Public Sector Governance, Policy and Administration Revision Kit

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UNIT DESCRIPTION

This paper is intended to equip the candidate with the requisite knowledge, skills and competencies that will enable them implement governance principles in the public sector, formulate and implement relevant policies and effectively administrate public sector matters.

 

LEARNING OUTCOMES

A candidate who passes this paper should be able to;

  • Evaluate the theoretical perspectives of public policy and administration;
  • Analyse the political and economic environment of public policy and administration;
  • Manage policy and operational relationships between levels of government;
  • Interrogate policies in various sectors and apply them to development;
  • Apply appropriate leadership and managerial systems and processes in governance; and
  • Uphold ethical, patriotic and accountable culture in

 

 

CONTENT

  1. Administrative theory

1.1 Historical and theoretical perspectives of public administration;

1.2 Concepts and principles of public administration;

1.3 Administrative processes;

1.4 Overview and the Role of Judicial Review

1.5 Primary features of administrative systems;

1.6 Authority, power and influence;

1.7 Relationship between public administration and politics; and

1.8 Public administration challenges in the public sector.

 

  1. Government organization, functions and practices

2.1 Concepts, principles and levels of government;

2.3 Constitutional and legal framework for devolution;

2.4 Separation of powers/checks and balances through the arms of government;

2.5 Structure and Functions of Government – national and county;

2.6 Interface between the National and county governments;

2.7 Statutory provisions for conflict resolution;

2.8 Role and responsibility of Certified Secretaries and Governance Auditors in management of government; and

2.9 Management of the political environment.

 

  1. Theories and models of public policy

3.1  Historical and theoretical perspective of public policy;

3.2  Concepts and principles of public policy;

3.3  Public policy formulation processes (agenda setting, actors and roles);

3.4 Policy design formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation;

3.5 Public participation in the policy process; and

3.6 Benefits of public policy in national development.

 

  1. Public policy and national development

4.1 Classical and neoclassical models of development;

4.2 The role of the State in development;

4.3 The political economy of development;

4.4 Linkage of public administration and public policy;

4.5 Linkage between national and county development plans;

4.6 National and county plans and policies;

4.7 Stakeholder’s involvement in development planning;

4.8 Characteristics of effective plans and policies; and

4.9 Challenges of public policy formulation and implementation

 

  1. Public policy analysis

5.1 Concept and rationale for public policy analysis;

5.2 Diagnosing and defining the problem (data collection and analysis)

5.3 Tools of public policy analysis;

5.4 Policy analysis models;

5.6 Policy implementation, monitoring and evaluation;

5.7 Stakeholders analysis (mapping the political and ideological contexts); and

5.8 Research in public policy.

 

  1. Citizen participation and development planning

6.1 The concepts of civic education and public participation;

6.2 Rationale for public participation;

6.3 Legal framework for public participation: Constitution and legislative provisions

6.4 Principles of public participation;

6.5 Establishment of modalities and platforms of citizen participation;

6.6 Strategies for optimizing stakeholder engagement;

6.7 Benefits of public participation in government decision making; and

6.8 Challenges of public participation.

 

  1. Public sector governance

7.1 Leadership, integrity and national values in public service;

7.2 Principles of Corporate Governance;

7.3 Governance Models;

7.4 Approaches to corporate governance;

7.5 Corporate relationships in the government;

7.6 Values based leadership;

7.7 Professional codes and standards of governance;

7.8 Framework for enforcement of ethics and integrity in public sector; and

7.9 Strategies for handling ethical and integrity challenges

 

  1. Resource Stewardship

8.1 Legal and institutional framework in resource management; (Public Finance Management Act)

8.2 Resource mobilisation (revenue and debt);

8.3 Public sector planning and budgeting, budgetary process and budgetary expenditure control;

8.4 Resource utilisation for delivery of goods and services (Public Procurement and Asset Disposal Act)

8.5 Reports and accounts for funds, outputs and results; and

8.6 External audit for oversight/ external accountability (Public Audit Act)

 

