Organization and Retrieval of information Notes

ORGANIZATION AND RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION

LIBRARY (BOOK) CLASSIFICATION

It is the process of determining the main subjects of an item and characteristic and then expressing them by the most appropriate notation from a classification scheme.

Broad (general) classification is a method of classifying item under the general (main) division   and sub- division of a classification scheme.

Closed (specific) classification is a method of classifying items as specifically as possible using a minute breakdown into narrower concepts of the classification schemes.

Purpose of Library Classification

  1. Facilitate shelving or arrangement of primary documents in a library collection.
  2. Facilitate the replacement or re- shelving of documents in their proper places on the shelves after use.
  3. Help in shelving newly acquired document in their proper places amongst the existing documents.
  4. Facilitate the filing of bibliographic records in systematic files.
  5. Facilitate in book displays so that users can browse though the shelves.
  6. Facilitate the inclusion of bibliographic records or reference in printed catalogue or other retrieval tools.
  7. Collocate items that are related by subject.

Collocate – bring together.

ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGES OF LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION

Library classification is a process of arranging documents in a library based on the subject contents and form of presentation that are assigned class numbers / notation from a classification scheme.

Advantages of Library Classification

  1. Facilitates the evaluation of a library stock as it is possible to find out it weak and strong subject areas.
  2. Facilitate orderly arrangement of documents in a library collection.
  3. Enhance book displays that are essential for browsing end users.
  4. Facilities the process of stock taking based on the call numbers assigned to the documents
  5. Bibliographic searchers by the library staff and users and their compilation is made easier.
  6. Saves the time of the library staff and user information retrieval.
  7. Makes it possible to rep ( re- shelve ) items in their proper places on the shelves after uses
  8. Helps in shelving new documents in their proper amongst the existing one on the shelve.
  9. Facilitates weeding of the library stock.
  10. Ensures compilation of subject bibliographical indexes catalogues and users suggestion and borrower stations.
  11. Enhances the compilation of a shelf list.
  12. It compliments cataloging work as it facilitates creation, call number and subject cataloguing though chain indexing procedure. The call number help users of the catalogue locate from the library collection.

Disadvantages Of Library Classification

  1. Only one relationship of a subject can be shown even if the work covers more than one subject. Only one class number can be assigned to a document.
  2. Re classification of documents is necessary as new knowledge and new classes are created. Re – classification is time consuming.
  3. Classification may generate long and confusing notations that have no meaning to the end users.
  4. Frequently consulted items will give rise to disorderness of the classified stock. Such items are likely to be mis-shelved.
  5. It cannot produce all what a user requires at one point as documents may be separated according to other criteria  g. reference book  may be separated from the general lending stock.
  6. Documents can only be arranged in one based in one order on one class number. This does not enhance search by title, author and subject.
  7. Only a given part of the items are visible in the classified collection. Those on loan. Left on the relating tables may never be retrieved as they are not reflected on the shelves.

DETERMINING THE SPECIFIC SUBJECT OF AN ITEM

3 types of subjects recognized in subject analysis are:

  1. Simple subject – it’s a subject that deals with a whole main class or a single aspect of a whole main class e.g. Mathematic, calculus, organic, chemistry  all from class 500
  2. Compound subject – it’s a subject that combines two or more simple subject’s e.g. biographic, biochemistry.
  3. Complex subjects   – It’s a subject that combine two or more simple subject that do not come from the same whole main class or is discipline e.g., a study of the use of philosophy in religion and the study of religion in science.

Parts of Book Useful To A Classifier    

  1. Title
  • An indicative title will obviously indicate  the subject of the work  g. a book entitled “ Economics”
  1. Table of contents (TOC)
  • TOC shows the main topics covered in a book therefore may indicate the subjects covered
  1. Chapter heading and subheading
  • In the absence of a TOC these may be used in the same way as TOC.
  1. Introduction
  • A good introduction usually indicates the  subject or  focus of the book.
  1. Preference or foreword
  • This will provide the original purpose of the author in writing the book.
  • A bibliography, bibliographic footnotes and references.
  • Text proper and book reviews
  • Colophon – a brief description of the manuscript of book to which its attached
    • Page where you will get a trade mark and address
    • Refers to a short summery or promotional piece accompanying a creative work
  • Blurb – back page
  • Cataloguing copy e.g. CIP data
  • Reference book and subject experts.

Book reviews – a description, critical analysis and an evolution on the quantity and significance of a book.

METHODS OF DETERMINING THE SUBJECT CONTENT OF A WORK

  1. Positive Method

The classifier determine what the author is describing the document. The classifier aims at finding out the purpose of the work by examining various parts of the book e.g. burb, preface, foreword, introduction, colophon. The purpose of the work forms the basis of the subject of the item

  1. Method Of Appealing To Unity (Rule Of Rejection Or Selection)

The classifier determines what has been said in the book (selected) and what has not been said (rejected) this is done by thoroughly examining the whole book. What has been selected forms the basis of the subject of the work.

  1. Figure Ground Method 

The classifier determines the central figure of theme of the item by analyzing the whole book. The theme or central figure becomes the subject of the work.

  1. Objective Method

The classifier counts the number of bibliographic reference to subjects covered in a document. The subject with move reference becomes the dominant subject of the work

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFYING LIBRARY MATERIALS

Two headings on which the general principles are used to be discussed are:

  • Phase relationship
  • Rules for classifying library information material

Phase relationship

It’s a relationship between subjects in a multi topic work. There are five phase relationship that are used to determine the subject of multi topic works.

  1. Influence phase relationship

One subject influences another. Therefore it a work is of this phase then it should be classified at the subject influenced and not the influencing subject. This rules is sometimes referred to as “rule of application” it states that close an item with interrelated subject with the subject that is being acted upon influenced.

Example 

Influence of the French literature on English literature.

This work will be classified at English literature because French literature influences it.

Computer application in book publishing

This work will be classified at book publishing as it is influenced by computer science.

  1. Bias phase

Subject is presented form the point of view of those readers whose primary interest is another field of study. A work of this phase relationship should classed under the subject biased not the subject which is bias.

Example

Mathematic for civil engineering

This work will be classed at the mathematics’ not civil engineering as mathematics is biased to civil engineering.

Russian for librarians

This work will be classified at the Russian language not librarianship because Russian language is biased to librarianship.

  1. Tool base phase

One subject is used as a tool of studying, developing or investigating another subject. Therefore a work of this relationship should be classed at the subject should develop or investigate not the subject used as a tool of study investigation or development
Example

The use of mathematics in chemistry

Will be classed at chemistry not mathematics.

Chemical principle of photography

Will be classed at photograph not chemistry

  1. Comparison Phase

If two subjects are compared then class the item at the subject that comes first in the classification schedules e.g. Botany compared to Zoology all are equally treated the DDC scheme class number for Zoology is 590 and Botany is 580. Hence it will be classed at 580 which is Botany.

  1. Difference phase

A work of this phase will be classified at the subject that comes first in the scheduled examples is under comparison

Rules for Classifying Library Information Materials

  1. Class an item first by subject and them by its form of presentation except in the literature and general classes where forms of presentation is paramount e.g. dictionaries of medicine will be classed at medicine not dictionaries because a dictionary is form of presentation. However a book entitled “ a collection of poems on law will be classed at poetry” (literature) not law because literary form is paramount to the subject in the literature class.
  2. If a class on item on two subjects at the subjects that is dominant or over emphasized it can be ascertained e.g. a book on geography and history can be classed at history if it is the most dominant subject.
  3. Class an item on three or more subjected that are not subdivision of a broader class the generalities class e.g. a book on philosophy, psychology, religion and geography will be classed in the generalities class.
  4. Class a document that covers two or more subjects that are all sub-division of a broader subject under the broader subjects e.g. algebra and callus will be classed at mathematics.
  5. Class an item on three subjects that are all sub-division of a boarder subject in the highest class (board class) number that includes  them all, unless one subject is dominant e.g. algebra, calcuss and trigonometry will  be classified at the number for mathematics. This is called the “rule of three”.
  6. Class an item on three or more subjects that are not sub-divisions of a broader. Class under the generalities class e.g. a book on philosophy, psychology, religion and geography will be classed in the generalities class.

METHOD OF CLASSIFYING LIBRARY INFORMATION

Material

Information centers may adapt the following criteria to classifying (arrange) their collections:

  • Colour
  • Size
  • Author
  • Subject
  • Title
  • Nature of information contained in the book e.g. reference books, special collection
  • Type of documents e.g. patterns and standard books periodicals
  • Extent of use of short loan books.

THEORIES AND FIGURES OF CLASSIFICATION SCHEME

  1. Bibliographical scheme

It is a document created bearing virtually all the universal knowledge it is intended to classified and which assigns notation for the specific   topic covered e.g. DDC ( Dewer decimal classification scheme ), SCC ( special classification scheme) and LCC.

  1. General (standardized classification scheme)

This is the classification scheme covering the entire subject in the universe of knowledge e.g. DDC and LCC

  1. Special (in-house) classification scheme)

It is a classification scheme that covers one area of knowledge observer a given group of user’s e.g. special classification scheme (SCC)

Qualities of a Good Classification Scheme

  1. Classification scheme should provide the organization of subjects. This provision makes it to differentiate between the same subject e.g. Geography of Kenya from Geography in general.
  2. It should exhaustively cover all the subjects for which it is interrelated to classify. It should be hospitable to allow all subjects to be included.
  3. It must be systematic and division of knowledge.
  4. Employed terminology that is clear and descriptive with consistent to user and classifier.
  5. It should be hospitable/ up to date. must allow for new concept for the classification scheme

Features of bibliography classification scheme

  1. Schedule

Describe a list of the main classes, division and sub-division of the classification scheme. Each concept covered in the classification scheme has a notation covered to it. Volume ii and iii of the DCC constitute schedule.

  1. Notations

It is a short head code for the main class. Division, sub-division and other concepts.

  1. Indexes V4 (volume 4)

It is an alphabetical listing of all subjects covered in classification scheme. An index to a classification helps in locating collect the aspects catered.

  1. Table (volume one )

The table could provide a notation that can be added to the class notation to allow for specific classification of an item e.g. Vol of DDC scheme has a table of 1-7.

  1. Form class

It is a class of classification scheme under which items for which form of presentation is paramount to the subject are classed e.g. the literature class.

  1. General class (generation

It is a class of classification scheme that caters for items of general knowledge

Features of a Good Classification Scheme

Good classification scheme must have

  1. Schedules – describes a list of the main classes, division and subclasses.
  2. Notation – a short hand code of the main and subclasses covered in the scheme.
  3. Index – an alphabetical listing of all subjects covered in the scheme
  4. Table – they provide notation that can be added to the classes.
  5. Form class – a class of classification scheme under which items which form a class are classed.
  6. Generation – a class in the classification scheme that caters for items of general knowledge.

