual entities with different functional currencies, the results and financial position of each entity are expressed in a common currency so that consolidated financial statements may be presented.

An entity is required to translate its results and financial position from its functional currency into a presentation currency (or currencies) using the method required for  translating a foreign operation for inclusion in the reporting entity’s financial statements.  The results and financial position of an entity whose functional currency is not the currency of a hyperinflationary economy shall be translated into a different presentation currency using the following procedures:

  • assets and liabilities for each balance sheet presented (ie including comparatives) shall be translated at the closing rate at the date of that balance sheet;
  • income and expenses for each income statement (ie including comparatives) shall be translated at exchange rates at the dates of the transactions; and
  • all resulting exchange differences shall be recognised as a separate component of equity.

 



Any goodwill arising on the acquisition of a foreign operation and any fair value adjustments to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities arising on the acquisition of that foreign operation shall be treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign operation. Foreign operation is an entity that is a subsidiary, associate, joint venture or branch of a reporting entity, the activities of which are based or conducted in a country or currency other than those of the reporting entity.

On the disposal of a foreign operation, the cumulative amount of the exchange differences deferred in the separate component of equity relating to that foreign operation shall be recognised in profit or loss when the gain or loss on disposal is recognised.

When there is a change in an entity’s functional currency, the entity shall apply the translation procedures applicable to the new functional currency prospectively from the date of the change.

If the functional currency is the currency of a hyperinflationary economy, the entity’s financial statements are restated in accordance with IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies.

The results and financial position of an entity whose functional currency is the currency of a hyperinflationary economy shall be translated into a different presentation currency using the following procedures:

  • all amounts (ie assets, liabilities, equity items, income and expenses, including comparatives) shall be translated at the closing rate at the date of the most recent balance sheet, except that
  • when amounts are translated into the currency of a non-hyperinflationary economy, comparative amounts shall be those that were presented as current year amounts in the relevant prior year financial statements (ie not adjusted for subsequent changes in the price level or subsequent changes in exchange rates).

 

IAS 23 Borrowing Costs

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for borrowing costs.  Borrowing costs are interest and other costs incurred by an entity in connection with the borrowing of funds.

Benchmark treatment – Borrowing costs shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

Allowed alternative treatment – Borrowing costs shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred, except to the extent that they are capitalised in accordance with paragraph 11.  Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset shall be capitalised as part of the cost of that asset. The amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation shall be determined in accordance with this Standard. [Paragraph 11]  A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale.

To the extent that funds are borrowed specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset, the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation on that asset shall be determined as the actual borrowing costs incurred on that borrowing during the period less any investment income on the temporary investment of those borrowings.

To the extent that funds are borrowed generally and used for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset, the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation shall be determined by applying a capitalisation rate to the expenditures on that asset. The capitalisation rate shall be the weighted average of the borrowing costs applicable to the borrowings of the entity that are outstanding during the period, other than borrowings made specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset. The amount of borrowing costs capitalised during a period shall not exceed the amount of borrowing costs incurred during that period.

The capitalisation of borrowing costs as part of the cost of a qualifying asset shall commence when:

 

  • expenditures for the asset are being incurred;
  • borrowing costs are being incurred; and
  • activities that are necessary to prepare the asset for its intended use or sale are in progress.

 

Capitalisation of borrowing costs shall be suspended during extended periods in which active development is interrupted.

Capitalisation of borrowing costs shall cease when substantially all the activities necessary to prepare the qualifying asset for its intended use or sale are complete.  The financial statements shall disclose:

 

  • the accounting policy adopted for borrowing costs;
  • the amount of borrowing costs capitalised during the period; and
  • the capitalisation rate used to determine the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.
IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures

The objective of this Standard is to ensure that an entity’s financial statements contain the disclosures necessary to draw attention to the possibility that its financial position and profit or loss may have been affected by the existence of related parties and by transactions and outstanding balances with such parties.

A party is related to an entity if:

 

  • directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, the party:

 

  • controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, the entity (this includes parents, subsidiaries and fellow subsidiaries);
  • has an interest in the entity that gives it significant influence over the entity; or (iii)         has joint control over the entity;

 

  • the party is an associate (as defined in IAS 28 Investments in Associates) of the entity;
  • the party is a joint venture in which the entity is a venturer (see IAS 31 Interests in Joint Ventures);

 

  • the party is a member of the key management personnel of the entity or its parent;

 

  • the party is a close member of the family of any individual referred to in (a) or (d);

 

  • the party is an entity that is controlled, jointly controlled or significantly influenced by, or for which significant voting power in such entity resides with, directly or indirectly, any individual referred to in (d) or (e); or

 

  • the party is a post-employment benefit plan for the benefit of employees of the entity, or of any entity that is a related party of the entity.

 

A related party transaction is a transfer of resources, services or obligations between related parties, regardless of whether a price is charged.

Close members of the family of an individual are those family members who may be expected to influence, or be influenced by, that individual in their dealings with the entity. They may include:

  • the individual’s domestic partner and children;
  • children of the individual’s domestic partner; and
  • dependants of the individual or the individual’s domestic partner.

 

Relationships between parents and subsidiaries shall be disclosed irrespective of whether there have been transactions between those related parties. An entity shall disclose the name of the entity’s parent and, if different, the ultimate controlling party. If neither the entity’s parent nor the ultimate controlling party produces financial statements available for public use, the name of the next most senior parent that does so shall also be disclosed.

An entity shall disclose key management personnel compensation in total and for each of the following categories:

 

  • short-term employee benefits;

 

  • post-employment benefits;

 

  • other long-term benefits;

 

  • termination benefits; and

 

  • share-based payment.

 



If there have been transactions between related parties, an entity shall disclose the nature of the related party relationship as well as information about the transactions and outstanding balances necessary for an understanding of the potential effect of the relationship on the financial statements. These disclosure requirements are in addition to the requirements to disclose key management personnel compensation. At a minimum, disclosures shall include:

 

  • the amount of the transactions;

 

  • the amount of outstanding balances and:

 

  • their terms and conditions, including whether they are secured, and the nature of the consideration to be provided in settlement; and
  • details of any guarantees given or received;

 

  • provisions for doubtful debts related to the amount of outstanding balances; and

 

  • the expense recognised during the period in respect of bad or doubtful debts due from related parties. [paragraph 17]

 

The disclosures required by paragraph 17 shall be made separately for each of the following categories:  (a) the parent;

  • entities with joint control or significant influence over the entity;
  • subsidiaries;
  • associates;
  • joint ventures in which the entity is a venturer;
  • key management personnel of the entity or its parent; and (g) other related parties.

Items of a similar nature may be disclosed in aggregate except when separate disclosure is necessary for an understanding of the effects of related party transactions on the financial statements of the entity.

 

IAS 26 Accounting and Reporting by Retirement Benefit Plans

This Standard shall be applied in the financial statements of retirement benefit plans where such financial statements are prepared.

Retirement benefit plans are arrangements whereby an entity provides benefits for employees on or after termination of service (either in the form of an annual income or as a lump sum) when such benefits, or the contributions towards them, can be determined or estimated in advance of retirement from the provisions of a document or from the entity’s practices.

