This information the second categories of material resources .they are also referred to as NBM or Non Book Materials. Information is transmitted through sound or images or both.

Non print Media is also referred to as any material that is not  in the print form.

Distinguishing between prirnt and non- print media.

  1. The form of presentation i.e. print materials use papers while non-print is found in tapes or discs
  2. The mode of access – in print media you use you use sight and non-print media you access through sound image or both.
  3. Non- print media is very compact. This means that non-print media is able to occupy little space unlike print media e.g. diskette and an encyclopedia.
  4. Portability – you can use it at your own time i.e. carry a diskette in a pocket and use it ones convenient time.
  5. Versatility- this means that a non- print media can be (used by many people at a time )  non- Book media is effective because one is able to use more than one sense retaining more information



These are usually in the form of cassettes tape reel and are usually in various lengths or diameter and most of them require equipment in order to access the information within.


  1. An audio recording can substitute a person.
  2. Versatility: it can be used by small or large number of people
  3. They are portable i.e. it can be used at any place at one convenience saves time and in addition operation of the equipment is easy.
  4. They can be used to emphasize on a message e.g. lecturer’s seminars etc.


  1. These require machinery for accessing the information.
  2. They require good storage facilitate because information can be easily destroyed.
  3. The play back machine requires power or batteries.
  4. Although they substitute a person they can provide only one way communication.

1. Audio tapes

These are reels of magnetic tapes on which sound has been recorded.

  • These tape recorded is used play the audiotapes.
  • These tapes are usually made of polyester- base to which oxide of chromium or iron is attached by magnetization.
  • A message is recorded on this tape and which can be read or heard using a playback machine.
  • The usual width is 6.3mm and the tapes are supplied with magnetic side on the inner side.
  • The reel usually varies in size and diameter e.g. big 13, 18,165cm in diameter.
  • The time taken to play the taped depends on its thickness and speed at which the recording is made.
  • The tapes are supplied with tape both at beginning and end without magnetic surface attached.
  • The come in their own containers which are made of hard carp board or plastic.

2.Audio cassettes

They were invented around 1916 by Philips and they are like audio tapes but with spool/ reel contained in a (plastic) so as to reduce damage that can be caused by dust or handling.

They are normally thinner and narrower than those in the open spool machine.

The standard dimension is normally 10.2 x6.4 mm and the with is 3,.8mm. the cassette has a magnetic- coated surface on the outer sides.

The records player runs at a speed of 4.75cm per seconds. Therefore the cassette comes with pre-determined playing time.

Storage / maintenance and care of tape.

The audiotape are supplied own plastics or cardboard boxes. This facilitates labeling in the case they can be integrated with books on the shelves. Audios cassette can be stored in plastic racks (container) which ensure that the audio tapes are displayed safely. Some libraries store their cassette in lockable racks to avoid theft.

The following practices must be adhered to when storing the audio recordings.

1. Tapes must be kept in dust free environment because it will lose its magnetism.

2. Store tapes away from influence of magnetic field because it will lose its magnetism.

3. Tapes must be kept flat and this will ensure that no part of the tape is bent or twisted.

4. High humidity cause dampness and as result fugal growth is encouraged. In addition the tape might tend to sticks together store tapes in moderate humidity condition

5. Tapes should be played periodically because they can lose their magnetism.


  1. They substitute for direct experience or demonstration.
  2. Allow us to go back into history.
  3. Enables us to see an experiment or demonstration and hence are quite captivating the mood they can also be used to change attitude and even change in nature that cannot be seen by the human eye. Through films you can make use of at least 2 senses (sight/hearing). It has been observed that human acquire knowledge through the senses and in the following proportion
  • 75% through sight.
  • 13% through hearing
  • 6% through touch
  • 3%throuh smell
  • 3% trough taste

Films  are available in various measure e.g. 35 mm types of film is mostly used for commercial or entertainment the 16mm 8mm  comparatively cheap than the 35mm.

Film strips

These include microfilms cine films slides etc.

An image in film is created in the emulsion due to the chemical response to light.

The hole along the edge of a film is used to pull the film through the project or the camera the surface of the film is usually dull while the other part is usually shinny. The dull is referred to as the base.

The base is made of cellulose substances and this side has not photographic prosper tics at all. The function of the base is to support the lining of the light sensitive emulsion hence; photographic images are registered on the emulsion side.

The 8mm films will definitely project a small has a sound track which is a narrow strip verifying in width and this is where sound is recorded. It is usually located on the sprocket hole in the opposite side.

Filmstrips are a collection of images in a single or double frame. The frame is passed through the projector for viewing. Most filmstrips are accompanied by note or document which explain the content of the picture. Film strips supplied in smaller circular canisters, which have accompanied notes exploring the content of the pictures.