Classification problems

  1. Wrong assignment of class numbers in case the classifier is given in – accurate classification numbers.
  2. Lack of guidance of the classification system – the classification system may not be clearly understood by the users.
  3. The classifier may have labeled items inaccurately
  4. If the item have worn out illegible labels

NOTATION

It is a short hand code for the main classes, division and other concepts covered in a classification scheme.

Functions of a notation

  • It helps preserve the desired orders of the classification scheme.
  • It’s used to create a call number and facilities shelf arrangement of items.
  • It shows the relationship amongst subjects especially when it is a hierarchal notation
  • It is used for locating concepts covered in the classification scheme.
  • They link index terms contained in the classification scheme and the schedules.

TYPES OF NOTATIONS

Three types of notations are:

  1. Pure notations – a notation which use one set of symbol e.g. Arabic numerals, DDC uses pure notation.
  2. Mixed notation – a notation which uses more than one set symbol i.e. both Arabic numerals and roman letters.
  3. Hierarical notation – a notation which reflects the structural order of a classification scheme e.g. DDC is a hierarchal notation.

Other types of notations

  1. Expressive notations – it express relationship among coordinate subjects.
  2. Faceted notations – it uses facet indicators i.e. colon classification

Qualities of a good notation

  • A good notation should pass the following qualities
  • It should be easy to use
  • It should be hospitable and allow for inclusion for new concepts
  • It should be expressive and show relationship among classes
  • It should be unique so that it cannot be confused with other classification scheme. i.e. bliss classification scheme
  • It should permit for number building
  • It should have a flexible criteria order to meet the needs of users.

TOPIC 3: INDEXING

Introduction to Indexing

Index refers to a systematic guide (pointer) to the items contained in the collection (library).

The index entries are arranged in a known order commonly in alphabetical.

Indexing is an operation intended to represent the results of   analysis of a document by means of an indexing language.

Indexing language refers to the set of descriptors to be used in indexing the contents of documents in an information storage of retrieval.

Descriptor is a term, notation or string of symbols used to indicate the subject content of a document.

Keyword refers to raw works that came from the document indexed.

Types of Indexes

  • Author index

It is an index that lists alphabetically the anther of documents in a given collection. The authors in this case may be co-operated or personal.

  • Title index

It’s an index that lists alphabetically the title of works with an indication of their bibliographic details and their location.

  • Subject index

It is an index that list subject’s entries alphabetically.

  • Word/Concordance index

It is an index that list alphabetically descriptors or terms as they are used by the author in the document e.g. the index to the bible.

  • Book index

It is an index that appears at the back of the book. It consists of alphabetical list of words with page references concept or name where it’s found in the book.

  • Periodical index

This index covers every issue of the periodical it assists the user of to   locate information contained in the periodic.

  • Classified index

Is an index arranged alphabetically accessing to a notation derived from a classification scheme.

Purpose of an Index

  • To identify and locate relevant information within documents being indexed.
  • To analyze concepts produced in a work so as to produce series of heading based on its terminologies.
  • To indicate, relationships between the concept or items.
  • To group together information on subjects this is scattered by the arrangements of documents or library collection.
  • To arrange entire into a systematic and helpful order.

Function and Uses of Indexes  

  1. Indexes guide the users to the concepts contained in a document or library collection.
  2. They reveal/show to the user whether a document or library collection contained information or item on the topic he/ she desires to seek information and information material on.
  3. It saves the users’ time in retrieval of information.
  4. The author indexes collocate authors documents therefore facilitate order approach to retrieval.
  5. They provide a guide to the concepts the users which to recall or doesn’t know it exist.
  6. The cross reference in indexes assist users in retrieving other related material or terms.
  7. Indexes show the strength and weakness of a document or library collection.
  8. Nomenclature, terminology and spelling are often helpfully propled by indexes and their introductions.

Indexing Process      

The following factors should be considered before indexing an information material in a library.

  • Depth to which indexing should be done.

The indexes should decide of details to be index. This will be influenced by the document indexed and the time available for indexing.

  • The level or generality and specificity

In which concepts are to be represented. Specificity refers to extent to which the system permit the indexes to be precise when specifying the subject of an Generality/ expletively relates to   the number of index terms used.

  • Ensure that the indexing is done to meet the users inquires.
  • Plan on how to control the index vocabulary.
  • Design on the structure of the index entries.

Steps involved in indexing process

The process of indexing on information materials in a library will usually follow the following step;

  1. Deciding on the indexable matter.

The indexer should be able to determine the user information needs so as to determine what is relevant in the document and also if document is worthy to be indexed.

  1. Familiarize (technical reading) of the documents to be indexed.

This involves examining quickly various parts of the text in order to gain an understanding the subject matter of the documents the table of contents, the title, abstract and preface.

  1. Identify the indexable concepts/ analysis of the document.

This can be done from the document that the index has already examined/ familiarized him with through technical reading

  1. Translating

The index able term into an acceptable indexing language.

The index term has a searchable medium arranging index entries into a logical order.

  1. Arranging

Index entries into logical manner.

The index entries by correcting errors alphabetization of headings, subheadings, checking punctuations.

The indexers role in indexing

Indexer is a professional who undertakes indexing.

He performs:

  • Identifies the document to be indexed.
  • Analyze concepts that have been identified for indexing.
  • Indication relationships between concepts.
  • Arrange the index entries into a logical manner. Usually alphabetically
  • Translate the indexable concepts indexing languages used by an information Centre.
  • Indicates relationship between the indexable concepts
  • Prepare “ see and see also: references
  • Combines headings and subheadings into coherent entries.
  • Collocates indexable concepts that are scattered in the text indexed.

Major Three Steps in Indexing Are:

  1. Familiarization
  2. Analysis
  3. Translation

Pre-Coordinate and Post-Coordinate indexing

Coordinate Indexing System

  • It involves the combination of two or more single index terms from an index entry.
  • Two types of co-ordinate indexes are:

Pre- coordinate

Post co-ordinate

Pre-Coordinate

  • It is an indexing system whereby the combination of terms is done at the indexing stage in anticipation of the user approach.
  • Its examples are

Classification schemes

Book indexes

Subject headings

Advantaged Of Pre Coordinate  

  1. It’s easier to search indexes because they are already combined at the time of searching
  2. Indexing and searching are consistent because index terms are already combined by a qualified search
  3. Save time in retrieval since terms are already  combined
  4. It minimizes false droops (irrelevant terms) since terms are already co-ordinate.
  5. Less intellectually involving to the searcher since confirmation of terms is done by indexer.
  6. It controls few entries thus saving time in retrieval

Disadvantages    

  1. It intellectually involving to the indexer and time consuming to prepare.
  2. The searcher does not have the freedom to combine terms as he desires or they are already combined by an indexer.
  3. It is difficult to update a pre- coordinate index as they entries must be integrated with those in existences.
  4. It is not exhaustive and may not meet the users approach to retrival
  5. The users must know the cotaiton order used in order to successful search the pre-coordinate terms

Post coordinate

It is an indexing system whereby the combination of terms are indexed independently of each other and they combined at the time of searching. In past coordinate, Boolen search logic is used to combine index terms.

Examples

  1. Computerized indexes
  2. Peek-a boo Optical coincidence cards.
  3. Edge notched cards

BOOLEAN SEARCH LOGIC  

A logic used to search a link information on post co-ordinate index. It uses search logic like AND, OR, NOT

Example of Boolean logic searches

  • If a user wants information on mathematics or arithmetic the logic or will be used so that it becomes mathematics or arithmetic’s
  • If a user wants information regarding selection of candidates, the logic AND will be used so that it becomes selection AND

Advantages of post coordinate

  1. It speeds up the indexing, filing and searching procedure.
  2. It’s flexible as terms are combined at the time of searching.
  3. Its suitable for subject with hard vocabulary e.g. biological sciences
  4. It’s exhaustive and comprehensive as terms are combined at the time of searching.
  5. Updating the index is easier as concepts can be added to those already existing.

Disadvantages

  1. Suitable to small sixe collections
  2. Does not work well with subjects of soft vocabulary
  3. There`s likelihood of irrelevant items being retrieved( false Drop)
  4. It is intellectually involving to the searcher who has to combine at the searching stage.
  5. Basic institutions must be given to the user to effectively use it.

Indexing languages

 Refers to conventional language used by an information center to describe the contents of documents with a view of the storage and retrieval of information.

  • It’s used for the intellectual processing of documents.
  • It consist of words used to describe the subject content of documents and rules for the completion or use of indexing language

Criteria for distinguishing between indexing languages.

Indexing languages are distinguished by several criteria namely:

  • The ordering or construction principle:

An indexing language may have predetermined order (e.g. a classification scheme) may ,be arranged according to frequency and use of descriptors (e.g. List of subject headings) or may be an authority list of terms based on one or more points of view (e.g. faceted languages)

  • The size of the subject field covered.

The indexing language may have a general subject coverage (e.g. encyclopedic languages) may cover a specific subject field or given aspects of a subject field (e.g. special classification schemes) or may cover a small part of a subject field (e.g. macro thesaurus)

  • The type of words used

The word may be single terms (e.g. unterm indexing languages) single and compound words e.g. list of subject headings) or direct and inverted forms of headings (e.g. Lists of subject headings).

  • Type of arrangement

This may be systematic (e.g. classification schemes) or alphabetical (e.g. lists of subject headings.

Components of an Indexing Language.

It consists of the following components:

  1. Descriptors/preferred/ accepted terms

They are words used to describe information or concepts. These terms are accepted for use in the indexing system.

  1. Non-Preferred/ Non–Description

These are terms contained in indexing language but are not accepted for use. They are linked to the descriptor through cross reference

  1. Syndetic devices

These are devices used to indicate relationship between descriptors e.g. see, see also

  1. Notation

They are used to identify descriptors and they could be numeric, alphanumeric

  1. Relation between descriptors

They show descriptors and their relations

  1. Graphic display

They show descriptors and their relations.

  1. General or scope of notes

They state for given descriptors the contest in which the descriptors should be used.

Layout of an Indexing Language

Indexing languages can be printed or machine format, and will usually include:

  • An introduction that provides guidance as to the contents, organization and use of the indexing language.
  • List of descriptor alphabetically arranged or otherwise logically arranged
  • Graphic displays showing the relations between terms.

Types of Indexing Languages 

  1. Natural indexing language
  2. Artificial indexing language
  3. Free text (hybrid ) indexing language

 

Natural/ Spoken/ Uncontrolled

  • It is an indexing language in which all index terms are taken from the document and are then entered alphabetically. When using this indexing language we take the words as they appear in document and as expressed by the author.
  • This language is used to prepare book indexes, title indexes concordance index

Advantages

  1. It’s less intellectually involving to the indexer as terms are directly selected from the document indexed.
  2. There is no wrong assignment of index. Terms as, misinterpretations of author words and meaning is avoided by adapting the way they appear in the document indexed.
  3. It has low input cost as no vocabulary control tools are used.
  4. It facilitates early exchange of information between databases as language incapability is removed.
  5. It’s exhaustive as many index terms may be selected to describe a documents contents.
  6. It is up to date as terms are selected from the document at hand as they appear there. This enhances an up to date indexing and researching.
  7. Helps achieve specificity and provides the possibility for retrieving specific terms e.g. name of person and co-operate bodies.

