PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT DECEMBER 2023 PAST PAPER

MONDAY: 4 December 2023. Afternoon Paper. Time Allowed: 2 hours.

This paper is made up of fifty (50) Multiple Choice Questions. Answer ALL questions by indicating the letter (A, B, C or D) that represents the correct answer. Each question is allocated two (2) marks. Do NOT write anything on this paper.

1. Which of the following leadership style focuses on giving employees more autonomy and responsibility in decision-making?

A. Autocratic leadership
B. Transformational leadership
C. Laissez-faire leadership
D. Servant leadership (2 marks)

2. Which of the following management theorist is known as the father of scientific management?

A. Henri Fayol
B. Peter Drucker
C. Abraham Maslow
D. Frederick Taylor (2 marks)

3. The following are examples of external factors in a business environment analysis, EXCEPT ________________.

A. Economic conditions
B. Organisational culture
C. Government regulations
D. Technological trends (2 marks)

4. Which of the following is NOT a function of management?

A. Leading
B. Delegating
C. Controlling
D. Organising (2 marks)

5. Which of the following phase of change process involves evaluating effectiveness of implemented changes and making necessary adjustments?

A. Planning phase
B. Change identification phase
C. Monitoring and controlling phase
D. Implementation phase (2 marks)

6. Which of the following statement best illustrates the main difference between a leader and a manager?

A. Leaders focus on short-term goals, while managers focus on long-term goals
B. Managers have formal authority, while leaders have informal influence
C. Managers are responsible for planning, while leaders are responsible for controlling
D. Leaders are only found in top-level management, while managers are found at all levels (2 marks)

7. Which management approach in an organisation is seen as a complex and adaptive establishment?

A. Classical management
B. Human relations management
C. Contingency management
D. Systems management (2 marks)

8. In a SWOT analysis, strengths and weaknesses are considered as part of the .

A. Internal analysis
B. External analysis
C. Political analysis
D. Technological analysis (2 marks)

9. Which of the following management function involves ensuring that activities in an organisation are in alignment with its strategic goals?

A. Planning
B. Organising
C. Leading
D. Controlling (2 marks)

10. When an organisation undergoes a fundamental shift in its culture and structure, it is said to be experiencing ___________________.

A. Incremental change
B. Transformational change
C. Fundamental change
D. Status quo change (2 marks)

11. Which of the following type of skill is essential for understanding and working with people at all levels of an organisation?

A. Interpersonal skill
B. Technical skill
C. Conceptual skill
D. Problem-solving skill (2 marks)

12. Which of the following aspect of management is associated with Hawthorne studies conducted by Elton Mayo?

A. Employee motivation and job satisfaction
B. Scientific management principles
C. Bureaucratic organisational structures
D. Budgeting and financial planning (2 marks)

13. Which of the following set of factors is assessed through PESTEL analysis framework?

A. Economic, political, legal, sociocultural, technological and environmental factors
B. Political, economic, social, technological, environmental and labour factors
C. Economic, legal, political, sociocultural, training and environmental factors
D. Political, economic, safety, technological, environmental and legal factors (2 marks)

14. The type of a plan that outlines specific, short-term actions to achieve a particular goal or objective is known as ___________________.

A. Strategic plan
B. Tactical plan
C. Operational plan
D. Contingency plan (2 marks)

15. The following factors can lead to acceptance of change by employees in an organisation, EXCEPT ___________.

A. Open communication and employee involvement
B. Employees’ understanding of the benefits of change
C. Fear, uncertainty, and a perceived loss of control
D. Strict enforcement of new policies (2 marks)

16. Which of the following term is associated with the day-to-day running of an organisation and maintaining stability?

A. Leadership
B. Management
C. Administration
D. Supervision (2 marks)

17. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y proposed two contrasting views of human nature. Which of the following represents Theory Y?

A. People are inherently lazy and require strict control and coercion
B. People are self-motivated, enjoy work and seek responsibility
C. People are motivated by fear of punishment and have little ambition
D. People are primarily concerned with satisfying their physiological needs (2 marks)

18. Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of using PESTEL and SWOT analyses in an organisation?

A. To predict future financial performance
B. To identify potential risks and opportunities
C. To make short-term tactical decisions
D. To minimise employee turnover (2 marks)

19. Which of the following statement outlines the primary focus of a contingency plan?

A. Day-to-day operations
B. Preparing for unexpected events
C. Achieving long-term strategic objectives
D. Employee performance evaluation (2 marks)

20. Which of the following is the BEST means of reducing resistance to change in an organisation?

A. Withholding information from employees
B. Minimising involvement of affected employees
C. Focusing on top-down decision-making
D. Involving employees in planning change (2 marks)

21. The following are typically considered management skills, EXCEPT ___________________.

A. Technical skills
B. Decision-making skills
C. Creativity skills
D. Interpersonal skills (2 marks)

22. Which of the following needs must be satisfied first before an individual can focus on higher-level needs according to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory?

A. Safety needs
B. Self-actualisation
C. Esteem needs
D. Belongingness and love needs (2 marks)

23. Which of the following statement BEST describes why environmental scanning is crucial for businesses?

A. Environmental scanning helps businesses to ignore external factors and focus on internal operations
B. Environmental scanning helps businesses to isolate strengths and weaknesses without considering
opportunities and threats
C. Environmental scanning helps businesses to stay aware of changes in the business environment and adapt strategically
D. Environmental scanning helps businesses to maintain status quo (2 marks)

24. Which of the following is a factor that can affect the organising function in an organisation?

A. The size of the workforce and the nature of the work
B. The colour of office walls
C. Employee preferences for work hours
D. The organisation’s mission statement (2 marks)

25. Which phase of the change process involves creating a sense of urgency and identifying the need for change?

A. Implementation
B. Resistance
C. Planning and strategy
D. Assessment and diagnosis (2 marks)

26. Which of the following statement illustrates what effective administrators are skilled in?

A. Setting long-term organisational goals
B. Making high-level strategic decisions
C. Handling routine tasks and processes
D. Inspiring and motivating employees (2 marks)

27. Who among the following theorists is known for his scientific management principles emphasising time and motion studies to increase efficiency in the workplace?