  1. Films facilitate sequencing of pictures the individual pictures can be held on the screen as long as it is needed for use.
  2. The filmstrips can be used alone or in combination with other graphics material.


  1. They have a fixed sequence.
  2. They cannot be prepared by information center and are therefore confined to commercial producers
  3. They require a machine to operate
  4. They require power
  5. They require dark room with curtain for better viewing
  6. They are very fragile. Can easily be damaged.

Storage of filmstrips

They are stored in their main plastic or metal containers in which they come in.  They can also be kept in small cabinets to avoid the moving about of containers and this cabinet can also be divided in to individual compartment. This will also enhance retrieval. They have accompanying number and notes and this will help to enhance retrievals e.g. the title of the film accession number etc .filmstrip can also be kept side by side on shallow shelves or putting the strategically on pegs together with the canister.

Cine films

This type of film is whereby the sequence of the images is arranged vertically which give the appearance of movement when projected on the screen at the correct speed.

They appear in different format e.g. 35mm which is popularly used in cinemas and the 16mm is popular for distributing film to school business firm or small clubs.

C Slides

This is a film transparent within contained in 5.08 cm frame but in this case a slide projector is needed to project the information on a wall or any other surface. It is a single frame of transparency which is mounted either by the plastic or cardboard glass can be used to cover or protected.


  1. It can be project in a sequence.
  2. Slides are a cheap and easily available.
  3. It is possible to duplicate or copy.
  4. They are portable.

Slide should be stored in individual is pocket in transparent plastic wallet which can be made glass and can be suspended vertically in a cabinet. The slide being a small format of transparency is usually mounted one at a time on slide project aside light has to be transmitted through it. The slide is put in a magazine and they are project onto a screen.


On the use both audio visual when using slide (audio visual presentation). They only limitation is that they require expertise especially when arranging the magazine and that other technical  requirement e.g. bulb have to be checked  and constant power is required.

Care of filmstrip and slide.         

Different Non Book Media will need different storage environment e.g. film strips and slide require a controlled temperature above 70-85 and relatively humidity of above 65 are harmful to slide or film exposure to light. Filmstrip and slide can be convenient I metal film cabinet.

Motion film e.g. the 16mm film contains materials (chemicals) aside that will give the film durability. Nevertheless it can still turn brittle it there is hot climate hence the need to control the storage environment. Extreme heat will affect the chemical used and humidity encourages the growth of bacterial or fungi.

Color films will require a drier climate that is a dry relative humidity and also a cool temperature the more retention of colour. Heavy film should be stored flat not standing and any damages directed should be immediately repaired.

Other Non book Media like video tapes should also be in their cases or containers because the life of a video tape will also be prologed when simple care rule are kept. E.g. avoiding dust and heat.


Microform falls under project media i.e. they need a projector to give information and microform is a term used for all type micro- production which includes material e.g. microfiche and ultra fiche. All these form require the use of equipment that will enlarge or display it on the screen.


It is a continuous length of films wound onto an open spool or reel and will require a miccrofilms reader to magnify the reduced images. This microfilm is wound from the full spool onto an empty take up spool via the lenses system. After use the microfilms should be rewind back onto the original spool. They are normally supplied with their own cardboard boxes.

Cassette microfilms. It is simply consist of an open spool of film and an empty take up spool enclosed inside a cassette.

Microfilmscard: it is an opaque with reduced images which must be magnified on appropriate machine known as micro card reader.


This is a flat piece of transparent film containing images greatly reduced in size and microfiche reader is used to read the information.

It is a refined microfiche with reduction of at least 126 times. Should be stored away from sunlight to avoid chemical reaction

Care and maintenance

  1. Avoid scratching handling with dirty fingers especially grease marks because it will distort the information.
  2. Keep in dust free areas e.g. paper used to cover the paper material should be sculpture free to prevent chemical reaction with the silver salts oxide in the emulsion.


They include magnetic disc recording video disc optical storage system e.g. CD ROMS. Disks are used for recording digital data for computer and they are thin circular plastic sheet covered within a phonic oxide. Most discs are supplied in card and plastic cover. These cover should never be removed as they are very fragile. For pangenetic disc each one of them bear a label but care should be taken such that only the slightest pressure should be used on such acid should be stored with protective cover to prevent damage and there is a need to have a back up copy which should be kept  safely this sometime are purchased with company document for effective use.

Care and maintenance

  1. Do not blend or twist the discs.
  2. Keep away from dirt dust grease
  3. Avoid keeping them in high humidity environment as well as strong sunlight as they are likely to blend
  4. Do not exert pressure on a discs e.g. writing with a ball pen or storing them tightly together.
  5. They should be stored in a vertical position
  6. Store away from pangenetic fields influence


These are information resources that represent an organism which can be living or non- living.