Disadvantages

  1. There is a problem in choosing terms with many synonyms
  2. It is intellectually involving the searcher as he/ she should know terms used b the author.
  3. False drops are likely to be experienced on homographs are not qualified.
  4. There is a problem of correct spelling and abbreviation e.g. use of America and british English e.g. colour, colar, catalog – catalogue.

Artificial Indexing Language/ Unspoken/ Controlled

It is an indexing in which the indexer chooses form a limited set of terms to a sign index terms e.g. classification scheme.

Examples of artificial indexing language:

  • Thesaurus
  • Classification schemes
  • List of subject headings.

Vocabulary control in artificial indexing language

Vocabulary control in artificial indexing language is exercised by using syndetic devices as described here,

  1. Control of synonyms or variant ward form is exercised through SEE reference or USE instructions.

Examples

Footpaths SEE Trails

Labor USE labour

In the above example the underlined words are Descriptors; those in bold e.g. use and see are syndetic or cross reference while those not underlined are non-descriptors. This means that underlined words are the ones accepted for use as index terms or search terms.

  1. Homographs are controlled by use of enclosed in parenthesis.

Examples

Pitch (Bitumen)

Pitch (foot-ball)

Pitch (music)

Pitch (slope)

 The purposes of qualifying homographs is to show the context in which they are applied.

  • For related terms scattered in the index SEE ALSO references or broader term (BT) or Narrow term (NT) and related terms (RT) are used.

Examples

Disaster SEE ALSO Accident, earthquakes, fire

Disabled

NT: Blind

Blind

        BT: Disabled

Cattle

 RT: hides

The BT, NT and RT are syndetic devices that are used to enhance searching in indexing terms.

For all rejected terms, use for (UF) instruction or SEE references is used.

Examples

Frogs

UF: Rana

Advantages of artificial indexing language

  • It promotes consistency in indexing and searching a terms are chosen from a controlled vocabulary.
  • It eases the burden of searching under different terms as index terms are controlled
  • Though use of syndetic device it displays related terms therefore promoting records
  • It overcomes false drops by covering homographs
  • It enables retrieval of documents whose topics are not represented by terms.

Disadvantages of artificial indexing language

  • It lacks specificity for the control terms
  • Its intellectually involving the indexer who has to translate the authors words into the controlled vocabulary
  • Wrong assignment of index terms due to misinterpretation may arise
  • The control vocabulary tools are usually up to date
  • The searcher must learnt different terms that not be familiar to him/ her
  • It lacks exhaustively as some terms may not be omitted by the controlled vocabulary
  • If different vocabulary control list are used it happens exchange of information amongst information centre due to their incomparability.

Free Text Indexing Language/Hybrid

It’s an indexing language where the indexer is free to choose index terms that best suit the subject matter he wants to index. He can either use artificial or neutral language.

Qualities of a good indexing language.

A good indexing language should possess the following qualities:

  • It must be able to represent the document within the user’s interest.
  • It must be able to keep up to date
  • It must be clearly and adequately described to ensure consistency in its application
  • It must provide the degree of detail, accuracy and comprehensiveness needed

Factors considered in the choice of an indexing language.

In the choice of an indexing language, an information centre should consider the following factors:

  • The users of the information unit in terms of their information need and inquires
  • The information units retrieval tools and information service offered
  • The staff available in terms of their number, level of training and experience
  • Financial resource available
  • The kind and quality of information or documents to be processed
  • The language used by other information units of the same kind

Computer application in Indexing 

Computer assisted (aided) indexing

Computerized (automatic) indexing

Title (keyword) indexing

Features of KWICK and KWOCK indexes

Differences between computer- assisted and computerized indexing

Thesaurus and Thesaurus construction and use

CATALOGUING

Catalogue   refers to the list of documents arranged according to some logical plan determined by the purpose it is to serve. It’s a numeric of all resourse in a library collection. E.g. library catalogue, book seller’s catalogue.

Library catalogue  is a list of  items contained in a library collection. A group of library arranged in a systematic order or a register of all bibiological items found in a library collection.

Publisher catalogue   is a list of items published by a given publisher.

Cataloging  is a process of describing information  material an providing entry point to them.

Subject catalogue  is the process of determining the subject contant of work so as to assign the appropriate subject heading.

Bibliography description refers to the description of an item containing such details like title, author, statement responsibility and edition

Collection is the process of bringing together entries of items that are related.

Call number is a symbol that prevents identification of an n item and its location in a library location.

OBJECTIVES OF A LIBRARY CATALOGUE  

A library catalogue has 3 objectives has loaded by somebody called cutter (1976)

  1. To enable a person to find a book of which the author or the title or subject is known.
  2. To show what a library has by given subjects or given subjects in given kind of literature and assit in the choice of a book.
  3. To facilitate the process of information vertical.
  4. To collocate related entities in the catalogue
  5. To guide users on the items held in a collection through the call number.
  6. To save time for the library staff and users.
  7. To record titles of documents.
  8. To provide cross – reference to users from one entry point to another

FUNCTIONS OF A LIBRARY CATALOGUE  

Locative functions To enable a user to locate an item of which the author, title or subject is known

Collocative function to show what items a given library has.

Informative function to enable a user to make a choice of the items he required and not necessarily browse through the shelves.

Inventory functions – assist the library staff in their administrative functions like stock – taking   

Physical forms of a library catalogue    

  • It is the manner in which the catalogue is presented for use e.g. card catalogue, printed book catalogue etc.

Card catalogue – is a catalogue presented on cards measuring 5*3 inches

Catalogue card – is a single card or bibliographic information about a single document

Heading – it’s a name word or phrase at the top of catalogue entry providing entry or access point

FORMS OF LIBRARY CATALOGUE

They can be grouped into three main categories

Manual catalogue

There are the traditional catalogue that includes card catalogue and printed book catalogue

Semi – mechanized catalogue/ semi – computerized

These catalogues are output on special cards and requires a device for recording the data

Computerized catalogue    

This catalogues are recorded on computer readable media

There are 5 major physical forms of library catalogue

  1. Card catalogue
  2. Printed book catalogue (computer book form) catalogue
  3. Micro form catalogue
  4. Sheaf catalogue
  5. Machine readable cataloging firm (MARC)
  6. Online public Access catalogue (OPAC)

MANUAL FORMS OF CATALOGUE

  1. Card catalogue

It is a form of manual catalogue in which catalogue entries are recorded on 5*3 inches catalogue card. This form is commonly used in the library.

Features of card catalogue

  1. It consists of entries on cards. Measuring 5*3 inches or 12.5 *7.5 cm with a thickness of 0.025 cm
  2. Each card holds details for one item alone
  3. Cards are arranged in drawers. A standard drawer accommodates approximately 1000  cards
  4. The cards are secularly held in their trays by a rode that passes through a hole.
  5. The cards accommodated on the drawers are stored together into the catalogue to form the card catalogue.

Advantages of Card Catalogues

  1. It is flexible as it allows for insertion of new entries and withdrawal of old entries.
  2. Its durable compared to the printed book form catalogue
  3. Easy to use as it is a form that is familiar or formal too many library users.
  4. It’s economic to produce and maintain due to the ease of reproducing into many copies.
  5. They occupy little floor space because they are compact.
  6. They are portable/ card trays are portable
  7. Maintenance is possible if users are using different access point

Disadvantages of card catalogues

  1. Multi access is not achieve if the same acess point is used
  2. Scanning of several entities is not possible because each entry is on a separate card
  3. They are bulky
  4. It creates a lot of work when interfiling inter catalogue entries
  5. It`s wastefull to use cards for items with loss bibliography details
  6. Drawer cabinets occupy a lot of floor space.
  7. One user can monopolize the catalogue especially where there is one entry
  1. Printed (computer) book form catalogue
  • These forms of manual catalogue is produced by a computer
  • It is computer typeset and is presented in book baound form

Features

  1. Several entries are presented on a provided page
  2. Produced by a computer
  3. The pages consisting of printed catalogue entities are bound together in a book form

Advantages

  1. Multi- copies can be easily produced by a computer
  2. Scanning of several items is possible
  3. It occupies less floor space
  4. They are durable if only properly handled
  5. It is easy to use as it is a printed format
  6. Multi – access by users is possible as they can consult different volumes .
  7. Individual volumes of the books are portable
  8. Using computer processing it is easy to access the catalogue

Disadvantage

  1. The individual volume can easily get lost since it is portable.
  2. Its expensive to maintain as new edition have to be printed when it`s updated.
  3. As compared to card catalogue it is not highly durable
  4. It`s tiresome to consult many volumes.
  5. It is no flexible and can’t allow for the insertion and withdrawer of entities.

 

  1. Sheaf catalogue
  • It’s a catalogue presented on sets of paper slips measuring 19*10 cm.
  • The paper are held together using loose leaf binders

Features

  1. It`s presented on paper slips measuring 19*10 cm
  2. Each slip contains a single entry
  3. The paper slips are held together in loose leaf binders. A standard binder holds approximately 500 to 600 paper slips
  4. The binders are filed in pigeon holes

Advantages

  1. The catalogue is flexible as it allows for insertion of new entries and withdrawal of   old entries.
  2. The binder are portable
  3. Paper slips are cheap
  4. Its compact
  5. Can be easily produced into multicopies
  6. Multi-access is possible by the used of the different loose leaf binders

Disadvantages

  1. the papers slips are not durable
  2. maintenance cost are high
  3. due to portability of loose leaf binder they can get lost or misplaced.
  4. Hard go consult specifically for several loose leaf binders for the same alphabetical limit or rang.
  5. Once a grm loose binder is full another binder must be used.

COMPUTERIZED FORMS OF CATALOGUES 

  1. Micro – form catalogue
  • It consists of catalogue entries in micro – image and require the use of microfilm or microfiche  or micro card  reader  to access the information
  • The catalogue can be presented on microfilm

Features of micro – form catalogue

  1. Information in microform images is presented either on microfilm, microfiche or micro card.
  2. A microfiche reader is required to access the information of the catalogue.
  3. The microform has at the top high readable level to indicate what is covered in the catalogue
  4. Its compact and stores a lot of information e.g. a sheet of  microfiche can hand entries equivalent to 96 pages of a printed book with the same entries.

Advantages

  1. If carefully handled its durable
  2. Its portable
  3. Its compact – it stores a lot of information
  4. Multi – copies are easily produced through the use of computers
  5. Sheep to produce and maintain easy to update through the computer ( processing)

Disadvantages

  1. It is not easy to update unless through computer processing
  2. Due to its size and portability it can  easily get lost or misplaced.
  3. Its power defendant because power is needed to run the equipment used for reading the catalogue.
  4. Its machine defendant equipment as the microform reader must be used.
  5. Users suffering form technophobia may shy away from using the catalogue.
  1. Machine readable catalogue (MARC)

Botha Hannen 2001 defined MARC as a group of formats employed a particular set of convention for the identification of arrangement of   bibliographic data by handling by the computer. MARC first emerged in the USA   in 1961. In the MARC format a bibliographic element required by AACRZ are included in this cataloguing format. However other additional elements included in MARC record are DDC, LC subject heading, subject entries, library holding note and key words.