  1. Management of public enterprises

9.1 Theoretical foundations of public enterprises;

9.2 State-market debate;

9.3 Typology of public enterprises;

9.4 Organisation and governance structure;

9.5 Regulatory and legal framework of public enterprises;

9.6 Public investment appraisal;

9.7 Relationship between government agencies and private firms in the market place;

9.8 Performance of public enterprises across sectors and countries;

9.9 Reform of public enterprises including privatisation/divestiture;

9.10 Public Private Partnerships

SAMPLE WORK

Complete copy of CS Public Sector Governance, Policy and Administration Revision Kit is available in SOFT copy (Reading using our MASOMO MSINGI PUBLISHERS APP) and in HARD copy 

Phone: 0728 776 317

Email: info@masomomsingi.com

TOPIC 1

 ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY

  QUESTION 1

August 2023 Question One D

Explain THREE distinctions between public administration and politics. (6 marks)

 

ANSWER

Distinctions between public administration and politics

  Public administration Politics
Focus and Objectives Public administration focuses on the implementation of laws and policies, ensuring the efficient and effective delivery of public services. It is concerned with the operational aspects of government, such as budgeting, personnel management, and program evaluation. Politics, on the other hand, deals with the allocation of power and the determination of public policy. It involves the struggle among different groups and individuals to influence government decisions and shape the direction of society.
Role of Actors Public administrators are primarily responsible for carrying out the decisions made by elected officials. They are expected to be neutral and impartial in their work, adhering to established rules and procedures Politicians, in contrast, are actively involved in the decision-making process. They seek to influence public policy through elections, lobbying, and other forms of political engagement
Time Horizon Public administrators typically focus on the short-term and immediate needs of the public. They are concerned with implementing policies effectively and managing day-to-day operations Politicians often have a longer-term perspective, considering the strategic implications of their decisions and the potential impact on future generations. They may prioritize issues that have long-term consequences, even if they require short-term sacrifices.

 

QUESTION 2

August 2023 Question Five C

Features of administrative systems can vary depending on the context and purpose.

Required:

Discuss FIVE features of these systems.    (10 marks)

 

ANSWER

Five features of administrative systems:

  1. Goal-oriented: Administrative systems are designed to achieve specific goals. These goals may be set by the organization itself, or they may be imposed by external factors, such as government regulations.
  2. Rationality: Administrative systems are based on the principle of rationality. This means that they are designed to be efficient and effective in achieving their goals. Administrative systems typically involve a set of rules, procedures, and processes that are designed to guide decision-making and behavior.
  3. Hierarchy: Administrative systems are typically organized hierarchically. This means that there is a clear chain of command, with authority flowing from top to bottom. This hierarchical structure helps to ensure that decisions are made and implemented efficiently.
  4. Division of labor: Administrative systems typically divide the work of the organization among different individuals and units. This division of labor helps to improve efficiency and productivity.
  5. Communication and coordination: Administrative systems must have effective communication and coordination mechanisms in place. This is necessary to ensure that all parts of the organization are working together to achieve the same goals.

 

QUESTION 3

April 2023 Question One A

Outline FOUR sources of power in an organisation.   (4 marks)

 

ANSWER

Sources of power in an organization

  1. Legitimate power is the power that comes from a person’s formal position in the organization. It is also known as positional power. For example, a manager has legitimate power over their employees because of their title and role.
  2. Expert power is the power that comes from a person’s knowledge and expertise in a particular area. For example, a software engineer may have expert power over their colleagues because of their knowledge of coding and programming languages.
  3. Referent power is the power that comes from a person’s personal qualities and relationships. For example, a person who is well-liked and respected by their colleagues may have referent power over them.
  4. Reward power is the power that comes from a person’s ability to give out rewards, such as promotions, bonuses, and praise. For example, a manager has reward power over their employees because they can give them these things.
  5. Coercive power is the power that comes from a person’s ability to punish others, such as by firing them, giving them bad performance reviews, or making their work life difficult. For example, a manager has coercive power over their employees because they can do these things.

