The field of auditing as a discipline in simple words involves review of various assertions; both in financial as well as in non-financial terms, with a view to prove the veracity of such assertions and expression of opinion by auditor on the same. Thus, it is quite logical and natural that the function of audit can be performed if and only if the person also possesses a good knowledge about the fields in respect of which he is conducting such a review.
- Auditing and Accounting
It has been pointed out earlier that both accounting and auditing are closely related with each other as auditing reviews the financial statements which are nothing but a result of the overall accounting process. It naturally calls on the part of the auditor to have a thorough and sound knowledge of generally accepted principles of accounting before he can review the financial statements. In fact, auditing as a discipline is also closely related with various other disciplines as there is lot of linkages in the work which is done by an auditor in his day-to-day activities. To begin with, it may be noted that the discipline of auditing itself is a logical construct and everything done in auditing must be bound by the rules of logic. Ethical precepts are the foundations on which the foundation of the entire accounting profession rests. The knowledge of language is also considered essential in the field of auditing as the auditor shall be required to communicate, both in writing as well as orally, in day-to-day work.
- Auditing and Law
The relationship between auditing and law is very close one. Auditing involves examination of various transactions from the view point of whether or not these have been properly entered into. It necessitates that an auditor should have a good knowledge of business laws affecting the entity. He should be familiar with the law of contracts, negotiable instruments, etc. The knowledge of taxation laws is also inevitable as entity is required to prepare their financial statements taking into account various provisions affected by various tax laws. In analysing the impact of various transactions particularly from the accounting aspect, an auditor ought to have a good knowledge about the direct as well as indirect tax laws.
- Auditing and Economics
As is well known, accounting is concerned with the accumulation and presentation of data relating to economic activity. Though the concept of income as put forward by economists is different as compared to the accountants concept of income, still, there are lot of similar grounds on which the accounting has flourished. From the auditing view point, the auditors are more concerned with Micro economics rather than with the Macro economics. The knowledge of Macro economics should include the nature of economic force that affect the firm, relationship of price, productivity and the role of Government and Government regulations. Auditor is expected to be familiar with the overall economic environment in which his client is operating.
- Auditing and Behavioural Science
The discipline of behavioural science is also closely linked with the subject of auditing. While it may be said that an auditor, particularly the financial auditor, deals basically with the figures contained in the financial statements but he shall be required to interact with a lot of people in the organisation. As against the financial auditor, the internal auditor or a management auditor are expected to deal with human beings rather than financial figures. As it will be made clear in the chapter of ‘Internal Control’ that one of the basic elements in designing the internal control system is personnel. There it has been made amply clear that howsoever a sound internal control structure is designed, it cannot work until and unless the people who are working in the organisation are competent and honest. The knowledge of human behaviour is indeed very essential for an auditor so as to effectively discharge his duties.
- Auditing and Statistics & Mathematics
With the passage of time, test check procedures in auditing have become part of generally accepted auditing procedures. With the emergence of test check procedure, discipline of statistics has come quite close to auditing as the auditor is also expected to have the knowledge of statistical sampling so as to arrive at meaningful conclusions. The knowledge of mathematics is also required on the part of auditor particularly at the time of verification of inventories.
- Auditing and Data Processing
Today, organisations are witnessing revolution in the field of data processing of accounts. Many organisations are carrying out their financial accounting activities with the help of computers which can document, record, collate, allocate and value accounting data and information in very large quantity at very high speed. The dependence on the accuracy of the programmed instructions given today, the computer is able to carry out each of these activities with complete accuracy. With such a phenomenal growth in the field of computer sciences, the auditor should have good knowledge of the components, general capability of the system and the related terms. In fact, EDP auditing in itself is developing as a discipline in itself.
- Auditing and Financial Management
Auditing is also closely related with other functional fields of business such as finance, production, marketing, personnel and other general areas of business management. With the overgrowing field of auditing, the financial services sectors occupies a dominant place in our system. While in general terms, the auditor is expected to have knowledge about various financial techniques such as working capital management, funds flow, ratio analysis, capital budgeting etc. The auditor is also expected to have a fair knowledge of the institutions that comprise the market place. The knowledge of various institutions and Government activities that influence the operations of the financial market are also required to be understood by an auditor.
- Auditing and Production
Regarding production function, it may be stated that a good auditor is one who understands the client and his business. While carrying out the audit activity, the auditor is required to evaluate transactions from the accounting aspect in relation to the process through which it has passed through as accounting for by-products, joint-products may also require to be done. The knowledge of production process shall become more essential in case of an internal auditor. The auditor shall also require to understand the cost system in operation in the factory and assess whether the same is adequate for the particular company. The understanding of the terminology of the production shall enable an auditor to communicate with production employees in connection with his work. On the similar pattern the auditor is also expected to have good understanding about the marketing, personnel and other general business management areas.
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