MARC is used by most information centers worldwide in the   

  1. Selection of documents
  2. Used in  Ordering information materials
  3. Used in Information retrieval
  4. Used in the compilation of bibliographies
  5. Used in cataloguing information materials

Features of MARC format

  1. Catalogue information is use in the computer media e.g. magnetic tape and CDROM and hard disk.
  2. A computer must be used to access MARC
  3. Has high storage capcity
  4. Multi – access is possible if its networked such mode of access catalogue

Advantages     

  1. It is easy to construct the once the catalogue have acquired the necessary skills.
  2. It can be integrated with computerized circulation module to enhance the circulation services
  3. It is easy to quick and access after the user has acquired basic instructions.
  4. Many users are able to access the catalogue simultaneously through different computer terminals

Disadvantages

  1. It is expensive to install has a powerful host/ server  computer and terminal for  users are required.
  2. The catalogue is prone to human errors resulting from data entry mistakes.
  3. Its prone to machine breakdown
  4. MARC requires a skill  personel
  5. MARC is prone to security risk e.g. virus attacks
  6. MARC is not suitable for users suffering from technophobia
  7. Machine readable catalogue are machine defendant

FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN THE CHOICE OF A FORM OF LIBRARY CATALOGUE

Before using any given form of library catalogue the library must choose the following

  1. Ease of use

The form chosen should be easy to handle. It should be legible and easy to guide

  1. Ability to keep up – to – date

It should be flexible to allow for insertion for new entry and withdrawal of old entries.

  1. Ability to scan entities

It should allow access of several entities at the same time to avoid congestion

  1. Reproduction into multicopies

It should be easy, quick and cheep to produce into multi-copies

  1. Portability

It should be able to be taken to the point of use

  1. Space economy

It should take as little space as possible.

  1. Environmental appropriateness

It should be able to fit into the existing library facilities e.g. MARC can only be adopted if the library has power supply

  1. Economy of production and maintenance

It should be cheap to produced and maintained

QUALITIES OF A GOOD FORM OF LIBRARY CATALOGUE

  1. An ideal form of library catalogue should be easy to use
  2. Its legible and easy to guide.
  3. Flexible (easy to keep up – to- date)
  4. Able to allow for access for several entries at the same time (ease of scanning)
  5. Easy, cheap and quick to produce into multi – copies
  6. Portable
  7. Cheep to produce and maintain
  8. Compatible with the libraries other retrieval tools and catalogues used by other libraries

TYPES OF LIBRARY CATALOGUE   

It refers to the system of arrangement of entries in the library catalogue

Catalogue entry is an access point to a bibliographic record under which the record may be searched or indentified.

Entry point/ access point   is name, term or code under which a bibliographic record may be searched

TYPES OF LIBRARY CATALOGUE

The main/ chief types of library catalogues are

  1. The alphabetic catalogues

The entries in the catalogues are alphabetically arranged e.g. Author catalogue subject and title catalogue.

  1. Classed catalogue

The entries are logically arranged according to the notation derived from a classification scheme used for the shelve arrangement of documents in a library e.g. classified catalogue

  1. Alphabetical class catalogue

This is a subject  catalogue with major  subject division arranged  alphabetically and subject subdivision arranged in classified sequence

The specific types of library catalogue are  

  1. Author catalogue

A catalogue consisting of bibliographical records names of personnel author as access point. This catalogue consists of author entries arranged into an alphabetical.

  1. Title catalogue

It’s a catalogue consisting of bibliographical records with title of items as access points. The catalogue has title entries arranged alphabetically.

  1. Author/ title catalogue

It is an author catalogue with added entries for important titles included. The author and title entries are interrelated into one sequence.

  1. Subject catalogues
  • Refers to a catalogue consisting of subject entries arranged into a systematic order.
  • Refers to a catalogue consisting of bibliographic records with subjects as there access point

5. Dictionary Catalogue

  • A catalogue in which entries under authors, titles and subjects are arranged into one alphabetical sequence.
  • Refers to a type of a catalogue that contains entries i.e. Title, author and subject interfiled together alphabetically.
  1. Union catalogue

This a catalogue using information of more than one literary or a catalogue listing the collection of more than one library.

  1. Divided catalogue

It’s a catalogue in which it forms has separated into two sequence i.e. author/ title  separated from subject or subject title separated from author  depraving on  the preference of the information centre

FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN THE CHOICE OF A TYPE OF LIBRARY CATALOGUE 

Type of library users

e.g. a school library may only adopt a subject catalogue only whereas  a university library may adopt title, author and union catalogue

Type of library catalogue adopted by other operating negotiating libraries

For the purpose of infirmity and resource sharing it is advice able that for the purpose of infirmity and resources sharing.

  • Level of training staff

A library with many unqualified stall will adopt most of the type of catalogue.

Library cataloging policy

The policy will stipulate/ dictate the type of catalogue to adopt.

Availability of funds

Some types of library catalogues are expensive e.g. divided catalogue thus if the library has inadequate funds it should choose the least expensive.

CATALOGUING CODES

It refers to a set of rules for guidance of catalogue in preparing entries for the library catalogue in order to entre/ achieves uniformity in cataloguing work.

FUNCTIONS OF CATALOGUING CODES

  1. To assist information centre developed a uniform approach to the cataloging of information material.
  2. To encourage the use of the same cataloging rules so as to facilitate preparation of union catalogues
  3. To facilitate and promote interlibrary lending and cooperative cataloguing.
  4. To provide rules to be adopted by any library without the library staff thinking of how to prepare catalogue entries.

Major cataloging codes

They are:

  1. British museum cataloging codes (BM)
  2. Jewets rules of 1815
  3. Cutter rule of 1876
  4. American cataloging rule 1908
  5. ALA draft 1981 (American library association)
  6. AARR ( Anglo- American cataloguing rules
  7. AARR 1988

Cataloguing codes should cover rules portraying to the following:

  1. Choices and form of main entry heading.
  2. Instances when title entries should be made
  3. Filing rules
  4. The elements to be included in the bibliographic description e.g. Title, Author  and ISBN
  5. Rules for limited cataloging

Qualities of good cataloguing codes

It should posses the following features:

  1. It must be easy to use

This is to facilitate through provisions of examples for illustrating the rules and clarity of language.

  1. The content must not be offensive

It should not be sexiest or racist.

  1. It must be applicable to all types of catalogue in order to achieve consistency and uniformity.
  2. The organization of the rules must be logical moving from general to specific.

DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUING

It refers to the aspects of cataloging concerned the bibliographical description of a bibliographic item and the determination of headings to be represented in the catalogue.

Area of description is a major section of the bibliography description of a catalogue entry comprising of a set of data elements e.g.  Title and statement of representing area, area edition

Chief source of information

The source of bibliographic data to be given performance source from which the bibliographic data is to be e.g. title page

Half title is a title of publication appearing on a leaf of the title page

International standard book numbers (ISBN) is an internally number that uniquely identifies a given book.

Parallel title is the title proper in another language recorded in the title and statement of responsibility area.

Imprint area is an area of description covering search details like place and date of publication and name of publisher.

Statement of responsibility is a statement extracted from the catalogue relating to the author (s) of the work.

Areas and Elements of Descriptive Cataloguing

AAR21988 recognize each area and several elements

  • Is title of statements of responsibility area
  • Edition are
  • Type of publication/material
  • Publication distribution or imprint area
  • Physical description area.

LEVELS OF DESCRIPTION

AACR2 1988 recognize three levels of description each level contributes different element of description

These are

1st level

2nd level and 3rd level

1st level of description

Title paper/ 1st statement of responsibility

Edition statement – 1st publisher, date of publication

Extent of item

Notes

2nd level of description

Title proper – parallel title:  other title information 1st statement of responsibility –edition statement / 1st statement of responsibility relating to edition – 1st place of publication: 1st publisher date of publication

Number of pages: illustration: size

Notes (e.g. indexes and bibliographies)

Standard number

 

Third level of description    

Title proper = parallel title: other title information 1st statement of responsibility – edition statement 1st of responsibility relating to edition – 1st of publication: 1st publisher, date of publication

Number of page: Illustration: size

Notes (e.g. indexes and biographies)

Standard number

NB

The 3rd level of description contains all the above details and other outlined in chapter one to twelve of AAR2

Factors to be considered before deciding on which level of description to adopt

  1. Type of library

E.g. A School library will use the 1st level of description whereas the 3rd level of description is used in academic library and special libraries with extensive collection

  1. Availability Of Funds

1st level of description is less expensive than the 3rd level because it contains less bibliographic details.

  1. Type of nature of material catalogue

Non –book material demand that level of description as opposed to books that may be adequately described using any level of description.

  1. Physical form of catalogue in use

For economy   of cataloging a library using a card catalogue will prefer the 1st level of description whereas a computer library will use the 3rd level of description.

  1. Method of reproducing catalogue entries

If the catalogue entries are to be produced manually through hand writing then 1st level is recommend.

  1. Library cataloging policy

The policy will stipulate what level of description to apply by all catalogues of library

  1. The information needs of users of the library

e.g. in a children library 1st level of description is ideal  in meeting their information needs.

  1. Availability of cataloguing expertise

In the observe of qualified cataloguing or when the catalogue cards are few the library will adopt the use of level of description.

Chief source of information for a printed book

  1. Title and statement of responsibility
  2. Edition
  3. Publication, distribution
  4. Physical description
  5. Notes
  6. Standard number

Types of catalogue entries

AACR21988 recognize 4 types of catalogue entries

  1. Main entry

It`s a complete catlofue record of an item presented in the form by which the edit is to be uniformly identified and cited

  1. Added entry

It is an entry additional to the main entry by which an item is represent in a catalogue.

  1. Reference entry

It is a direction form one heading to another

  1. Analytical entry

It is an entry of a part of document which contain it

Sample main entry catalogue

Shiriku James

Agriculture in Kenya / by Jane Shiriku and William Osaka – 2nd revel – Nairobi: flamingo publishers 1989

Xi, 201p: 111.

Include bibliographical reference and indexes

ISBN 0-6456-09876-x

  1. Agrivulture – kenya i. OSAka Wilian
  2. Title

   Sample subject added entry catalogue card

Agriculture – Kenya

Shiraku James

Agriculture in Kenya / by James shiriaku

Osaka – 2nd rev ed. – Nairobi :flamingo publishers, 1989

Xii 201p: iii

Includes bibliographic  reference and indexes.

ISBN 1-6756-9876-x

  1. Agriculture –Kenya 1. Osaka William
  2. Title

Author Catalogue

Shiraku James

Agriculture in Kenya/ by James shiraku …et al – 2nd

Rer ed.  – Nairobi : flamingo publishers, 1959

Xi 201p: iii

Includes bibliographic reference and indexes

ISBN 0-6756-9876-x

Subject catalogue

Agriculture –Kenya

Shiraku James

Agriculture in Kenya/ by James shiraku ….etal ..- 2nd

Rer ed. – Nairobi : flamingo publishers, 1989.