 

QUESTION 4

December 2022 Question One B

As a senior public administrator in your country, explain to junior officers in your department, FIVE similarities between public administration and private administration as stipulated by Henri Fayol.    (5 marks)

 

ANSWER

Similarities between public administration and private administration as stipulated by Henri Fayol

  1. The managerial aspects of planning organising coordinating and controlling are the same for public and private administration
  2. The accounting aspects like maintenance of accounts’ filing’ statistics and stocking are the same
  3. Both of them have a hierarchical chain of command or reporting as the organisational structure
  4. Both get influenced’ adopt and reform their own practices in the light of best practices of the other. They also share the same pool of manpower
  5. They share similar kinds of personnel and financial problems

 

QUESTION 5

December 2022 Question Two A

Examine FOUR grounds for judicial review in your Country.     (4 marks)

 

ANSWER

Grounds for judicial review in Kenya

Judicial review is a process through which the courts can review the legality, fairness, and reasonableness of administrative actions, decisions, or omissions by public bodies. The grounds for judicial review in Kenya are well-established and include the following:

  1. Illegality: The administrative action must be unlawful, meaning that it is not authorized by law or that it is contrary to law.
  2. Irrationality: The administrative action must be irrational, meaning that it is not based on evidence or reason.
  3. Procedural unfairness: The administrative action must be procedurally unfair, meaning that the decision-maker did not follow the proper procedures or that the decision-maker did not give the parties involved a fair hearing.
  4. Abuse of discretion: The decision-maker must have exercised their discretion in a bona fide manner and not for an ulterior purpose.
  5. Violation of legitimate expectation: The decision-maker must not violate a legitimate expectation created by the public institution.
  6. Proportionality: The administrative action must be proportionate to the legitimate aim sought to be achieved.

 

QUESTION 6

December 2022 Question Three B

Examine FIVE roles of public administration in the modern world.   (5 marks)

 

ANSWER

Roles of public administration in the modern world

Here are some of the main roles of public administration in the modern world:

  1. Delivering essential services: Public administration is responsible for delivering essential services to citizens, such as education, healthcare, infrastructure, and security. These services are essential for the well-being of citizens and for the development of society.
  2. Implementing public policies: Public administration is responsible for implementing public policies that are designed to achieve specific social, economic, and environmental goals. For example, public administration may be responsible for implementing policies to reduce poverty, improve education, or protect the environment.
  3. Regulating the private sector: Public administration is responsible for regulating the private sector to protect consumers, workers, and the environment. For example, public administration may be responsible for regulating food safety, environmental protection, and labor standards.
  4. Promoting economic development: Public administration plays a key role in promoting economic development by investing in infrastructure, providing education and training, and supporting small businesses.
  5. Promoting social justice: Public administration plays a key role in promoting social justice by providing social safety nets, ensuring equal access to services, and protecting the rights of minorities.
  6. Protecting the environment: Public administration plays a key role in protecting the environment by regulating pollution, conserving natural resources, and promoting renewable energy.

 

QUESTION 7

August 2022 Question One D

In the context of administrative theory, distinguish between authority and power. (4 marks)

ANSWER

Distinguishing between authority and power

Authority is the legitimate right to make decisions and give orders. It is granted to a position or office, not to an individual. Authority is based on the formal structure of an organization and is typically established through laws, regulations, or organizational policies. For example, a police officer has the authority to arrest someone because it is granted to the position of police officer by law.

 

Power, on the other hand, is the ability to influence the behavior of others. It can be based on a variety of factors, such as personal charisma, expertise, or control over resources. Power is not always formal or legitimate, and it can be used for good or evil. For example, a salesperson may have power over a customer because they have the expertise that the customer needs.

