THURSDAY: 7 December 2023. Afternoon Paper. Time Allowed: 3 hours.

Answer ALL questions. Marks allocated to each question are shown at the end of the question. Do NOT write anything on this paper.


1. Summarise FOUR responsibilities of the senate budget committee in public finance matters in your country. (4 marks)

2. Public participation is a process that allows citizens to have a say in the decisions that affect their lives and to hold their government accountable.

Evaluate FIVE challenges citizens face during this process. (5 marks)

3. Explain FIVE benefits of value-based leadership. (5 marks)

4. Highlight SIX challenges developing countries face in implementing public sector reforms. (6 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. By having a strong framework for enforcement of ethics and integrity, governments can create a public sector that is more ethical, efficient and accountable to the public.

Outline FIVE components that would constitute the framework. (5 marks)

2. Explain FIVE ways external audits contribute to resource stewardship. (5 marks)

3. Discuss FIVE ways in which government agencies and private firms interact. (10 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. Describe FOUR criteria used in the evaluation of public policies. (4 marks)

2. Explain SIX benefits of research in policy analysis. (6 marks)

3. Examine FIVE assumptions of classical models of development that have influenced public policy in free market economies. (10 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. Assess FOUR demerits of Public Private Partnership. (4 marks)

2. Public administration is the process of managing government operations and implementing policies and programmes to serve the public interest.

Analyse FOUR concepts and principles that underpin public administration. (4 marks)

3. Statutory provisions for conflict resolution refer to laws and regulations established by governments to provide a framework for addressing and resolving disputes and conflicts between individuals, organisations or entities.

Evaluate FIVE statutory provisions for conflict resolution. (5 marks)

4. Highlight SEVEN measures that can be used by government to improve public administration effectiveness. (7 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. Explain FIVE roles of professional codes and standards in promoting public sector governance. (5 marks)

2. Effective plans and policies are essential for guiding organisations, governments and individuals towards achieving their goals and objectives.

Highlight FIVE characteristics of effective plans and policies. (5 marks)

3. Theoretical perspectives of public policy offer insights into how governments formulate and implement policies to address various societal issues and challenges.

Examine FIVE theoretical perspectives that offer frameworks for analysing and predicting policy outcomes. (10 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)

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