Xi, 201p :iii

Includes bibliographical reference and indexes

ISBN 0-6756-9876-x

Importance of descriptive cataloguing

  1. Facilitates identification of item in a library collection since bibliographic details are entered.
  2. Provide access to library collection by title.
  3. Act as a back-up to the accessim register.
  4. Enable a user to survey work by the same author.
  5. Facilitate the identification and location of items written by given author.

Objective of descriptive cataloguing   

  1. To state the significance feature of an item with the purpose of distinguishing it form other items
  2. To present bibliographic data in a way which they can be integrated to meet user needs.

Importance of the following bibliographical details in a book

  1. Title
  2. To indicate the subject content of the work
  3. To indicate the level of approach of the subject. i.e a book entitled math’s for primary schools can only be used by primary school students.
  4. To identify the language in which a work is presented
  5. If can assist to distinguish work by the same author in the library catalogue
  6. Edition
  7. It identifies the current nature of the work i.e. if it is emerged or reversed.
  8. Shows if a book is current or retrospective (past /old)
  9. Place of publication
  • It indicates the location of the offices of the publisher
  • It shows the biasness of location of a book i.e a book published in German will cover aspects of German and Germans
  1. Date of publication
  • help to identify the currency of the work
  • help to distinguish between different edition of the work

 

  1. statement of responsibility
  • It gives credit to the author of the work.
  • Helps in indicating the style and quality of the work.
  • It helps to indicate relationship between an author and others e.g. editors, illustrations, companies etc
  1. Illustration statement
  2. It indicates whether the item has been illustrated colour or black and white.
  3. Assists user in assessing the quality of the work
  4. Dimensions

To indicate the overall size of a work and possible equipment that can be used to house oversize documents.

Technical reading is a process where the catalogue quickly recognizes what  an item is about and how it can be described. Pasts that could  be used in technical are title, edition, preliminaries, series, ISBN.

Principles of subject cataloguing are: – the reader as a focus

  • Unity
  • Usage
  • Specificity

Using standard list of subject heading

They are two general lists of subjects heading namely:

  1. Sears list of subjects headings
  2. Library of congress subjects heading

 

  1. Sears list of subjects headings

They were 1st published in 1923 since then many editions have been published, subjects headings are mainly used in school and public libraries and are currently in ther 20th

Basic features of sears lists of subject heading

  1. They have main subjects headings
  2. They have modified noons
  3. They have cross reference
  4. Sub division of subject heading
  5. They have headings omitted from sears list of subjects hearings.

Advantages of sears lists of subject heading

  1. They are less complex, numerous and less specific.
  2. Terminologies used are indicated in bold type face and those not to be used in light type face
  3. The list is compatible with the library of congress. Subject heading (LCSH) since it uses see references.

 Disadvantages

  1. The use of specific headings can result in scattering information.
  2. It is not suitable in large libraries with extensive collection.
  3. Time consuming especially when updating now entries.
  4. They tend to be broad and cannot represent complex subjects.
  5. Headings are not constructed and selected systematically.
  6. Sub- arrangement of headings is not purely alphabetical
  7. Reference are not constructed systematically and may not be recommended where appropriate

 

LIMITED CENTRALIZED AND CO-OPERATIVE CATALOGING 

Limited cataloguing/ simplified/selective

It is a catalogue approach which aims at cutting down cataloguing costs by reducing the size of  the catalogue  in terms of the amount of entries, also known as simplified or selective cataloguing.

Purpose of limited cataloging

  1. It saves time in cataloguing works.
  2. To facilitate easy retrieval of information materials because it contains few entries
  3. Makes cataloguing work less expensive.
  4. Facilitates the process of filing/ catalogue entries

Method used to achieve limited cataloguing

  1. Reduce number of entries of illustrators
  2. Number of entries in a dictionary catalogue can be reduced.
  3. Anlyiscal entries short note be provided
  4. Subject entries in foreign languages and not in use should be omitted.

Factors to be considered before adopting cataloguing

  1. Kind of library

Limited cataloguing can be practiced in public libraries than in special libraries

  1. Type of library materials

Materials – children/ junior libraries require brief catalogue details

  1. Mode of accessibility

Closed accessed libraries there is need for full cataloguing as opposed to open access system where limited cataloguing may be used.

  1. Form of library

It is a card catalogue  it is  possible to reduce entries

  1. Type of library users
  2. Types of library services

Where the use of reference services is emphasized, limited catalogue will be less practiced

 

CENTRALIZED CATALOGUING

It is a type of cataloguing where by all cataloguing is done by one central agency and then distributed catalogue entities to branch libraries eg KNNLS

Objective of Centralized Cataloguing

  1. To avoid the same nature of work
  2. To save on cataloguing cost and reduce wastage of human labour.
  3. To achieve quality standards of cataloguing since cataloguing is done by professional cataloguers
  4. With professional catalogues doing cataloguing work other library patrons can engage in other duties important to readers .
  5. To provide quality services to the users.

Requirements of an effective centralized cataloguing

  1. The libraries should have uniformity in cataloguing
  2. A member of the libraries must aquire the same nature of information material
  3. A central agency to examine new documents before they are dispatched to branch libraries.

Services offered by the central agency

  1. Card services produces and distributes cards to all branch libraries
  2. Information services produce union catalogues and biographic CIP ( cataloguing in publication) processing on cataloguers and having entries printed on the verso of the title page.
  3. CIS ( cataloguing in source) central agency processing centre cataloguers and the catalogue information being printed in the book
  4. MARC – service it produces catalogue entries in machine readable form and supplies the records to branch libraries.
  5. Prenatal cataloguing – cataloguing and classification of items by a central agency before the release of books by central agency.

CO- OPERATIVE CATALOGUING 

A firm of cataloguing involving an agreement or more libraries to share cataloguing work for their own mutual benefit

Objective of co-operative cataloguing

  1. To reduce cataloguing costs
  2. To enable users access information in electronic format.
  3. Provide users with increased access to bibliographical information

Advantage of limited cataloguing

  1. Saves catalogers time since not all details are catalogued
  2. Saves users time in retrieving information since he has far entries to go through.
  3. The catalogue is made less bulky and therefore portable
  4. Cataloguing costs are reduced
  5. Facilitates easy filing of catalogue entries
  6. Improves specifically in information materials as any important details are included on the catalogue

Disadvantages of limited cataloguing

  1. Users may fail to know the existence of a given item if it is omitted from the catalogue.
  2. It brings problems in deciding what to include and omitting in the catalogue because it is selective
  3. It brings additional work to the library staff as they will be forced to consult other retrival tools (not detailed )

Advantage of centralized cataloguing

  1. It is economical / eliminates duplication of entries
  2. Achieves quality cataloguing as cataloguing is done by professional cataloguers
  3. Uniformity in cataloguing is achieved.
  4. Facilitates the production of union catalogue
  5. Reduces cataloguing costs
  6. Faster speed of cataloguing is achieved
  7. It enhances resources sharing among member libraries.

Disadvantages  

  1. Individual libraries lose their autonomy (independent) as cataloging work is done by the central agency.
  2. Delays in cataloguing may arise due to heavy work – load by the cataloguing professionals at the central agency.
  3. Library staff members of branch libraries are denied the opportunity of job training since all work is done at the central office. This makes them lazy.
  4. Divergence of cataloguing practice amongst different libraries may lead to failure of the programmer

Advantages of co-operative cataloging

  1. Economical as the cost of cataloging is showed b the co-operative libraries.
  2. Duplication of work is avoided
  3. Uniformity in cataloguing is achieved
  4. Facilitates resources sharing
  5. It enhances timely cataloguing .
  6. Facilitates access to increased bibliographic records
  7. Improves decision making with cataloguers sharing various ideas

Disadvantages

  1. It requires high standards of cataloguing
  2. Unavailability of funds may affect the success of the cooperating libraries
  3. The success of the program depends on co-operation of participating libraries
  4. Constant updating of catalogues produced must be undertaken

Disadvantages of divided catalogue

  1. Cause a lot of work in filing
  2. It is expensive to adopt

Disadvantages of classified catalogue

  1. It is not familiar with library users
  2. It inherits weakness form the classification scheme used
  3. It is time consuming to retrieve information since not many users are familiar with notation.

Advantages of dictionary catalogue

  1. Provides direct approach to the catalogue since it only has one sequence.
  2. It’s easy to use since entries are arranged in a similar way as a dictionary
  3. The single alphabetical sequence facilitates ease consultation of the catalogue
  4. It does not rely on a classification of the scheme the classed catalogue and cannot inherit weakness form the scheme.

Disadvantages of a dictionary catalogue   

  1. It causes a lot of filing work
  2. Likely to dispose related entries under different alphabetical sequence
  3. It causes delays in retrival and congestion of users at entry point
  4. It is bulky when filing

Advantages of a divided catalogue

Definition: its where title, author and subject have been separated

  1. It saves time in retrieval because users can retrieval information  from separated entries’ points
  2. It does not rely on classification schemes like classified catalogue

Compilation of Bibliographies 

The MARC record provides the necessary full bibliographic details needed in the completion of bibliographies

Resource sharing

MARC  format facilitates the exchange of bibliographic data library co-operative maintains central data base from which  member libraries can contribute MARC records and form which they can copy records for local use.

TYPES OF CATALOGUES    

Other types of catalogues

  1. Chronological
  2. Geographical
  3. Topological /shelf list
  4. Synoptic

Advantages of classified, divided and dictionary catalogue

Advantages of classified catalogue

  1. Collects subjects entries
  2. Provide a system of arrangement close to the arrangement on the shelves.
  3. It does not suffer from language terminology since it uses a notation
  4. It can assist in completion of subject indexes
  5. It can be used in a library serving multi – lingual patrons since the notation remain unchanged even if presented in difficult languages.

Ordering of information material

The MARC records enable acquisition staff   to get the full bibliography details required for ordering information materials from supplies and vendors.

Cataloguing of information material

Catalogues call up MARC records using control number search key proveld or by acronym searcher. The records  are selected online form a central database or from a CD-ROM  or by offline selection. The user creates a request file of control numbers which can be input by file transfer or by e-mail or sent on disc or tape to a processing agency. The intent file transfer protocol (FTP) is used to distribute the British library weekly BNB MARC file.