Summary of the key Differences between authority and power:

Feature Authority Power
Source Formal structure of an organization Personal characteristics, expertise, control over resources
Legitimacy Yes No
Basis Laws, regulations, organizational policies Personal skills, relationships, control over information
Use Make decisions, give orders Influence behavior

 

QUESTION 8

August 2022 Question Three B

In administration of organisations, power is exercised through various ways.

 

Examine five various sources of power in organisations.    (5 marks)

 

ANSWER

Sources of power in organisations

In the administration of organizations, power is exercised through various ways. Here are five various sources of power in organizations:

  1. Positional power: This is also known as legitimate power or authority power. It comes from the formal position or rank that a person holds in the organization. For example, a manager has positional power over their subordinates because of their position in the organizational hierarchy.
  2. Expert power: This is power that comes from having specialized knowledge or expertise in a particular area. For example, a doctor has expert power over their patients because of their medical knowledge and skills.
  3. Referent power: This is power that comes from being admired, respected, and liked by others. For example, a charismatic leader may have referent power over their followers because of their personal qualities.
  4. Reward power: This is power that comes from the ability to control rewards, such as bonuses, promotions, or praise. For example, a manager has reward power over their subordinates because they can influence their pay and promotions.
  5. Coercive power: This is power that comes from the ability to control punishments, such as demotions, layoffs, or reprimands. For example, a manager has coercive power over their subordinates because they can discipline them or terminate their employment.

SAMPLE WORK

Complete copy of CS Public Sector Governance, Policy and Administration Revision Kit is available in SOFT copy (Reading using our MASOMO MSINGI PUBLISHERS APP) and in HARD copy 

Phone: 0728 776 317

Email: info@masomomsingi.com

QUESTION 9

April 2022 Question One A

Discuss the contribution of Max Weber to the development of public administration. (10 marks)

ANSWER

Contribution of Max Weber to the development of public administration

Max Weber, a renowned German sociologist, made significant contributions to the field of public administration, particularly through his seminal work on bureaucracy. His insights into the nature and characteristics of bureaucratic organizations have had a profound impact on the understanding and development of public administration practices.

(a)Bureaucracy as an Ideal Type: Weber introduced the concept of an ideal type, a theoretical construct that represents the purest form of a particular phenomenon. In the context of public administration, Weber’s ideal bureaucracy is characterized by:

  1. Specialization of labor: Tasks are divided into specific and manageable units, allowing for expertise and efficiency.
  2. Hierarchy of authority: A clear chain of command ensures coordination and accountability.
  3. Formal rules and regulations: Written rules govern procedures and decision-making, promoting consistency and predictability.
  4. Impersonality: Decisions are based on objective criteria and regulations, not personal considerations or biases.

Weber argued that bureaucracy, with its emphasis on rationality and efficiency, was the most effective form of organization for large-scale, complex tasks, particularly in the context of modern governance. 

(b)Value-Free Administration: Weber advocated for value-free administration, emphasizing that public administrators should implement policies impartially and without personal bias. This principle aimed to maintain the integrity of the administrative process and prevent the misuse of power. 

(c)Understanding Power and Legitimacy: Weber explored the concept of authority, distinguishing between three types: traditional, charismatic, and rational-legal. He argued that modern bureaucracy operates on the basis of rational-legal authority, where power is derived from established laws and rules. 

(d)Influence on Public Administration Theory: Weber’s ideas have had a lasting impact on public administration theory, shaping the way scholars and practitioners view and analyze bureaucratic organizations. His work has contributed to the development of various administrative theories, including New Public Management and New Institutionalism. 

(e)Practical Applications: Weber’s insights have been applied to various aspects of public administration, including organizational design, personnel management, decision-making, and policy implementation. His work has helped to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability of public organizations.

In conclusion, Max Weber’s contributions to public administration have been substantial and enduring. His concept of bureaucracy, his emphasis on value-free administration, and his analysis of power and legitimacy continue to inform the field and shape the practice of public administration today.

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