The financial statements of a defined contribution plan shall contain a statement of net assets available for benefits and a description of the funding policy.

The financial statements of a defined benefit plan shall contain either:

 

  • a statement that shows:

 

  • the net assets available for benefits;
  • the actuarial present value of promised retirement benefits, distinguishing between vested benefits and non-vested benefits; and
  • the resulting excess or deficit; or

 

 

  • a statement of net assets available for benefits including either:

 

  • a note disclosing the actuarial present value of promised retirement benefits, distinguishing between vested benefits and non-vested benefits; or
  • a reference to this information in an accompanying actuarial report.

 

If an actuarial valuation has not been prepared at the date of the financial statements, the most recent valuation shall be used as a base and the date of the valuation disclosed. [Paragraph 17]

 

For the purposes of paragraph 17, the actuarial present value of promised retirement benefits shall be based on the benefits promised under the terms of the plan on service rendered to date using either current salary levels or projected salary levels with disclosure of the basis used. The effect of any changes in actuarial assumptions that have had a significant effect on the actuarial present value of promised retirement benefits shall also be disclosed.

 

The financial statements shall explain the relationship between the actuarial present value of promised retirement benefits and the net assets available for benefits, and the policy for the funding of promised benefits.

 

Retirement benefit plan investments shall be carried at fair value. In the case of marketable securities fair value is market value. Where plan investments are held for which an estimate of fair value is not possible disclosure shall be made of the reason why fair value is not used.

The financial statements of a retirement benefit plan, whether defined benefit or defined contribution, shall also contain the following information:

 

  • a statement of changes in net assets available for benefits;

 

  • a summary of significant accounting policies; and

 

  • a description of the plan and the effect of any changes in the plan during the period.

 

 

IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements

This Standard shall be applied in the preparation and presentation of consolidated financial statements for a group of entities under the control of a parent. Consolidated financial statements are the financial statements of a group presented as those of a single economic entity. Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. A group is a parent and all its subsidiaries. A parent is an entity that has one or more subsidiaries. A subsidiary is an entity, including an unincorporated entity such as a partnership, that is controlled by another entity.  A parent shall present consolidated financial statements in which it consolidates its investments in subsidiaries in accordance with this Standard. A parent need not present consolidated financial statements if and only if:

 

  • the parent is itself a wholly-owned subsidiary, or is a partially-owned subsidiary of another entity and its other owners, including those not otherwise entitled to vote, have been informed about, and do not object to, the parent not presenting consolidated financial statements;

 

  • the parent’s debt or equity instruments are not traded in a public market (a domestic or foreign stock exchange or an over-the-counter market, including local and regional markets);

 

  • the parent did not file, nor is it in the process of filing, its financial statements with a securities commission or other regulatory organisation for the purpose of issuing any class of instruments in a public market; and
  • the ultimate or any intermediate parent of the parent produces consolidated financial statements available for public use that comply with International Financial Reporting Standards.

 



Consolidated financial statements shall include all subsidiaries of the parent.

 

Consolidation procedures

Consolidated financial statements shall be prepared using uniform accounting policies for like transactions and other events in similar circumstances.

In preparing consolidated financial statements, an entity combines the financial statements of the parent and its subsidiaries line by line by adding together like items of assets, liabilities, equity, income and expenses. In order that the consolidated financial statements present financial information about the group as that of a single economic entity, the following steps are then taken:

 

  • the carrying amount of the parent’s investment in each subsidiary and the parent’s portion of equity of each subsidiary are eliminated (see IFRS 3, which describes the treatment of any resultant goodwill);

 

 

  • minority interests in the profit or loss of consolidated subsidiaries for the reporting period are identified; and

 

  • minority interests in the net assets of consolidated subsidiaries are identified separately from the parent shareholders’ equity in them. Minority interests in the net assets consist of:

 

  • the amount of those minority interests at the date of the original combination calculated in accordance with IFRS 3; and
  • the minority’s share of changes in equity since the date of the combination.

 

Intragroup balances, transactions, income and expenses shall be eliminated in full.

Minority interests shall be presented in the consolidated balance sheet within equity, separately from the parent shareholders’ equity. Minority interests in the profit or loss of the group shall also be separately disclosed. Minority interest is that portion of the profit or loss and net assets of a subsidiary attributable to equity interests that are not owned, directly or indirectly through subsidiaries, by the parent.

 

 

Accounting for investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates in separate financial statements

This Standard shall also be applied in accounting for investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates when an entity elects, or is required by local regulations, to present separate financial statements. Separate financial statements are those presented by a parent, an investor in an associate or a venturer in a jointly controlled entity, in which the investments are accounted for on the basis of the direct equity interest rather than on the basis of the reported results and net assets of the investees.

When separate financial statements are prepared, investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates that are not classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 shall be accounted for either:

 

  • at cost, or

 

  • in accordance with IAS 39.

 

The same accounting shall be applied for each category of investments. Investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates that are classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 shall be accounted for in accordance with that IFRS.

Investments in jointly controlled entities and associates that are accounted for in accordance with IAS 39 in the consolidated financial statements shall be accounted for in the same way in the investor’s separate financial statements.

 

IAS 28 Investments in Associates

This Standard shall be applied in accounting for investments in associates. However, it does not apply to investments in associates held by:

 

  • venture capital organisations, or

 

  • mutual funds, unit trusts and similar entities including investment-linked insurance funds

 

that upon initial recognition are designated as at fair value through profit or loss or are classified as held for trading and accounted for in accordance with IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. Such investments shall be measured at fair value in accordance with IAS 39, with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss in the period of the change.

Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control over those policies.

If an investor holds, directly or indirectly (eg through subsidiaries), 20 per cent or more of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the investor has significant influence, unless it can be clearly demonstrated that this is not the case. Conversely, if the investor holds, directly or indirectly (eg through subsidiaries), less than 20 per cent of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the investor does not have significant influence, unless such influence can be clearly demonstrated. A substantial or majority ownership by another investor does not necessarily preclude an investor from having significant influence.

Under the equity method, the investment in an associate is initially recognised at cost and the carrying amount is increased or decreased to recognise the investor’s share of the profit or loss of the investee after the date of acquisition. The investor’s share of the profit or loss of the investee is recognised in the investor’s profit or loss. Distributions received from an investee reduce the carrying amount of the investment. Adjustments to the carrying amount may also be necessary for changes in the investor’s proportionate interest in the investee arising from changes in the investee’s equity that have not been recognised in the investee’s profit or loss. Such changes include those arising from the revaluation of property, plant and equipment and from foreign exchange translation differences. The investor’s share of those changes is recognised directly in equity of the investor.

The investor’s financial statements shall be prepared using uniform accounting policies for like transactions and events in similar circumstances.

After application of the equity method, including recognising the associate’s losses, the investor applies the requirements of IAS 39 to determine whether it is necessary to recognise any additional impairment loss with respect to the investor’s net investment in the associate.

 

Separate financial statements

When separate financial statements are prepared, investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates that are not classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 shall be accounted for either:

 

  • at cost, or

 

  • in accordance with IAS 39.