Information retrieval

MARC records fields and subfields are used as search points in an information storage and retrieval system

Revision question

  1. Highlight four purposes of catalogue in an information centre
  • Informative functions
  • Collective functions
  • Inventory functions
  • Locative functions
  1. Explain six problems users will experience in the absence of a library catalogue
  • A user will consumer a lot of time browsing through the shelves in order to retrieve an information material.
  • A user will not know the items a library contains
  • A user will not know the  author, title or subject of an information materiel he/she is searching for
  • A user must browse through the shelves to make the choices of items he/ she wants in library
  1. Explain four ways in which a library catalogue facilitates the process of information retrieval
  • If collocates information materials to show what items are given in library.
  • It locates information materials to enable a user to locate an item of which the author, title or subject is known.
  • It provides information functions to enable a user make a choice of items he requires and necessary browse through the shelves.
  • It provides inventory function to assist  the library staff in their administrative  function  like stock –taking
  1. Explain three qualities of a library catalogue
  • Should be easy to use
  • Should be legible and easy to guide
  • Should be flexible
  • Should be compact ( to occupy less floor space)
  • Easy and quick to produce into mult – copies
  • Compatible to be used alongside other libraries for resource sharing.
  1. With respect to information retrieval material explain five disadvantages of card catalogue
  • Multi access is not achieve if the same acess point is used
  • Scanning of several entities is not possible because each entry is on a separate card
  • They are bulky
  • It creates a lot of work when interfiling inter catalogue entries
  • It`s wastefull to use cards for items with loss bibliography details
  • Drawer cabinets occupy a lot of floor space.
  • One user can monopolize the catalogue especially where there is one entry
  1. Explain six qualities of a good form of library catalogue
  • An ideal form of library catalogue should be easy to use
  • Its legible and easy to guide.
  • Flexible (easy to keep up – to- date)
  • Able to allow for access for several entries at the same time (ease of scanning)
  • Easy, cheap and quick to produce into multi – copies Portable
  • Cheep to produce and maintain
  • Compatible with the libraries other retrieval tools and catalogues used by other libraries.
  1. Highlight ten factors to consider when choosing form of library catalogue
  • Ease of use
  • Ability to keep up – to – date
  • Ability to scan entities
  • Reproduction into multicopies
  • Portability
  • Space economy
  • Environmental appropriateness
  • Economy of production and maintenance
  1. Explain 6 advantages of online public access catalogue (OPAC)
  • It is easy to access after the users has acquired basic skill
  • Many users are able to access the catalogue simultaneously
  • It is easy to construct once the cataloguers have acquired basic skill
  • Facilitates management of library management system especially if libraries are using the same catalogue
  • It can be used along with computerized system to facilitate acquisition selection and ordering
  1. Explain 6 disadvantages of OPAC
  • Expensive to install and maintain
  • Catalogue prove to human errors resulting to data entry
  • It is very sensitive to spelling mistakes
  • It needs a manual back – up if the computer is switched off for maintenance purpose. This posse a lot of work
  • The computer is power dependant
  • Being a machine it is also prone to mechanical boredom
  • The computer is also prone to security risks e.g. virus attacks
  1. Highlight 4 uses of a subject catalogue
  • Used to locate an information material of which the subject is known
  • It is used to show the subjects in which a given information centre has
  • It enables the user to chose the subject item he requires and not necessarily browse through the selves
  1. Explain six advantages of classified catalogue over a dictionary catalogue
  • Classified catalogue is easy to use as it consist of entries derived from a classification unlike the dictionary catalogue which consist of all entries like subject, title an author which is complicated to the users
  1. Highlight 6 disadvantages of alphabetical catalogue over classified catalogues
  1. Explain 6 features of a classified catalogue
  • It`s entries are derived from a classification scheme
  • Classified catalogue uses a notation
  1. Explain 5 factors to consider when choosing a type of library catalogue.Type of library users

e.g. a school library may only adopt a subject catalogue only whereas  a university library may adopt title, author and union catalogue

Type of library catalogue adopted by other operating negotiating libraries

For the purpose of infirmity and resource sharing it is advice able that for the purpose of infirmity and resources sharing.

Level of training staff

A library with many unqualified stall will adopt most of the type of catalogue.

Library cataloging policy

The policy will stipulate/ dictate the type of catalogue to adopt.

Availability of funds

Some types of library catalogues are expensive e.g. divided catalogue thus if the library has inadequate funds it should choose the least expensive.

  1. Differentiate between a  type of a library catalogue and  the physical forms of a library catalogue
  • Type of library catalogue refers to the system of arrangement of the entries in the library catalogue while physical forms of a library catalogue refers to the manner in which catalogue is presented for use.
  1. Explain 6 problem libraries would face if they do not adopt to standard cataloging codes
  • Libraries will not achieve uniformity and consistency in cataloguing work
  • Preparation of union catalogue will not be facilitated.
  • Resource sharing among networked libraries will not be facilitated
  • Libraries without standard cataloging consumes a lot of time in preparing catalogues
  1. Highlight 4 factors that led to the development of cataloguing codes
  2. Highlight qualities of a good cataloging codes
  • It must be easy to use
  • The content must not be offensive
  • It should not be sexiest or racist.
  • It must be applicable to all types of catalogue in order to achieve consistency and uniformity.
  • The organization of the rules must be logical moving from general to specific.
  1. Levels of description quiz

title : essentials of marketing research

fourth edition, tony, proctor

person education limited hamlew,

England

1st publisher 1997, 2nd edition2000,

3rd edition 2003 4th edition 2005

ISBN 0273694944

Pagination  I- vii  420 pages

Containing colured illustrations

Answer           Proctor, Tony

Essential of marketing research/ BY Tonny proctor

4th edition – person education ltd 2005

Vii, 420p

Contain 111. Col.

  1. Question : business accounting 10th edition by frank wood published in hongow England, person education limited Date of publication 200f space 273 ISBNO space 69310 space 7 pagination i- x page 1-90 contains index illustration not caloured  

Answer           wood Frank

Business accounting/ by Frank woood –

10th ed. – person education ltd,2005

X, 920p.

Contains index, iii

  1. Question: Organizing information, principle and practice by Christopher Tummer

Publisher: CLINE BONGLEY year of publication: 1987, place of publication London, ISBN 0-85157-379-7, 158 pages contains. Illustration, bibliography and idex

Answer: Organizing information = principle and practices/ by Christopher Tunner

– London: Birgley, 1987. 158 p: 111

Contains bibliography and indexes

ISBN 0-8515-379-7

  1. Question : (1st level) commerce simplified written by NA Saleemi, revised edition by salami publication limited reprinted  on may 2007. It has 511 pages and contains illustration not caloured cell number 381-02 SAL ISBN 9966-28-910-4 published at Nairobi Kenya

Answer: Saleemi,NA

381 Commerce simplified/ By NA Salemi – revesed

0.2 ed, – Saleemi publication LTD, 2007.

SAL                  5119

Contains 111.

Answer (2nd level)

Saleemi, NA

381   Commerce simplified/by N.A saleemi – revised

.02 ed.- Nairobi: Saleemi Publication LTD 2007

Sal                   511p : 111

ISBN 9966-28-970-4

  1. Explain 8 factors to considered before deciding which level of description to adopt
  2. Highlight 6 chief sources of information for printed book
  3. Explain 4 types of catalogue entries
  4. Discuss 5 importance of description cataloguing
  5.  Explain the importance of the following bibliographic details in a book
    1. Title
    2. Edition
    3. Place of publication
    4. Date of publication
    5. Statement of responsibility
    6. Illustration statement
    7. Dimensions
  6. Define the term technical reading

  7. A certain book by title Business Accounting  was authored by Frank wood and Alan spencer, published in Brimighan  England by person education limited it appears in 9th edition which was  published in 1989 and It contains index and bibliography and its illustrated with some pages having colored illustrations. It contains preliminary page xii 967 pages  ISBN 027369341075 ( prepare  a title catalogue)

State the importance of descriptive cataloguing

  • Facilitates identification of item in a library collection since bibliographic details are entered.
  • Provide access to library collection by title.
  • Act as a back-up to the accesses register.
  • Enable a user to survey work by the same author.
  • Facilitate the identification and location of items written by given author.

Highlight 6 reasons  why most information centers do not provide indexing services

List three areas where a call number appears in a book

  • Spine
  • Pocket of a book
  • Verse page
  • Author

State four use of a call number

  • It is used for classifying an information material
  • It enhances shelf arrangement of documents
  • It is used to callacte items that are related by subject
  • It shows the location of a an information material in a library collection

Highlight four functions of cataloging codes

  • To assist information centre developed a uniform approach to the cataloging of information material.
  • To encourage the use of the same cataloging rules so as to facilitate preparation of union catalogues
  • To facilitate and promote interlibrary lending and cooperative cataloguing.
  • To provide rules to be adopted by any library without the library staff thinking of how to prepare catalogue entries.

Highlight 6 major cataloging codes

  • British museum cataloging codes (BM)
  • Jewets rules of 1815
  • Cutter rule of 1876
  • American cataloging rule 1908
  • ALA draft 1981 (American library association)
  • AARR ( Anglo- American cataloguing rules
  • AARR 1988

Steps of accessioning

  • Preliminary sorting
  • Pre- coding
  • Competition of the accession register
  • Counter checking the accession register
  • Inspection repots

State reasons for filing catalogue cards in a library

Highlight 6 features that are common in all classification schemes

  • They all have schedule
  • They are using notations
  • They all have index
  • They all have form class
  • They are all arranged systematically

State 3 types of information which form an imprint of a book

  • Name of publisher
  • Date of publication
  • Place of publication

List 3 forms in which a computer catalogue may be produced

  • Manuals- card catalogues
  • Computerized – online catalogue
  • Semi computerized

State three technique of producing catalogue cards in an information centre

  • Hand written method
  • Typewritten
  • Spirit duplication
  • Stencil
  • Off – set litho

List four technical elements of a liberty catalogue

State three filling system that may be used in filling catalogue cards in an information centre

List four elements that should be include in the accessions register of an information centre

  • Provenance of the record
  • Date records were revised
  • Contents of information material
  • Formats of information material
  • Remars – to indicate any special feature of the record whether are the normal, ;loan or donation

Explain four kinds of catalogue entries

  • Main entries
  • Added entries
  • Cross reference
  • Anacalythic entries

Explain 6 advantages of free text searching

Under what 5 circumstances is natural indexing language suitable  

Highlight 6 qualities of a good indexing language

  • It must be able to keep up – to – date.
  • It must be able to represent the document with the users interest
  • It must provide degree of details, accuracy and competiveness needed
  • It must be clearly and adequately described and ensure consistency in its operation

Highlight 6 differences between natural and artificial indexing language

  • In natural indexing language assignment of terms is done by the computer while artificial indexing is done by the indexer.
  • In natural indexing language level of false drop is high while in artificial indexing language level of false drop is low.
  • In natural indexing language syndetic device  is not used while artificial indexing  language syndetic devise is used
  • Natural indexing is up – to- date –  while artificial is not up to date
  • Natural indexing language level of consistence if low while in artificial indexing is low
  • In natural indexing level of retrieval is low while in artificial its high

Explain 4 uses of vocabulary control in an indexing system

  • Control synonyms by exercing use of reference or use of instructions and different descriptive to shoe the accepted terms to be used by the indexer.
  • Homophones are used to find the meaning of words with  the same spelling
  • For related term scattered in the index see also ( BT) NT and RT) are used to give the accurate and exact word to be used by the indexer.
  • For all rejected terms used for see reference is used to show the accepted term to be used by indexer

Comparison between natural and artificial indexing language

Purpose of an index

  • To identify and locate relevant information within documents being indexed.
  • To analyze concepts produced in a work so as to produce series of heading based on its terminologies.
  • To indicate, relationships between the concept or items.
  • To group together information on subjects this is scattered by the arrangements of documents or library collection.
  • To arrange entire into a systematic and helpful order.