Realia are important information resources used for instruction purposes. An information seeker is able to visualize, how the real object looks like e.g. model can help a leaner to see how the heart looks like human skeleton etc.

Models  models helps bring the leaner into contact with reality hence help the learning process.

It is a recognizable 3- dimensional object which is lifeless.

Qualities of a model

  1. May represent real things that things that are too large
  2. They represent real thing things that are too small e.g. an atom cannot be seen by naked eyes.
  3. Represent living and non-living things
  4. Most models are for instructional purposes and commercially used through positive to make them in house.
  5. They are very useful for the handicapped users and even children.

An object

It can be defined as real things complete while a specimen is a real thing but not complete.

Regalia help us to visualize ideas that could be otherwise difficult to understand if treated only with words. They also help highlight or summarize certain information or ideals or ideas or ideas hence motivate the learning process.


Include the paper- based material such as photograph which should not be exposed to a lot of light as this will lead to the distortion of the image. Game and simulation are also effective ways of transmitting information through they might include human resources.


Principles of selection

As information personnel it is essential know your users general and specific interests

  1. Set up questionnaires
  2. An interview for the users

User statistics

  1. Be familiar with subject of current interest.
  2. Represent in the collection subjects which are applicable to the interest of the user.
  3. Provide for both actual and potential users. An actual user is one who has expressed his information needs while a potential user has not expressed his information needs. This is because one will gear towards satisfying the existing demand and anticipate the demand brought about by event condition or increased use.
  4. Avoid selection of non- demand material and selection materials of permanent value regardless or the potential user.
  5. Practice impartiality i.e. do not be biased no favored hobbies or opinions should bias one collection strive not for a complete collection but for best .either best materials on a subject as well as the best material of an author.
  6. As information personnel, keep abreast of current thoughts opinion or influential scientific social or economic work i.e. keep abreast on what is happening.
  7. Maintain as much as possible regular selective and supply of new materials

Information personnel should therefore know the interest of the users as well as their age gender. Intellectual ability.

  • A selection policy.

A selection policy is a recorded document that provided guideline on how the process of selection should be done. This brings about consistency and uniformity in selection process.

What to put in a selection policy

  1. A broad statement of the objective of the information center and those of the parent organization.
  2. A description of materials necessary to meet this goal e.g. non print media. Slides print or media e.g. Almanacs, yearbooks.
  3. There should be a statement indicating the individual responsible for selecting material i.e. is it the librarian alone a committee teacher etc. if it is in a committee state that are in it.
  4. The policy should cover a list of selection aids e.g. publisher catalogue newpaper, journal, books review etc. The most popular aid is the publisher catalogue.
  5. The procedures for the selection i.e. will it involve asking for lists from various departments and how will the final list be arrived at.
  6. The procedure for review and dealing with challenged  materials in this case a user is normally required to fill a form starting the title or author of the book and section and chapter they disapprove of the and why .

Importance of a selection  policy

  1. Unless the personnel has written selection policy to guide him or her in the process, there is a dagger that the collection will eventually reflect the interest of the information personnel ( prevent biasness)
  2. A selection policy will enable one to clarify the aims and objective the information center (forced to think about the objective)
  3. It enables one to justify why center material were bought and some left out.
  4. Used by the information personnel to as again for more funds from the funding bodies.
  5. A selection policy can be used as defense tool when an individual challenges materials in the information on center group e.g. church.
  6. Servers as biases of agreement and guidance for all involved I the selection process.
  7. By having selection policy it serves as an indication of responsibility in the selection process.


This is the process by which information center physically secure materials though purchase. Buying gift or donation and exchange their item that the selection personnel has identified as desirable addition to the collection. The objective of library in acquisition areas include.

  1. To develop knowledge of non-books media trade.
  2. To assist in the selection and collection development funds.
  3. To control the expenditure of the collection development funds.
  4. To maintain all required records regarding expenditure of funds.
  5. To process the items that is added into the collection i.e. cataloging classification.

A Role of Acquisition Department

  1. It is supposed to collection and disseminates information about book publisher, the media vendors or procedure.
  2. To provide information regarding schedule of publishing houses or any other new service offered in connection with this e.g. binding.
  3. To process request for material to ensure that information center is securing the needed material as quickly and inexpensively as possible. In this connection a duplicate request will increase cost to the information center. Therefore everyone working in acquisitions department should keep an account of material acquired and also maintain record of expenditure.

Internal Goog of Acquisition Possible

  1. Acquire material as quick as possible
  2. Maintain high level of accuracy in all procedures
  3. Keep work process simple so as to achieve the lowest possible unit cost
  4. Develop a close and friendly relationship between an information center with the vendor and distributors(i.e. good human relations)
  5. When initiating acquisitioning one should start with request for items by users in which details.