 

The same accounting shall be applied for each category of investments. Investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates that are classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 shall be accounted for in accordance with that IFRS.

Investments in jointly controlled entities and associates that are accounted for in accordance with IAS 39 in the consolidated financial statements shall be accounted for in the same way in the investor’s separate financial statements.

 



 

IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies

This Standard shall be applied to the financial statements, including the consolidated financial statements, of any entity whose functional currency is the currency of a hyperinflationary economy.  This Standard does not establish an absolute rate at which hyperinflation is deemed to arise. It is a matter of judgement when restatement of financial statements in accordance with this Standard becomes necessary. Hyperinflation is indicated by characteristics of the economic environment of a country which include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

  • the general population prefers to keep its wealth in non-monetary assets or in a relatively stable foreign currency. Amounts of local currency held are immediately invested to maintain purchasing power;

 

  • the general population regards monetary amounts not in terms of the local currency but in terms of a relatively stable foreign currency. Prices may be quoted in that currency;

 

  • sales and purchases on credit take place at prices that compensate for the expected loss of purchasing power during the credit period, even if the period is short;

 

  • interest rates, wages and prices are linked to a price index; and

 

  • the cumulative inflation rate over three years is approaching, or exceeds, 100%.

 

The financial statements of an entity whose functional currency is the currency of a hyperinflationary economy shall be stated in terms of the measuring unit current at the balance sheet date. The corresponding figures for the previous period required by IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements and any information in respect of earlier periods shall also be stated in terms of the measuring unit current at the balance sheet date. For the purpose of presenting comparative amounts in a different presentation currency, paragraphs 42(b) and 43 of IAS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates (as revised in 2003) apply.

The restatement of financial statements in accordance with this Standard requires the application of certain procedures as well as judgement. The consistent application of these procedures and judgements from period to period is more important than the precise accuracy of the resulting amounts included in the restated financial statements.

The restatement of financial statements in accordance with this Standard requires the use of a general price index that reflects changes in general purchasing power. It is preferable that all entities that report in the currency of the same economy use the same index.

When an economy ceases to be hyperinflationary and an entity discontinues the preparation and presentation of financial statements prepared in accordance with this

Standard, it shall treat the amounts expressed in the measuring unit current at the end of the previous reporting period as the basis for the carrying amounts in its subsequent financial statements.

 

IAS 31 Interests in Joint Ventures

This Standard shall be applied in accounting for interests in joint ventures and the reporting of joint venture assets, liabilities, income and expenses in the financial statements of venturers and investors, regardless of the structures or forms under which the joint venture activities take place. However, it does not apply to venturers’ interests in jointly controlled entities held by:

  • venture capital organisations, or

 

  • mutual funds, unit trusts and similar entities including investment-linked insurance funds

 



that upon initial recognition are designated as at fair value through profit or loss or are classified as held for trading and accounted for in accordance with IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

A joint venture is a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties undertake an economic activity that is subject to joint control. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control over an economic activity, and exists only when the strategic financial and operating decisions relating to the activity require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control (the venturers). Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an economic activity so as to obtain benefits from it.

A venturer is a party to a joint venture and has joint control over that joint venture.

Joint ventures take many different forms and structures. This Standard identifies three broad types— jointly controlled operations, jointly controlled assets and jointly controlled entities—that are commonly described as, and meet the definition of, joint ventures.

 

Jointly controlled operations

The operation of some joint ventures involves the use of the assets and other resources of the venturers rather than the establishment of a corporation, partnership or other entity, or a financial structure that is separate from the venturers themselves. Each venturer uses its own property, plant and equipment and carries its own inventories. It also incurs its own expenses and liabilities and raises its own finance, which represent its own obligations.

In respect of its interests in jointly controlled operations, a venturer shall recognise in its financial statements:

 

  • the assets that it controls and the liabilities that it incurs; and

 

  • the expenses that it incurs and its share of the income that it earns from the sale of goods or services by the joint venture.

 

Jointly controlled assets

Some joint ventures involve the joint control, and often the joint ownership, by the venturers of one or more assets contributed to, or acquired for the purpose of, the joint venture and dedicated to the purposes of the joint venture. The assets are used to obtain benefits for the venturers. Each venturer may take a share of the output from the assets and each bears an agreed share of the expenses incurred.  In respect of its interest in jointly controlled assets, a venturer shall recognise in its financial statements:

 

  • its share of the jointly controlled assets, classified according to the nature of the assets;

 

  • any liabilities that it has incurred;

 

  • its share of any liabilities incurred jointly with the other venturers in relation to the joint venture;

 

  • any income from the sale or use of its share of the output of the joint venture, together with its share of any expenses incurred by the joint venture; and

 

  • any expenses that it has incurred in respect of its interest in the joint venture.

 



Jointly controlled entities

A jointly controlled entity is a joint venture that involves the establishment of a corporation, partnership or other entity in which each venturer has an interest. The entity operates in the same way as other entities, except that a contractual arrangement between the venturers establishes joint control over the economic activity of the entity.

A venturer shall recognise its interest in a jointly controlled entity using proportionate consolidation or the equity method.

Proportionate consolidation is a method of accounting whereby a venturer’s share of each of the assets, liabilities, income and expenses of a jointly controlled entity is combined line by line with similar items in the venturer’s financial statements or reported as separate line items in the venturer’s financial statements.

The equity method is a method of accounting whereby an interest in a jointly controlled entity is initially recorded at cost and adjusted thereafter for the post-acquisition change in the venturer’s share of net assets of the jointly controlled entity. The profit or loss of the venturer includes the venturer’s share of the profit or loss of the jointly controlled entity.

 

Transactions between a venturer and a joint venture

When a venturer contributes or sells assets to a joint venture, recognition of any portion of a gain or loss from the transaction shall reflect the substance of the transaction. While the assets are retained by the joint venture, and provided the venturer has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership, the venturer shall recognise only that portion of the gain or loss that is attributable to the interests of the other venturers. The venturer shall recognise the full amount of any loss when the contribution or sale provides evidence of a reduction in the net realisable value of current assets or an impairment loss.

When a venturer purchases assets from a joint venture, the venturer shall not recognise its share of the profits of the joint venture from the transaction until it resells the assets to an independent party. A venturer shall recognise its share of the losses resulting from these transactions in the same way as profits except that losses shall be recognised immediately when they represent a reduction in the net realisable value of current assets or an impairment loss.

 

Separate financial statements of a venturer

When separate financial statements are prepared, investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates that are not classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 shall be accounted for either:

 

  • at cost, or

 

  • in accordance with IAS 39.

 

The same accounting shall be applied for each category of investments. Investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates that are classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 shall be accounted for in accordance with that IFRS.

Investments in jointly controlled entities and associates that are accounted for in accordance with IAS 39 in the consolidated financial statements shall be accounted for in the same way in the investor’s separate financial statements.

 

IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation

The objective of this Standard is to establish principles for presenting financial instruments as liabilities or equity and for offsetting financial assets and financial liabilities. It applies to the classification of financial instruments, from the perspective of the issuer, into financial assets, financial liabilities and equity instruments; the classification of related interest, dividends, losses and gains; and the circumstances in which financial assets and financial liabilities should be offset.  The principles in this Standard complement the principles for recognising and measuring financial assets and financial liabilities in IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement, and for disclosing information about them in IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures.