Factors to consider in the choice of an indexing language

  • The users of the information unit in terms of their information need and inquires
  • The information units retrieval tools and information service offered
  • The staff available in terms of their number, level of training and experience
  • Financial resource available
  • The kind and quality of information or documents to be processed
  • The language used by other information units of the same kind
  1. Qualities of a good indexing language
  • It must be able to represent the document within the user’s interest.
  • It must be able to keep up to date
  • It must be clearly and adequately described to ensure consistency in its application
  • It must provide the degree of detail, accuracy and comprehensiveness needed
  1. Advantages of artificial indexing language
  • It promotes consistency in indexing and searching a terms are chosen from a controlled vocabulary.
  • It eases the burden of searching under different terms as index terms are controlled
  • Though use of syndetic device it displays related terms therefore promoting records
  • It overcomes false drops by covering homographs
  • It enables retrieval of documents whose topics are not represented by terms.
  1. Disadvantages of artificial indexing language
  • It lacks specificity for the control terms
  • Its intellectually involving the indexer who has to translate the authors words into the controlled vocabulary
  • Wrong assignment of index terms due to misinterpretation may arise
  • The control vocabulary tools are usually up to date
  • The searcher must learnt different terms that not be familiar to him/ her
  • It lacks exhaustively as some terms may not be omitted by the controlled vocabulary
  • If different vocabulary control list are used it happens exchange of information amongst information centre due to their incomparability.
  • Homographs- are words with same spelling by different meaning e.g. mouse- rodent and mouse – computer device   

NB  

Vocabulary control in artificial indexing language

  • It is exercised or using syndetic device as described here
  1. Control of synonyms or variant ward form.
  • Its exercised through SEE reference or USEinstructions e.g. Footpaths     See: trails

Labor  See: labour

  • In the above example the underlined words are Descriptors
  • Those in bold e g use and see are sydetic or cross reference
  • While those not underlined are non – descriptors this means the underline words are the one accepted for use as index terms or search terms.
  1. Homographs are controlled by use of enclosed in parenthesis e.g.

Pitch ( foot-ball)                            mouse – rodent

Pitch (music)

Pitch valley, slope)

 The purposes of qualifying homographs is to show the context in which they are appred

  • For related terms scattered in the index

SEE ALSO references or broader term (BT) or Narrow term (NT) and related terms (RT) are used.

Examples

  • Disaster SEE ALSO Accident, earthquakes, fire
  • Disabled (NT) (Blind)
  • Blind (BT) Disabled
  • Cattle (RT) hides

The BT, NT and RT are syndetic device that are used to enhance searching in indexing terms

  1. With respect to retrieval of information highlight   the step  involved in the indexing process
  • Deciding on the indexable matter.
  • Familiarize (technical reading) of the documents to be indexed
  • Identify the indexiable concepts/ analysis of the document
  • Translating the idexable term into an accepting indexing language
  • Recording the index able term as a searcher medium
  • Arranging index entries into logical manner
  • Editing the index entries by correcting error
  1. Explain 4 indexing matters and indexer is likely to make during the indexing proces

 

 

  1. Under what circumstance will a library prefer using a general classification scheme to a special classification scheme

 

 

  1. Highlight 6 factors that should be taken into consideration by indexer when deciding an essential index able matter for a printed book (12mks)
  • Depth to which indexing should be done
  • The level of generity and specificity in which the concepts is to be represented.
  • Indexer should ensure that the indexing is done to meet the users inquires
  • Indexer should plan on how to control the index vocabulary
  • Design the structure of the index entries
  • Ensure that consistency will be achieved in indexing
  1. What items may be considered for inclusion in a newspaper index (3mrks)
  • Title
  • Type of newspaper
  • Page
  • Date
  1. Under what circumstance is a classification scheme considered special
  • When a given form of presentation (fiction) is organized
  • In case the special information services is organized
  • When the item used relate while organizing
  • When organizing a certain form of library material
  • In case one conventional subject area is organized
  1. Explain 6 reasons why a special classification scheme (scc) may be used  instead of a general classification scheme
  • General is not detailed while special is more detailed because it covers only one are of knowledge
  • SCC does not take a longer time to be revised, unlike general CS
  • Notation derive is likely to be shot unlike in general which have longer notation
  • Filing schedule helpful to users is given in SCS
  • Flexible citation order can be built in the scheme unlike in general C-scheme
  1. Highlight 5 short comings of special classification schemes
  • Construction of the scheme is a complex job that required a professional classifier
  • The scheme can be outdated if not revised
  • They don’t derive the benefit of centralized cataloging because centralized cataloging uses DCC/LCC
  • It is expensive as professional classifier has to be employed
  • SCC may pose problems to the users
  1. Explain 6 reason for the use of LCC scheme by all the university library in Kenya
  • The notation is short and hospitable
  • The notation is good for sheet arrangement
  • Its up to date as it is continuously revised
  • It’s based on a literary warrant
  • It saves time of a classifier because it has limited notation synthesis
  • It’s good for standardization and resource sharing
  1. Highlight merits and demerits of LCC scheme

Merits / advantages

  • It’s up to date as it is continuously revised
  • The notation is brief and university accepted
  • It has a sound financial maintenance and revision program
  • Each schedule represent a given subject hence LCC can be used in a special library.
  • It is based on a literary warrant. Most of the collection in LCC is similar to those ones on an academic library.
  • It is good for standardization and resource sharing in MARC,CIP
  • It is suitable for shelf arrangement  of documents
  • It has limited notational synthesis, this saves the time of the classifiers
  • Re – classification is minimized due to the few structural changes made to the schemes

Demerits  /  disadvantages

  • It has an American brasnes in coverage and terminology
  • Alphabetical arrangements are always used instead of logical hierachie
  • It’s difficult to use because of many volumes since it lacks a common index it lacks a common index, auxiliary table like in DDC
  • It has no a bridged edition of the scheme and small library wishing to use LCC must buy all the 45 volumes
  • The mixed notations makes it difficult to remember a combination of the numerals and letters

Explain 5 advantage of special classification schemes

  • A flexible citation order can be build in the scheme
  • Notation derived is likely to be short
  • A filing schedule lawful and users is given
  • Separate view point of particular subject is catered for
  • It provides a detailed specification of complex subjects hence closed classification is achieved

With respect to information retrieval explain 4 advantages of  the LCC scheme notation

  • It’s up to date as it is continuously revised
  • The notation is brief and university accepted
  • It has a sound financial maintenance and revision program
  • Each schedule represent a given subject hence LCC can be used in a special library.
  • It is based on a literary warrant. Most of the collection in LCC is similar to those ones on an academic library.
  • It is good for standardization and resource sharing in MARC,CIP
  • It is suitable for shelf arrangement  of documents
  • It has limited notational synthesis, this saves the time of the classifiers
  • Re – classification is minimized due to the few structural changes made to the schemes

Outline the first main 8 classes of the LCC scheme

  • General work
  • Psychology, religion
  • Auxiliary sciences of history
  • History general and old world
  • F – history America
  • Geography
  • Social science
  • Political science

Highlight 6 features of LCC scheme

  • It is based on literary warrant
  • Its highly enumerative
  • It covers mainly social sciences
  • Good for shelf arrangement and retrieval of information material
  • It covers subjects in the universe of Knowledge

Classify the following information material using LCC. A general dictionary 25 by Andrew Gatonye  in the year 2010 and the cutter table is :

How to classify information material using LCC

e.g a book entitled physical and theoretical chemistry 462.12 by John kamu in the year 2101 and the cutter table is

Divisions

Each division is further divided   into divisions divisions of QD

23.3-26.5                     A.i chemistry

71-142                         analytic chemicstry

146-197                       in organic chemistry

241-441                       organic chemistry

450-731                       physical chemistry

901-99                         crystallography

  1. Features of LCC Notation
  • It is uses a mixed notation of upper  case Roman letter  and Arabic numbers
  • The notation base of the scheme is long range from A-Z
  • Main classes are indicated by one letter and sub- classes are shown by 2-3 letters. Divison are shown by Arabic numbers from 1 to 9999 and division extent by use of the cutter numbers
  • Hospitality of the scheme achieved through leaving some notations unassigned e,g I,O, W,X
  • The notation is not expensive thus brief and short.
  • Few alpha numeric’s employed i.e. t- technology, M- music, G – geography
  • Class E.F.and Z have not yet been divided into sub-classes
  • The scheme is good for shelf arrangement

NB

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CLASSIFICATION SCHEME (LCC)

  • It is a dispose oriented classification scheme  whose main class correspond to the existing academic  displine
  • Main classes
  • General work
  • Psychology, religion
  • Auxiliary sciences of history
  • History general and old world
  • Geography
  • Social science

J – Political science

K – Law

L– Education

M – Music and books on music

N– Fine arts

P – Language and literature

Q – Science

R – Medicine

S – Agriculture

T – Technology

U – Military science

V – Naval science

Z – Bibliography and library science and general information resources

Sub – classes

QA  – science

QB – mathematics
QC – astronomy
QD- physics
QE- chemistry
QH- geology
QK- natural history
QL- botany
QM- zoology
QP- human anatomy
QR- physiology

Disadvantages of DDC

  • It has biasness for its mother country class 200 and 900
  • It has 300,500,600 are crowed
  • The notation base of ten main classes is lengthy where specificity is required
  • It lacks specificity in science and technology
  • The scheme for shelf management and not organizing subject indexes
  • It treats social science and arts more than other sciences
  • No new numbers can be instead between 610 to 620. A new subject in this case must be introduced as an existing

Components of DDC

  • Schedule
  • The relative index
  • Generation
  • Form class
  • Introduction
  • Auxiliary tables

Schedule of DDC

  • This shows the main classes, sub classes and subdivision of  the entries schemes

Relative index

  • An index in the scheme that brings related aspects or subjects together

Advantages of DDC

  • Uses notions of Arabic and numeric’s which are easy to remember
  • It is familiar and common with users worldwide
  • It is constantly revised and is therefore up to date.
  • It is well funded and has a sound organization and revision base
  • It has a relative index and manual of instructions and assist classifier
  • It is notation is hospitable for inclusion of new subjects
  • It provides a relative location that is applied in the arrangement of documents in the libraries
  • It is useful for copy cataloguing through hierarchal notation
  • It is hierarchal in nature an facilities of the items form general and specific
  • It has mnemonic ability that can assist users to memorize what is given in the scheme