Information on request form contains.

  • Author and title.
  • The number of copies required
  • Name of the person requesting the material
  • Department
  • Vendors or distribution. This is importance if the material is to be ordered from an organization.

The following are guidelines to be followed in the acquisition process.

acquisition process.

  • You as an information personnel should make preliminary cheeks that the item has not been ordered or the request is in the collection
  • Ensure that the material does not exist in tab
  1. Check the material supplied is the right ones.
  2. Check materials for defects trimming poor binding missing pages unclean printing in case of a tape listen to it. Films watch before you pay once you have made sure that the material once orders then you can start by accessing. Accessioning register is for this purpose ( A big hard cover book/ register would do)

The following details can also be include on the register

  1. Cost
  2. Order
  3. Publisher
  4. Amount

Acquisition of non Book Media

These material do not require different system for purchasing but due to their nature they may require specialist acquisition staff to handle the receiving / or pre-cataloguing procedure.

For most audiovisual materials a list comparable to books in print can be available though you finds that most material are purchased directly from the publishers producers or distribution. For these reasons libraries interested in audiovisual material can collect and keep file of these catalogues which together can form an in print materials

In addition distributor would more or less procedure or sell specific or particular type of non-books media

E Criteria for selecting equipment for Non Book Media.

  1. Cost
  2. Portability
  3. Durability
  4. Quantity of image and sound
  5. Versatility
  6. Compactness – can be stored in a small area
  7. Ease of use
  8. Does it have a guide or manual?
  9. Is it replicable (replaceable)?

Other factor to consider when acquiring Non Book Media.

  1. Search for printed source which will provide bibliographical details.
  2. Contact individual or institution for specialization advice or source on the whereabouts of such materials.
  3. It is importance to create criteria for evaluation of the materials.
  4. The packaging of the media should be attractive easy to handle.


  1. Use Needs

Before an information material is acquired it is important to have a precise knowledge of information needs of potentials and actual users. Users are diverse and their information needs also vary e.g student. Researches children disabled and professionals.

Users needs can identify through a survey whereby one can distribute questionnaire or interview the users.

Nevertheless due to limited resources such as funds information personnel may be forced to prioritize the items to be acquired first.

1. Availability of the materials

The material resource to be acquired must be within reach/ available. If it is a document you can be assured of getting both published and unpolished documents

In the case of non book materials one has to know their availability too e.g disc filmstrips etc.

2. Authoritativeness

By the word authorized it implies that the record or material have been made by responsible organization individual or group. It takes into account authorship and here we looks at the authors competence his qualification and experience. This is because those elements will add to the reliability and accuracy of the information content.

The publisher background is also important some publisher specialize in certain fields hence are very competent in those areas e.g. K.I.E which is very authoritative for the 844 system meGraw- Hill in science Technology in the USA.

3. Physical formant of the material

Under format the following details needs to be looked i.e. the arrangements organization and formation in the

  1. For Non- Books Material looks at case of use.
  2. Are there illustrations or pictures in case of books how are the design e.g. subheading and the heading
  3. Typeface i.e. size of print
  4. Binding in books that will last long. It is hard covered.

The Cost

How much does the material cost? Before a decision is made is made on which to acquire a material the budget of information center has to be analyze.

Remember that is an item to be acquired not within the reach of the information center and then it cannot be acquired.

NB: Cost must always be compared to the benefit i.e. the user benefits from the materials. Information content should be able to meet users to the maximum.

Scope (coverage)

The scope of books is indicated by the table of content (TOC) scope in history may be whole word or as narrow as particular district. A work of science for example may deal with a general science or may treat only one element of science

The information context coverage is mostly determine by the needs of the user

Administrative value

Before an item is selected it will first be evaluated in terms of its worthiness to the organization in conducting its business transactions. administrative records determine the policies and procedure necessary to carry out activities of the organization, they are therefore useful for planning and executing programmes and decisions while this include financial report, budget estimate minutes policy etc.

Legal value

Legal document provide evidence about an organization. It can serve as evidence for property ownership and other legal obligation. Legal value is an importance  in evaluating information  materials because this records provides proof and protection of individual and group rights e.g. court decision, contract, will patent, title deeds etc.

Reference of research value

These are record which are similar to those of historical values is a basic criteria for selection and Eventual acquiring material after selection.

Uniqueness of the materials

A unequal I kind and the more a records is unique the greater the extent to which the information of the record is duplicated.

Rarity or scarcity.

type of information


This is the prohibition to circulate in meeting the user’s needs e.g. church parent can be.

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