The issuer of a financial instrument shall classify the instrument, or its component parts, on initial recognition as a financial liability, a financial asset or an equity instrument in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangement and the definitions of a financial liability, a financial asset and an equity instrument. The issuer of a non-derivative financial instrument shall evaluate the terms of the financial instrument to determine whether it contains both a liability and an equity component. Such components shall be classified separately as financial liabilities, financial assets or equity instruments.

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

A financial asset is any asset that is:

 

  • cash;

 

  • an equity instrument of another entity;

 

  • a contractual right:

 

  • to receive cash or another financial asset from another entity; or
  • to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with another entity under conditions that are potentially favourable to the entity; or

 

  • a contract that will or may be settled in the entity’s own equity instruments and is:

 

  • a non-derivative for which the entity is or may be obliged to receive a variable number of the entity’s own equity instruments; or
  • a derivative that will or may be settled other than by the exchange of a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of the entity’s own equity instruments. For this purpose the entity’s own equity instruments do not include instruments that are themselves contracts for the future receipt or delivery of the entity’s own equity instruments.

 



A financial liability is any liability that is:

 

  • a contractual obligation:

 

  • to deliver cash or another financial asset to another entity; or
  • to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with another entity under conditions that are potentially unfavourable to the entity; or

 

  • a contract that will or may be settled in the entity’s own equity instruments and is:

 

  • a non-derivative for which the entity is or may be obliged to deliver a variable number of the entity’s own equity instruments; or
  • a derivative that will or may be settled other than by the exchange of a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of the entity’s own equity instruments. For this purpose the entity’s own equity instruments do not include instruments that are themselves contracts for the future receipt or delivery of the entity’s own equity instruments.

 



An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities.

A financial instrument may require the entity to deliver cash or another financial asset, or otherwise to settle it in such a way that it would be a financial liability, in the event of the occurrence or nonoccurrence of uncertain future events (or on the outcome of uncertain circumstances) that are beyond the control of both the issuer and the holder of the instrument, such as a change in a stock market index, consumer price index, interest rate or taxation requirements, or the issuer’s future revenues, net income or debt-to-equity ratio. The issuer of such an instrument does not have the unconditional right to avoid delivering cash or another financial asset (or otherwise to settle it in such a way that it would be a financial liability). Therefore, it is a financial liability of the issuer unless:

 

  • the part of the contingent settlement provision that could require settlement in cash or another financial asset (or otherwise in such a way that it would be a financial liability) is not genuine; or

 

  • the issuer can be required to settle the obligation in cash or another financial asset (or otherwise to settle it in such a way that it would be a financial liability) only in the event of liquidation of the issuer.

 

When a derivative financial instrument gives one party a choice over how it is settled (eg the issuer or the holder can choose settlement net in cash or by exchanging shares for cash), it is a financial asset or a financial liability unless all of the settlement alternatives would result in it being an equity instrument.

If an entity reacquires its own equity instruments, those instruments (‘treasury shares’) shall be deducted from equity. No gain or loss shall be recognised in profit or loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of an entity’s own equity instruments. Such treasury shares may be acquired and held by the entity or by other members of the consolidated group. Consideration paid or received shall be recognised directly in equity.

Interest, dividends, losses and gains relating to a financial instrument or a component that is a financial liability shall be recognised as income or expense in profit or loss. Distributions to holders of an equity instrument shall be debited by the entity directly to equity, net of any related income tax benefit. Transaction costs of an equity transaction shall be accounted for as a deduction from equity, net of any related income tax benefit.

A financial asset and a financial liability shall be offset and the net amount presented in the balance sheet when, and only when, an entity:

 

  • currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts; and

 

  • intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

 

IAS 33 Earnings per Share

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe principles for the determination and presentation of earnings per share, so as to improve performance comparisons between different entities in the same reporting period and between different reporting periods for the same entity. The focus of this

Standard is on the denominator of the earnings per share calculation.

This Standard shall be applied by entities whose ordinary shares or potential ordinary shares are publicly traded and by entities that are in the process of issuing ordinary shares or potential ordinary shares in public markets. An entity that discloses earnings per share shall calculate and disclose earnings per share in accordance with this Standard.

An ordinary share is an equity instrument that is subordinate to all other classes of equity instruments.  A potential ordinary share is a financial instrument or other contract that may entitle its holder to ordinary shares.

An entity shall present on the face of the income statement basic and diluted earnings per share for profit or loss from continuing operations attributable to the ordinary equity holders of the parent entity and for profit or loss attributable to the ordinary equity holders of the parent entity for the period for each class of ordinary shares that has a different right to share in profit for the period. An entity shall present basic and diluted earnings per share with equal prominence for all periods presented.  An entity that reports a discontinued operation shall disclose the basic and diluted amounts per share for the discontinued operation either on the face of the income statement or in the notes.

Basic earnings per share

Basic earnings per share shall be calculated by dividing profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity (the numerator) by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding (the denominator) during the period.

For the purpose of calculating basic earnings per share, the amounts attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity in respect of:

 

  • profit or loss from continuing operations attributable to the parent entity; and

 

  • profit or loss attributable to the parent entity

 



shall be the amounts in (a) and (b) adjusted for the after-tax amounts of preference dividends, differences arising on the settlement of preference shares, and other similar effects of preference shares classified as equity.

For the purpose of calculating basic earnings per share, the number of ordinary shares shall be the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. [Paragraph 19] The weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period and for all periods presented shall be adjusted for events, other than the conversion of potential ordinary shares, that have changed the number of ordinary shares outstanding without a corresponding change in resources.

 

Diluted earnings per share

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, an entity shall adjust profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity, and the weighted average number of shares outstanding, for the effects of all dilutive potential ordinary shares.

Dilution is a reduction in earnings per share or an increase in loss per share resulting from the assumption that convertible instruments are converted, that options or warrants are exercised, or that ordinary shares are issued upon the satisfaction of specified conditions.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the number of ordinary shares shall be the weighted average number of ordinary shares calculated in accordance with paragraphs 19 and 26, plus the weighted average number of ordinary shares that would be issued on the conversion of all the dilutive potential ordinary shares into ordinary shares.

Potential ordinary shares shall be treated as dilutive when, and only when, their conversion to ordinary shares would decrease earnings per share or increase loss per share from continuing operations.  An entity uses profit or loss from continuing operations attributable to the parent entity as the control number to establish whether potential ordinary shares are dilutive or antidilutive. In determining whether potential ordinary shares are dilutive or antidilutive, each issue or series of potential ordinary shares is considered separately rather than in aggregate.

 

Retrospective adjustments

If the number of ordinary or potential ordinary shares outstanding increases as a result of a capitalisation, bonus issue or share split, or decreases as a result of a reverse share split, the calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share for all periods presented shall be adjusted retrospectively.