A. Henri Fayol
B. Max Weber
C. Frederick Taylor
D. Abraham Maslow (2 marks)

28. Which of the following is the primary goal of applying appropriate tools for environmental analysis in a business?

A. To ensure the business makes short-term profits
B. To ensure the business dominates market share
C. To ensure the business reduces costs immediately
D. To ensure the business survives and grows in the long term (2 marks)

29. Which of the following statement shows why planning is considered crucial in management process?

A. It eliminates the need for organisational structure
B. It ensures immediate success
C. It minimises the need for decision-making
D. It provides a roadmap for achieving goals (2 marks)

30. Which type of organisational change involves making phased adjustments to existing processes and procedures?

A. Transformational change
B. Incremental change
C. Revolutionary change
D. Reactive change (2 marks)

31. Which of the following statement BEST shows the primary role of a leader in an organisation?

A. Inspiring and guiding employees
B. Monitoring daily operations
C. Enforcing policies and procedures
D. Setting financial goals (2 marks)

32. Which classical management theorist introduced the concept of the scalar chain and the principles of unity of command and direction?

A. Max Weber
B. Elton Mayo
C. Mary Parker Follett
D. Henri Fayol (2 marks)

33. Internal environment analysis is concerned with the following factors, EXCEPT ____________________.

A. Factors that are beyond control of the organisation
B. Factors that are under control of the organisation
C. Factors that are internal to the organisation
D. Factors that are important for decision making (2 marks)

34. Which of the following approach to planning focuses on adapting to changes in the environment and being flexible in goal-setting?

A. Contingency approach
B. Traditional approach
C. Incremental approach
D. Static approach (2 marks)

35. During the change process, what typically follows the planning and strategy phase?

A. Diagnosis
B. Implementation
C. Feedback
D. Monitoring (2 marks)

36. Which of the following is NOT a staffing function?

A. Recruiting
B. Selecting
C. Delegating
D. Training (2 marks)

37. Which of the following statement is TRUE about Max Weber’s bureaucratic theory of management?

A. The theory emphasises a decentralised organisational structure
B. The theory emphasises informal communication networks
C. The theory emphasises a clear hierarchy of authority and formal rules and regulations
D. The theory emphasises human relations and social interactions (2 marks)

38. In a SWOT analysis, opportunities and threats are considered part of the .

A. External environment
B. Internal environment
C. Organisational strengths
D. Managerial decisions (2 marks)

39. Which of the following principle of organising suggests that employees should have a single, clear supervisor?

A. Unity of direction
B. Scalar chain
C. Span of control
D. Division of labor (2 marks)

40. Which of the following type of control focuses on comparing actual performance to predetermined standards and taking corrective actions as needed?

A. Feedforward control
B. Concurrent control
C. Pre-control
D. Feedback control (2 marks)

41. Which of the following statement BEST describes the meaning of an organisational structure?

A. The physical layout of an office
B. The people in leadership positions
C. The arrangement of tasks and responsibilities within an organisation
D. The number of employees in an organisation (2 marks)

42. Which of the following needs are considered the highest priority for individuals according to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory?

A. Physiological needs
B. Safety needs
C. Social needs
D. Self-actualisation needs (2 marks)

43. Which of the following statement shows the primary purpose of conducting a SWOT analysis?

A. To identify key competitors
B. To develop a long-term business strategy
C. To analyse short-term financial performance
D. To implement marketing tactics (2 marks)

44. Which of the following statement illustrates why staffing is considered a vital function in management?

A. It reduces the need for control
B. It ensures cost efficiency
C. It brings in the right people
D. It limits employee participation (2 marks)

45. Which of the following shows the correct sequence of steps in the control process?

A. Establish standards, measure performance, compare to standards, take corrective action
B. Measure performance, take corrective action, establish standards, compare to standards
C. Compare to standards, take corrective action, establish standards, measure performance
D. Establish standards, compare to standards, measure performance, take corrective action (2 marks)

46. Which of the following statement shows why organising is a critical function in management?

A. It simplifies the planning process
B. It eliminates the need for leadership
C. It ensures efficient use of resources
D. It reduces the need for decision-making (2 marks)

47. Which of the following statement explains an argument of contingency thinking in modern management?

A. There is one best way to manage any organisation in all situations
B. Management principles are universal and timeless
C. Organisations can function effectively without formal structure
D. Management practices should be adapted to fit the unique circumstances of each situation (2 marks)

48. Which of the following statement shows how a business would benefit from the identification of strengths and weaknesses in its internal environment?

A. It helps the business to optimise use of resources and planning long-term business strategy
B. It helps the business to concentrate on opportunities and threats
C. It gives the business an opportunity to focus on external factors
D. It helps the business to reduce cost of production (2 marks)

49. Which of the following statement BEST describes the meaning of delegation?

A. Taking on all tasks and responsibilities oneself
B. Assigning tasks and authority to subordinates
C. Avoiding any form of control and controversies
D. Sharing power and authority (2 marks)

50. A balanced scorecard is a tool that measures performance in multiple key areas, including .

A. Financial, customer, internal processes, innovation and learning
B. Employee attendance, social media engagement and environmental sustainability
C. Employee satisfaction, job titles and office design
D. Legal compliance and government relations (2 marks)

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