Each of the hundred division is divide into 10 sections

020 – division (library and infomaiton

021- library relationship

022 – admistration of physical plan

023 – personal administration

024-

025- library operations

026 – library for specific subjects

027 – general libraries

028 – recording using other information

029- media

Main classes

Generation                                                     000

Philosophy and psychology                         100

Religion                                                          200

Social science                                                 300

Language                                                        500

Pure science                                                   600

Technology                                                    700

Arts and reservation                                     800

Geography , history and their auxiliaries 900

Features of DDC notation

  • Uses pure notations of Arabic numerical
  • Main classes are from 00-900
  • Notation is simple and easy to remember
  • Notation is hospitable by leaving some numbers unassigned it uses mnemoric devices
  • A decimal point is inserted between 3rd and 4th digits
  • Notation hierarchal i.e. moving form general to specific

NB

DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEME

It comes in two edition namely

Abridged – DDC which have been shorten by omission while relating the basic content

Bridged

Principles undermine the construction of DDC scheme

  • It is based on two principles
  • Classification of discipline
  • The division of knowledge into main classes and division based on academic discipline
  • A classifier using DDC scheme must determine in which discipline most classified in more than one discipline

Principle of hierarchy

  • It means a given topic/ aspects in subordinate to part of the structure.
  • Its expressed through notation length
  • The notation of a given level of division is one digit shorter than the one bellow

E,g

000     being genrarilites

020      lirary and information science

022      adminstraion of physical plan 1.22 loc action

 Division of knowledge

  • DDC scheme is divided into 10 main classes

000   generalities

010      bibliography

020      library and information

030      general and encyclopedia work

040

050      general series and their indexes

060      general organization and musicology

070      new media journalism publishing

080      general collection

090      month book and rare books

Usage of the scheme may pose problems to users

SPECIAL VS GENERAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

Shortcoming of the general classification schemes that make classifiers prefer the special classification schemes

  • They may not be detailed to cover  a library special collection
  • They take a longer time to be revised
  • They may provide a filing order which may not be useful to users
  • The schemes are likely to have longer notation which are not suitable for shelf arrangement
  • They do not meet speicalits view points as alternative

 CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHICH SPECIAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES MAY BE CONSTRUCTED

  • When organizing a give form of presentation or fiction
  • When organizing certain physical form of library material maps
  • When organizing special information services such as index, bibliographies and obstruct
  • When organizing one conventional subject are I.e. business studies, music, library,
  • When organizing items for related items i.e. building and civil engineering

 GENERAL

These are schemes which cover all fields of knowledge  and are not retrieved to one conservation subject area or form of materials

Example

  • Dewy decimal classification schemes
  • Universal decimal classification schemes
  • Library of congress classification scheme
  • Colon classification scheme
  • Fiction classification
  • Classification of library and information scheme
  • British catalogue of music classification
  • Cheltenham classification scheme of school libraries
  • London classification scheme of business studies.

TYPES OF SPECIAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

  • Classification schemes restricted to one conventional subject e,g, Classification of library and information scheme, London classification scheme of business studies.
  • Classification schemes restricted  to certain group of users i.e.  Cheltenham classification scheme of school libraries
  • Classification schemes restricted to form of material i.e Boggs and Lewis law map classification
  • Classification scheme restricted to a certain form of publication i.e. patents and standards
  • Classification scheme restricted to a certain form of presentation of idea i.e. fiction classification scheme restricted to organization bibliographies, indexes and abstracts.

REASONS/ MERIT FOR USING SPECIAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

  • They provide a detailed specification of complex subjects hence close classification is achieved.
  • Specialist view points of particular subject are catered for.
  • A filing scheduled helpful to users is given
  • Notation derived is likely to be short
  • A flexible citation order can be built in the schemes

 DISADVANTAGES OF A SPECIAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

  • Consulting the scheme is a complex job that requires a professional classifier
  • The scheme can be outdated if not revised
  • A library using a special classification scheme is not likely to derive the benefits of centralized cataloguing.
  • It’s expensive since a professional classifier has to be employed.

CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES  

It is descriptive information for an arrangement or division of objects into group based on characteristics which the objects have in common.

BENEFITS/ ADVANTAGES

  • Allow a user to fine and object quickly in a large objection collection
  • Make it easier to detect duplicated objects
  • Conveys(meaning) of an object that is not conveyed by the object name or definition
  • Classification scheme assist in administrative work e.g. stock taking
  • They also help to save time in retrieval of information.

DISADVANTAGES

  • Some classification schema contains outdated subjects combinations which may not be useful   to users
  • Since the scheme are continuously up dated, re- classification can occur which is time consuming
  • Some classification schemes use notations which are long and comprated
  • Some classification schemes are based towards their mother countries in coverage and terminology colon, DDC and LCC.
  • Some classification schemes have poor financial base and they could collapse at any time i.e. bliss and UDC

Types

2 types of classification scheme are

  • Special classification schemes (in-house classification scheme)
  • General classification schemes

SPECIAL (IN – HOUSE)

  • It’s a classification scheme that covers one subjects area according to the information needs of users of an information centre.
  • It’s also known as in house classification scheme

Examples

Boggs and Lewis map classification scheme

  • Call number – it’s a symbol that provides identification to a class no, authors code and the year of publication.
  • Mnemonics – symbol or device used for memory
  • Class number – refers to a symbol that is obtained directly from a classification scheme and assigned to a book

Explain 5 limitation of using the special classification scheme (10mrks)

Define

Classification scheme – is the descriptive information for an arrangement or division of objects into a group or characteristic which abject have in common.

Giving appropriate examples, highlight 8 types of special classification (8 marks )

  • Classification scheme restricted to   one conventional subject e.g. London classification of  business studies

Outline 2 examples of special classification scheme (2mks)

  • Fiction classification
  • Boggs and Lewis map classification
  • Classification of library and information science

Highlight 6 qualities of a good classification scheme (8mrks)

  • Classification scheme should provide the organization of subjects. This provision makes it to differentiate between the same subject e.g. Geography of Kenya from Geography in general.
  • It should exhaustively cover all the subjects for which it is interrelated to classify. It should be hospitable to allow all subjects to be included.
  • It must be systematic and division of knowledge.
  • Employed terminology that is clear and descriptive with consistent to user and classifier.
  • It should be hospitable/ up to date. must allow for new concept for the classification scheme

Explain 4 types of notation (8Mrks)

  • Pure notations – a notation which use one set of symbol e.g. Arabic numerals, DDC uses pure notation.
  • Mixed notation – a notation which uses more than one set symbol i.e. both Arabic numerals and roman letters.
  • Hierarical notation – a notation which reflects the structural order of a classification scheme e.g. DDC is a hierarchal notation
  • Expressive notations – it express relationship among coordinate subjects.
  • Faded notations – it uses facet indicators i.e. colon classification

Explain two uses of each of the following components of a classification scheme (12 mrks)

Schedule

Describe a list of the main classes, division and sub-division of the classification scheme. Each concept covered in the classification scheme has a notation covered to it. Volume ii and iii of the DCC constitute schedule.

Notations

It is a short head code for the main class. Division, sub-division and other concepts.

Indexes

It is an alphabetical listing of all subjects covered in classification scheme. An index to a classification helps in locating collect the aspects catered.

Table

The table could provide a notation that can be added to the class notation to allow for specific classification of an item e.g. Vol

NB limited cataloguing – it’s a cataloging system where elements are reduced

The notation is an integral part of every classification scheme. Explain seven qualities of a good notation (7mrk)

    1. It should be easy to use
    2. It should be hospitable and allow for inclusion for new concepts
    3. It should be expressive and show relationship among classes
    4. It should be unique so that it cannot be confused with other classification scheme. i.e. bliss classification scheme
    5. It should permit for number building
    6. It should have a flexible criteria order to meet the needs of users.

Highlight 6 components of a bibliographic classification scheme (12 marks)

 Schedule

Describe a list of the main classes, division and sub-division of the classification scheme. Each concept covered in the classification scheme has a notation covered to it. Volume ii and iii of the DCC constitute schedule.

Notations

It is a short head code for the main class. Division, sub-division and other concepts.

Indexes

It is an alphabetical listing of all subjects covered in classification scheme. An index to a classification helps in locating collect the aspects catered.

Table

The table could provide a notation that can be added to the class notation to allow for specific classification of an item e.g. Vol

Rules for classifying library information material

  • Class an item first by subject and them by its form of presentation except in the literature and general classes where forms of presentation is paramount e.g. dictionaries of medicine will be classed at medicine not dictionaries because a dictionary is form of presentation. However a book entitled “a collection of poems on law will be classed at poetry” (literature) not law because literary form is paramount to the subject in the literature class.
  • If a class on item on two subjects at the subjects that is dominant or over emphasized it can be ascertained e.g. a book on geography and history can be classed at history if it is the most dominant subject.
  • Class an item on three or more subjected that are not subdivision of a broader class the generalities class e.g. A book on philosophy, psychology, religion and geography will be classed in the generalities class.
  • Class a document that covers two or more subjects that are all sub-division of a broader subject under the broader subjects e.g. algebra and callus will be classed at mathematics.
  • Class an item on three subjects that are all sub-division of a boarder subject in the highest class (board class) number that includes  them all, unless one subject is dominant e.g. algebra, calcuss and trigonometry will  be classified at the number for mathematics. This is called the “rule of three”.
  • Class an item on three or more subjects that are not sub-divisions of a broader. Class under the generalities class e.g. a book on philosophy, psychology, religion and geography will be classed in the generalities class.

Highlight 6 problem that may be faced by a library which does not classified its stock

  • The library will not carry out  the process of stock taking
  • The library will not carry out weeding of the library stock
  • It consumes a lot of time for the library staff and uses  in information retrieval
  • A library will not enhance the compilation of a shelf list
  • Library will not satisfy the user’s needs
  • It creates a lot of disordered in the library

Explain 6 advantages of a classified arrangement information material (12mrks)

  • Facilitates the evaluation of a library stock as it is possible to find out it weak and strong subject areas.
  • Facilitate orderly arrangement of documents in a library collection.
  • Enhance book displays that are essential for browsing end users.
  • Facilities the process of stock taking based on the call numbers assigned to the documents
  • Bibliographic searchers by the library staff and users and their compilation is made easier.
  • Saves the time of the library staff and user information retrieval.
  • Makes it possible to rep ( re- shelve ) items in their proper places on the shelves after uses
  • Helps in shelving new documents in their proper amongst the existing one on the shelve.
  • Facilitates weeding of the library stock.
  • Ensures compilation of subject bibliographical indexes catalogues and users suggestion and borrower stations.
  • Enhances the compilation of a shelf list.

Explain 4 reasons for re-classification of library stock

  • Reclassification enhances the evaluation of a library stock as it is possible to find out its week and strong subjects area
  • It facilities orderly arrangement of documents in a library collection
  • It facilities arrangement of frequently consulted item in their most appropriate shelf hence the items will not get lost
  • Reclassification helps in shelving new documents in their proper place amongst the existing one on the shelves
  • Makes it possible to reshelf items in the shelves after use
  • Reclassification of library stock is necessary when new knowledge and new classes are created
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