 

 

IAS 34 Interim Financial Reporting

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the minimum content of an interim financial report and to prescribe the principles for recognition and measurement in complete or condensed financial statements for an interim period. Timely and reliable interim financial reporting improves the ability of investors, creditors, and others to understand an entity’s capacity to generate earnings and cash flows and its financial condition and liquidity.

This Standard applies if an entity is required or elects to publish an interim financial report in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards.

Interim financial report means a financial report containing either a complete set of financial statements (as described in IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements) or a set of condensed financial statements (as described in this Standard) for an interim period. Interim period is a financial reporting period shorter than a full financial year.

In the interest of timeliness and cost considerations and to avoid repetition of information previously reported, an entity may be required to or may elect to provide less information at interim dates as compared with its annual financial statements. This Standard defines the minimum content of an interim financial report as including condensed financial statements and selected explanatory notes. The interim financial report is intended to provide an update on the latest complete set of annual financial statements. Accordingly, it focuses on new activities, events, and circumstances and does not duplicate information previously reported.

Nothing in this Standard is intended to prohibit or discourage an entity from publishing a complete set of financial statements (as described in IAS 1) in its interim financial report, rather than condensed financial statements and selected explanatory notes. If an entity publishes a complete set of financial statements in its interim financial report, the form and content of those statements shall conform to the requirements of IAS 1 for a complete set of financial statements.

An interim financial report shall include, at a minimum, the following components:  (a) condensed balance sheet;

 

  • condensed income statement;

 

  • condensed statement showing either (i) all changes in equity or (ii) changes in equity other than those arising from capital transactions with owners and distributions to owners;

 

  • condensed cash flow statement; and

 

  • selected explanatory notes.

 

If an entity publishes a set of condensed financial statements in its interim financial report, those condensed statements shall include, at a minimum, each of the headings and subtotals that were included in its most recent annual financial statements and the  selected explanatory notes as required by this Standard. Additional line items or notes shall be included if their omission would make the condensed interim financial statements misleading.  In deciding how to recognise, measure, classify, or disclose an item for interim financial reporting purposes, materiality shall be assessed in relation to the interim period financial data. In making assessments of materiality, it shall be recognised that interim measurements may rely on estimates to a greater extent than measurements of annual financial data.

An entity shall apply the same accounting policies in its interim financial statements as are applied in its annual financial statements, except for accounting policy changes made after the date of the most recent annual financial statements that are to be reflected in the next annual financial statements. To achieve that objective, measurements for interim reporting purposes shall be made on a year-to-date basis.

The measurement procedures to be followed in an interim financial report shall be designed to ensure that the resulting information is reliable and that all material financial information that is relevant to an understanding of the financial position or performance of the entity is appropriately disclosed. While measurements in both annual and interim financial reports are often based on reasonable estimates, the preparation of interim financial reports generally will require a greater use of estimation methods than annual financial reports.

 



 

IAS 36 Impairment of Assets

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the procedures that an entity applies to ensure that its assets are carried at no more than their recoverable amount. An asset is carried at more than its recoverable amount if its carrying amount exceeds the amount to be recovered through use or sale of the asset. If this is the case, the asset is described as impaired and the Standard requires the entity to recognise an impairment loss. The Standard also specifies when an entity should reverse an impairment loss and prescribes disclosures.

 

Identifying an asset that may be impaired

An entity shall assess at each reporting date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the entity shall estimate the recoverable amount of the asset.

Irrespective of whether there is any indication of impairment, an entity shall also:

  • test an intangible asset with an indefinite useful life or an intangible asset not yet available for use for impairment annually by comparing its carrying amount with its recoverable amount. This impairment test may be performed at any time during an annual period, provided it is performed at the same time every year. Different intangible assets may be tested for impairment at different times. However, if such an intangible asset was initially recognised during the current annual period, that intangible asset shall be tested for impairment before the end of the current annual period.
  • test goodwill acquired in a business combination for impairment annually in accordance with paragraphs 80-99.

 

If there is any indication that an asset may be impaired, recoverable amount shall be estimated for the individual asset. If it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of the individual asset, an entity shall determine the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs (the asset’s cash-generating unit).

A cash-generating unit is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets.

 

Measuring recoverable amount

The recoverable amount of an asset or a cash-generating unit is the higher of its fair value less costs to sell and its value in use.

It is not always necessary to determine both an asset’s fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. If either of these amounts exceeds the asset’s carrying amount, the asset is not impaired and it is not necessary to estimate the other amount.

Fair value less costs to sell is the amount obtainable from the sale of an asset or cash-generating unit in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties, less the costs of disposal.  Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from an asset or cashgenerating unit.

The following elements shall be reflected in the calculation of an asset’s value in use:

 

  • an estimate of the future cash flows the entity expects to derive from the asset;

 

  • expectations about possible variations in the amount or timing of those future cash flows;

 

  • the time value of money, represented by the current market risk-free rate of interest;

 

  • the price for bearing the uncertainty inherent in the asset; and

 

  • other factors, such as illiquidity, that market participants would reflect in pricing the future cash flows the entity expects to derive from the asset.

 



Estimates of future cash flows shall include:

 

  • projections of cash inflows from the continuing use of the asset;

 

  • projections of cash outflows that are necessarily incurred to generate the cash inflows from continuing use of the asset (including cash outflows to prepare the asset for use) and can be directly attributed, or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis, to the asset; and

 

  • net cash flows, if any, to be received (or paid) for the disposal of the asset at the end of its useful life.

 

Future cash flows shall be estimated for the asset in its current condition. Estimates of future cash flows shall not include estimated future cash inflows or outflows that are expected to arise from:

 

  • a future restructuring to which an entity is not yet committed; or

 

  • improving or enhancing the asset’s performance.

 

Estimates of future cash flows shall not include:

 

 

  • cash inflows or outflows from financing activities; or

 

  • income tax receipts or payments.

 

Recognising and measuring an impairment loss

If, and only if, the recoverable amount of an asset is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset shall be reduced to its recoverable amount. That reduction is an impairment loss.  An impairment loss shall be recognised immediately in profit or loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount in accordance with another Standard (for example, in accordance with the revaluation model in IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment). Any impairment loss of a revalued asset shall be treated as a revaluation decrease in accordance with that other Standard.

An impairment loss shall be recognised for a cash-generating unit (the smallest group of cashgenerating units to which goodwill or a corporate asset has been allocated) if, and only if, the recoverable amount of the unit (group of units) is less than the carrying amount of the unit (group of units). The impairment loss shall be allocated to reduce the carrying amount of the assets of the unit (group of units) in the following order:

 

  • first, to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the cash-generating unit (group of units); and

 

  • then, to the other assets of the unit (group of units) pro rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the unit (group of units).

 

However, an entity shall not reduce the carrying amount of an asset below the highest of:

 

  • its fair value less costs to sell (if determinable);

 

  • its value in use (if determinable); and

 

 

The amount of the impairment loss that would otherwise have been allocated to the asset shall be allocated pro rata to the other assets of the unit (group of units).

 

Goodwill

For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination shall, from the acquisition date, be allocated to each of the acquirer’s cash-generating units, or groups of cashgenerating units, that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination, irrespective of whether other assets or liabilities of the acquiree are assigned to those units or groups of units.  The annual impairment test for a cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated may be performed at any time during an annual period, provided the test is performed at the same time every year. Different cash-generating units may be tested for impairment at different times. However, if some or all of the goodwill allocated to a cash-generating unit was acquired in a business combination during the current annual period, that unit shall be tested for impairment before the end of the current annual period.

The Standard permits the most recent detailed calculation made in a preceding period of the recoverable amount of a cash-generating unit (group of units) to which goodwill has been allocated to be used in the impairment test for that unit (group of units) in the current period, provided specified criteria are met.

 

Reversing an impairment loss

An entity shall assess at each reporting date whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised in prior periods for an asset other than goodwill may no longer exist or may have decreased. If any such indication exists, the entity shall estimate the recoverable amount of that asset.  An impairment loss recognised in prior periods for an asset other than goodwill shall be reversed if, and only if, there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. A  reversal of an impairment loss for a cash-generating unit shall be allocated to the assets of the unit, except for goodwill, pro rata with the carrying amounts of those assets. The increased carrying amount of an asset other than goodwill attributable to a reversal of an impairment loss shall not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortisation or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years.

A reversal of an impairment loss for an asset other than goodwill shall be recognised immediately in profit or loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount in accordance with another Standard (for example, the revaluation model in IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment). Any reversal of an impairment loss of a revalued asset shall be treated as a revaluation increase in accordance with that other Standard.

An impairment loss recognised for goodwill shall not be reversed in a subsequent period.

 

IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

The objective of this Standard is to ensure that appropriate recognition criteria and measurement bases are applied to provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets and that sufficient information is disclosed in the notes to enable users to understand their nature, timing and amount.

IAS 37 prescribes the accounting and disclosure for all provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets, except:

 



(a) those resulting from executory contracts, except where the contract is onerous. Executory contracts are contracts under which neither party has performed any of its obligations or both parties have partially performed their obligations to an equal extent;  (b) those covered by another Standard.

 

Provisions

A provision is a liability of uncertain timing or amount.

 

Recognition

A provision should be recognised when, and only when:

 

  • an entity has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event;
  • it is probable (ie more likely than not) that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and
  • a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. The Standard notes that it is only in extremely rare cases that a reliable estimate will not be possible.

 

In rare cases it is not clear whether there is a present obligation. In these cases, a past event is deemed to give rise to a present obligation if, taking account of all available evidence, it is more likely than not that a present obligation exists at the balance sheet date.

 

Measurement

The amount recognised as a provision shall be the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. The best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation is the amount that an entity would rationally pay to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date or to transfer it to a third party at that time.

Where the provision being measured involves a large population of items, the obligation is estimated by weighting all possible outcomes by their associated probabilities. Where a single obligation is being measured, the individual most likely outcome may be the best estimate of the liability. However, even in such a case, the entity considers other possible outcomes.

 

Contingent liabilities  A contingent liability is:

 

  • a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity; or

 

  • a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognised because:

 

  • it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or
  • the amount of the obligation cannot be measured with sufficient reliability.

 

An entity should not recognise a contingent liability. An entity should disclose a contingent liability, unless the possibility of an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote.

 

Contingent assets

A contingent asset is a possible asset that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity.

An entity shall not recognise a contingent asset. However, when the realisation of income is virtually certain, then the related asset is not a contingent asset and its recognition is appropriate.

 

IAS 38 Intangible Assets

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for intangible assets that are not dealt with specifically in another Standard. This Standard requires an entity to recognise an intangible asset if, and only if, specified criteria are met. The Standard also specifies how to measure the carrying amount of intangible assets and requires specified disclosures about intangible assets.  An intangible asset is an identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance.

 

Recognition and measurement

The recognition of an item as an intangible asset requires an entity to demonstrate that the item meets:

 

  • the definition of an intangible asset; and

 

  • the recognition criteria.

This requirement applies to costs incurred initially to acquire or internally generate an intangible asset and those incurred subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service it.

An asset meets the identifiability criterion in the definition of an intangible asset when it:

 

  • is separable, ie is capable of being separated or divided from the entity and sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged, either individually or together with a related contract, asset or liability; or

 

  • arises from contractual or other legal rights, regardless of whether those rights are transferable or separable from the entity or from other rights and obligations.

 



An intangible asset shall be recognised if, and only if:

 

  • it is probable that the expected future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the entity; and
  • the cost of the asset can be measured reliably.

The probability recognition criterion is always considered to be satisfied for intangible assets that are acquired separately or in a business combination.

An intangible asset shall be measured initially at cost.

The cost of a separately acquired intangible asset comprises:

  • its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates; and
  • any directly attributable cost of preparing the asset for its intended use.

In accordance with IFRS 3 Business Combinations, if an intangible asset is acquired in a business combination, the cost of that intangible asset is its fair value at the acquisition date. The only circumstances in which it might not be possible to measure reliably the fair value of an intangible asset acquired in a business combination are when the intangible asset arises from legal or other contractual rights and either:

 

  • is not separable; or
  • is separable, but there is no history or evidence of exchange transactions for the same or similar assets, and otherwise estimating fair value would be dependent on immeasurable variables.

 

Internally generated intangible assets

Internally generated goodwill shall not be recognised as an asset.

No intangible asset arising from research (or from the research phase of an internal project) shall be recognised. Expenditure on research (or on the research phase of an internal project) shall be recognised as an expense when it is incurred.

An intangible asset arising from development (or from the development phase of an internal project) shall be recognised if, and only if, an entity can demonstrate all of the following:

 

  • the technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale.

 

  • its intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it.

 

  • its ability to use or sell the intangible asset.

 

  • how the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits. Among other things, the entity can demonstrate the existence of a market for the output of the intangible asset or the intangible asset itself or, if it is to be used internally, the usefulness of the intangible asset.

 

  • the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset.
  • its ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.

 

Internally generated brands, mastheads, publishing titles, customer lists and items similar in substance shall not be recognised as intangible assets.

The cost of an internally generated intangible asset for the purpose of paragraph 24 is the sum of expenditure incurred from the date when the intangible asset first meets the recognition criteria in paragraphs 21, 22 and 57. Paragraph 71 prohibits reinstatement of expenditure previously recognised as an expense.

Expenditure on an intangible item shall be recognised as an expense when it is incurred unless:

 

  • it forms part of the cost of an intangible asset that meets the recognition criteria; or

 

  • the item is acquired in a business combination and cannot be recognised as an intangible asset. If this is the case, this expenditure (included in the cost of the business combination) shall form part of the amount attributed to goodwill at the acquisition date (see IFRS 3 Business Combinations).

 

 

Measurement after recognition

An entity shall choose either the cost model or the revaluation model as its accounting policy. If an intangible asset is accounted for using the revaluation model, all the other assets in its class shall also be accounted for using the same model, unless there is no active market for those assets.  Cost model: After initial recognition, an intangible asset shall be carried at its cost less any accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses.

Revaluation model: After initial recognition, an intangible asset shall be carried at a revalued amount, being its fair value at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent accumulated amortisation and any subsequent accumulated impairment losses. For the purpose of revaluations under this Standard, fair value shall be determined by reference to an active market. Revaluations shall be made with such regularity that at the balance sheet date the carrying amount of the asset does not differ materially from its fair value.

An active market is a market in which all the following conditions exist:

 

  • the items traded in the market are homogeneous;

 

  • willing buyers and sellers can normally be found at any time; and

 

  • prices are available to the public.

 



If an intangible asset’s carrying amount is increased as a result of a revaluation, the increase shall be credited directly to equity under the heading of revaluation surplus. However, the increase shall be recognised in profit or loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation decrease of the same asset previously recognised in profit or loss. If an intangible asset’s carrying amount is decreased as a result of a revaluation, the decrease shall be recognised in profit or loss. However, the decrease shall be debited directly to equity under the heading of revaluation surplus to the extent of any credit balance in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset.

 

Useful life

An entity shall assess whether the useful life of an intangible asset is finite or indefinite and, if finite, the length of, or number of production or similar units constituting, that useful life. An intangible asset shall be regarded by the entity as having an indefinite useful life when, based on an analysis of all of the relevant factors, there is no foreseeable limit to the period over which the asset is expected to generate net cash inflows for the entity.

Useful life is:

 

  • the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use by an entity; or

 

  • the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by an entity.

 

The useful life of an intangible asset that arises from contractual or other legal rights shall not exceed the period of the contractual or other legal rights, but may be shorter depending on the period over which the entity expects to use the asset. If the contractual or other legal rights are conveyed for a limited term that can be renewed,  the useful life of the intangible asset shall include the renewal period(s) only if there is evidence to support renewal by the entity without significant cost.

 



To determine whether an intangible asset is impaired, an entity applies IAS 36 Impairment of Assets.

 

 

Intangible assets with finite useful lives

The depreciable amount of an intangible asset with a finite useful life shall be allocated on a systematic basis over its useful life. Depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. Amortisation shall begin when the asset is available for use, ie when it is in the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Amortisation shall cease at the earlier of the date that the asset is classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations and the date that the asset is derecognised. The amortisation method used shall reflect the pattern in which the asset’s future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity. If that pattern cannot be determined reliably, the straight-line method shall be used. The amortisation charge for each period shall be recognised in profit or loss unless this or another Standard permits or requires it to be included in the carrying amount of another asset.

The residual value of an intangible asset is the estimated amount that an entity would currently obtain from disposal of the asset, after deducting the estimated costs of disposal, if the asset were already of the age and in the condition expected at the end of its useful life. The residual value of an intangible asset with a finite useful life shall be assumed to be zero unless:

 

  • there is a commitment by a third party to purchase the asset at the end of its useful life; or

 

  • there is an active market for the asset and:

 

  • residual value can be determined by reference to that market; and
  • it is probable that such a market will exist at the end of the asset’s useful life.

 

The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life shall be reviewed at least at each financial year-end. If the expected useful life of the asset is different from previous estimates, the amortisation period shall be changed accordingly. If there has been a change in the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset, the amortisation method shall be changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes shall be accounted for as changes in accounting estimates in accordance with IAS 8.

 

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives

An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life shall not be amortised.

In accordance with IAS 36 Impairment of Assets, an entity is required to test an intangible asset with an indefinite useful life for impairment by comparing its recoverable amount with its carrying amount  (a) annually, and

(b) whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired.

The useful life of an intangible asset that is not being amortised shall be reviewed each period to determine whether events and circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life assessment for that asset. If they do not, the change in the useful life assessment from indefinite to finite shall be accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.

 

IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement

The objective of this Standard is to establish principles for recognising and measuring financial assets, financial liabilities and some contracts to buy or sell non-financial items. Requirements for presenting information about financial instruments are in IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation. Requirements for disclosing information about financial instruments are in IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures.

 

Initial recognition

An entity shall recognise a financial asset or a financial liability on its balance sheet when, and only when, the entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

 

Derecognition of a financial liability

An entity shall remove a financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) from its balance sheet when, and only when, it is extinguished—ie when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires.

 

Initial measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities

When a financial asset or financial liability is recognised initially, an entity shall measure it at its fair value plus, in the case of a financial asset or financial liability not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of the financial asset or financial liability.

Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

 

Derecognition of a financial asset

The following flow chart illustrates the evaluation of whether and to what extent a financial asset is derecognised.

 

Subsequent measurement of financial assets

For the purpose of measuring a financial asset after initial recognition, this Standard classifies financial assets into the following four categories defined in paragraph 9:

 

  • financial assets at fair value through profit or loss;
  • held-to-maturity investments; (c) loans and receivables; and

(d) available-for-sale financial assets.

 

An amendment to the Standard, issued in June 2005, permits an entity to designate a financial asset or financial liability (or a group of financial assets, financial liabilities  or both) on initial recognition as one(s) to be measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss. To impose discipline on this categorisation, an entity is precluded from reclassifying financial instruments into or out of this category.

After initial recognition, an entity shall measure financial assets, including derivatives that are assets, at their fair values, without any deduction for transaction costs it may incur on sale or other disposal, except for the following financial assets:

 

  • loans and receivables as defined in paragraph 9, which shall be measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method;

 

  • held-to-maturity investments as defined in paragraph 9, which shall be measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method; and

 

  • investments in equity instruments that do not have a quoted market price in an active market and whose fair value cannot be reliably measured and derivatives that are linked to and must be settled by delivery of such unquoted equity instruments, which shall be measured at cost (see Appendix A paragraphs AG80 and AG81).

 



Financial assets that are designated as hedged items are subject to measurement under the hedge accounting requirements in paragraphs 89–102. All financial assets except those measured at fair value through profit or loss are subject to review for impairment in accordance with paragraphs 58–70 and Appendix A paragraphs AG84–AG93.

 

Subsequent measurement of financial liabilities

After initial recognition, an entity shall measure all financial liabilities at amortised cost using the effective interest method, except for:

 

  • financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Such liabilities, including derivatives that are liabilities, shall be measured at fair value except for a derivative liability that is linked to and must be settled by delivery of an unquoted equity instrument whose fair value cannot be reliably measured, which shall be measured at cost.

 

  • financial liabilities that arise when a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition or when the continuing involvement approach applies. Paragraphs 29 and 31 apply to the measurement of such financial liabilities.

 

  • financial guarantee contracts as defined in paragraph 9. After initial recognition, an issuer of such a contract shall (unless paragraph 47(a) or (b) applies) measure it at the higher of:

 

  • the amount determined in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets; and
  • the amount initially recognised (see paragraph 43) less, when appropriate, cumulative amortisation recognised in accordance with IAS 18 Revenue.

 

  • commitments to provide a loan at a below-market interest rate. After initial recognition, an issuer of such a commitment shall (unless paragraph 47(a) applies) measure it at the higher of:

 

  • the amount determined in accordance with IAS 37; and
  • the amount initially recognised (see paragraph 43) less, when appropriate, cumulative amortisation recognised in accordance with IAS 18.

 

Gains and losses 

A gain or loss arising from a change in the fair value of a financial asset or financial liability that is not part of a hedging relationship, shall be recognised, as follows.

 

  • A gain or loss on a financial asset or financial liability classified as at fair value through profit or loss shall be recognised in profit or loss.

 

  • A gain or loss on an available-for-sale financial asset shall be recognised directly in equity, through the statement of changes in equity, except for impairment losses and foreign exchange gains and losses, until the financial asset is derecognised, at which time the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in equity shall be recognised in profit or loss. However, interest calculated using the effective interest method is recognised in profit or loss. Dividends on an available-for-sale equity instrument are recognised in profit or loss when the entity’s right to receive payment is established.

For financial assets and financial liabilities carried at amortised cost a gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss when the financial asset or financial liability is derecognised or impaired, and through the amortisation process. However, for financial assets or financial liabilities that are hedged items the accounting for the gain or loss shall follow paragraphs 89–102.

 

Impairment and uncollectibility of financial assets

An entity shall assess at each balance sheet date whether there is any objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired.

 

Hedging

If there is a designated hedging relationship between a hedging instrument and a hedged item as described in paragraphs 85–88 and Appendix A paragraphs AG102–AG104, accounting for the gain or loss on the hedging instrument and the hedged item shall follow paragraphs 89–102.  Hedging relationships are of three types:

 

  • fair value hedge: a hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of a recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment, or an identified portion of such an asset, liability or firm commitment, that is attributable to a particular risk and could affect profit or loss.

 

  • cash flow hedge: a hedge of the exposure to variability in cash flows that (i) is attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability (such as all or some future interest payments on variable rate debt) or a highly probable forecast transaction and (ii) could affect profit or loss.

 

  • hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation as defined in IAS 21.

 

If a fair value hedge meets the conditions in paragraph 88 during the period, it shall be accounted for as follows:

 

  • the gain or loss from remeasuring the hedging instrument at fair value (for a derivative hedging instrument) or the foreign currency component of its carrying amount measured in accordance with IAS 21 (for a non-derivative hedging instrument) shall be recognised in profit or loss; and

 

 

  • the gain or loss on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk shall adjust the carrying amount of the hedged item and be recognised in profit or loss. This applies if the hedged item is otherwise measured at cost. Recognition of the gain or loss attributable to the hedged risk in profit or loss applies if the hedged item is an available-for-sale financial asset.

 

If a cash flow hedge meets the conditions in paragraph 88 during the period, it shall be accounted for as follows:

 

  • the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge (see paragraph 88) shall be recognised directly in equity through the statement of changes in equity; and

 

  • the ineffective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument shall be recognised in profit or loss.

 

Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation, including a hedge of a monetary item that is accounted for as part of the net investment (see IAS 21), shall be accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges:

 

  • the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge (see paragraph 88) shall be recognised directly in equity through the statement of changes in equity; and

 

  • the ineffective portion shall be recognised in profit or loss.

 

IAS 40 Investment Property

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for investment property and related disclosure requirements.

Investment property is property (land or a building—or part of a building—or both) held (by the owner or by the lessee under a finance lease) to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both, rather than for:

 

  • use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes; or

 

  • sale in the ordinary course of business.

 

A property interest that is held by a lessee under an operating lease may be classified and accounted for as investment property provided that:

 

  • the rest of the definition of investment property is met;

 

  • the operating lease is accounted for as if it were a finance lease in accordance with IAS 17 Leases; and

 

  • the lessee uses the fair value model set out in this Standard for the asset recognised.

 

Investment property shall be recognised as an asset when, and only when:

 

  • it is probable that the future economic benefits that are associated with the investment property will flow to the entity; and

 

  • the cost of the investment property can be measured reliably.

 

An investment property shall be measured initially at its cost. Transaction costs shall be included in the initial measurement.

The initial cost of a property interest held under a lease and classified as an investment property shall be as prescribed for a finance lease by paragraph 20 of IAS 17, ie the asset shall be recognised at the lower of the fair value of the property and the present value of the minimum lease payments. An equivalent amount shall be recognised as a liability in accordance with that same paragraph.  The Standard permits entities to choose either:

 

  • a fair value model, under which an investment property is measured, after initial measurement, at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss; or

 

  • a cost model. The cost model is specified in IAS 16 and requires an investment property to be measured after initial measurement at depreciated cost (less any accumulated impairment losses). An entity that chooses the cost model discloses the fair value of its investment property.

 

The fair value of investment property is the price at which the property could be exchanged between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

An investment property shall be derecognised (eliminated from the balance sheet) on disposal or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefits are expected from its disposal.

Gains or losses arising from the retirement or disposal of investment property shall be determined as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and shall be recognised in profit or loss (unless IAS 17 requires otherwise on a sale and leaseback) in the period of the retirement or disposal.

 

IAS 41 Agriculture

The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment and disclosures related to agricultural activity.

Agricultural activity is the management by an entity of the biological transformation of biological assets for sale, into agricultural produce, or into additional biological assets. Biological transformation comprises the processes of growth, degeneration, production, and procreation that cause qualitative or quantitative changes in a biological asset. A biological asset is a living animal or plant. Agricultural produce is the harvested product of the entity’s biological assets. Harvest is the detachment of produce from a biological asset or the cessation of a biological asset’s life processes.

IAS 41 prescribes, among other things, the accounting treatment for biological assets during the period of growth, degeneration, production, and procreation, and for the initial measurement of agricultural produce at the point of harvest. It requires measurement at fair value less estimated point-of-sale costs from initial recognition of biological assets up to the point of harvest, other than when fair value cannot be measured reliably on initial recognition. This Standard is applied to agricultural produce, which is the harvested product of the entity’s biological assets, only at the point of harvest. Thereafter, IAS 2 Inventories or another applicable Standard is applied. Accordingly, this Standard does not deal with the processing of agricultural produce after harvest; for example, the processing of grapes into wine by a vintner who has grown the grapes.

Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction. Point-of-sale costs include commissions to brokers and dealers, levies by regulatory agencies and commodity exchanges, and transfer taxes and duties. Point-of-sale costs exclude transport and other costs necessary to get assets to a market.  IAS 41 requires that a change in fair value less estimated point-of-sale costs of a biological asset be included in profit or loss for the period in which it arises. In agricultural activity, a change in physical attributes of a living animal or plant directly enhances or diminishes economic benefits to the entity.  IAS 41 does not establish any new principles for land related to agricultural activity. Instead, an entity follows IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment or IAS 40 Investment Property, depending on which standard is appropriate in the circumstances. IAS 16 requires land to be measured either at its cost less any accumulated impairment losses, or at a revalued amount. IAS 40 requires land that is investment property to be measured at its fair value, or cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Biological assets that are physically attached to land (for example, trees in a plantation forest) are measured at their fair value less estimated point-of-sale costs separately from the land.

IAS 41 requires that an unconditional government grant related to a biological asset measured at its fair value less estimated point-of-sale costs be recognised as income when, and only when, the government grant becomes receivable. If a government grant is conditional, including where a government grant requires an entity not to engage in specified agricultural activity, an entity should recognise the government grant as income when, and only when, the conditions attaching to the government grant are met. If a government grant relates to a biological asset measured at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses, IAS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance is applied.

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