Objectives of Life Skills in Education
- Help learners develop an awareness and understanding of every day demand and challenges.
- Enhance self esteem and assertiveness in their relationship with their peers and others.
- Develop an appreciation of female and male as partners in a society.
- Make optimum use of available resources in order to improve the quality of life.
- Develop attitude values and skills that promote positive responsible and healthy lifestyle.
- Develop an understanding, support and care for the disadvantaged int the society.
MAIN TOPICS TO BE COVERED
- Introduction to life skills
- Self awareness
- Self esteem
- Stress management
- Coping with emotions
- Non-violence conflict resolutions.
- Effective decision making.
- Critical thinking.
- Creative thinking.
- Problem solving.
- Time management.
- Gender education.
- Drug and substance abuse.
- HIV and AIDS.
- Child labor.
- Child rights.
INTRODUCTION TO LIFE SKILLS
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines life skills as abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life.
There are 3 Categories of life skills:
- Skills of knowing and living with oneself.
- Self awareness skills- the ability to know oneself e.g. ones abilities, emotions, strength and weaknesses.
- Self esteem and confidence building skills- the way we read ourselves, the respect we accord ourselves and the confidence we have influences and our actions, attitudes and what we achieve in life
- Goal setting skills- self evaluation, self assessment and self motivating skills.
- Skills for managing feelings- anger management, dealing with grief, coping skills for dealing with loss, abuse trauma.
- Skills for managing stress- time management and positive training (personal abilities)
- Skills of knowing and living with others.
People are social by nature and need to interact with others; therefore, we need skills of living with other people. Skills under this category include:
- Negotiation and conflict management skills
- Assertiveness skills
- Cooperation and team work
- Advocacy skills- that is skill of influence and persuasion (interpersonal relations)
- Skills of making effective decisions
- Problem solving skills
- Evaluating future consequences of our present action for self and others
- Information gathering skills
- Determining alternative solutions to problems
- Critical thinking skills
BENEFITS OF LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION
- Learners will be able to make informed choices and decisions about issues in life.
- Develop confidence in ourselves and what we do.
- Practice healthy behavior and avoid risk
- Recognize and assess situations that are likely to create challenges in life.
- Live constructive and meaningful lives.
- Assist one to be positive and active.
VALUES AND OUR LIVES
Values are standards of behaving. They emanate from one’s beliefs, standards or expectations. They are important because they act as the compass of that gives one’s life meaning and direction.
They can also be understood as qualities that are considered worthwhile. They are driving forces.
Examples of values
- Hard work
WHY IDENTIFY AND ESTABLISH VALUES?
Your values are made up of everything that has happened to you in life. They include influence and identifiers. They help you develop clear and meaningful sense of life, your beliefs and priorities.
Values impact every aspect our life.
For example you use your values to:
- Make decisions about priorities in your life and work
- Your goal and life purpose are grounded in your values.
- You demonstrate your values through your personal behavior and interpersonal behavior.
Choose values that are most important to you, living your values helps you to accomplish your goals.
It is the ability of an individual to understand oneself. In terms of potential feelings, habits and tendencies positions in life and society.
Who am i? I am Titus chebii cheboyet.
Describe yourself e.g.
|PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES||MENTAL ATTRIBUTES|
|I am healthy
|I have will power
|Able to perform tasks
|I have charisma
|Able to solve problems
|I am intelligent
|Able to multi-task
|I am able to solve problems
|Able to lead (leader)
|I am short minded guy
REASONS WHY I SHOULD KNOW MYSELF
- Appreciate myself and live in harmony with myself.
- To be at peace with myself and others
- To know my talents and gifts
- To know my limitations and weaknesses then I will make effort to overcome them or to accept what I can’t overcome.
- To know my talents and gifts therefore be able to develop full potential and be useful to others hence I will be a good leader.
- Self awareness helps us to know and understand ourselves know others. Learn how to know others and let them know us.
4 areas ‘the open self’ ‘the blind self’ ‘the concealed self’ ‘the unknown self’-only God knows.
Values and beliefs.
- Not safe
- Bad powerless
- Congruent-internally consistent with @ other
Definition: It is a powerful process for thinking about your ideal future and for motivating yourself to turn your vision into reality. By setting goals you choose where you want to go by knowing what you want to achieve you know where you have to concentrate your efforts you will also spot destructions that can easily lead you astray.
Why set goals?
- Setting goals gives you long time vision and short term motivation.
- It focuses your acquisition of knowledge and helps you to organize your time and resources so that you can make the most of your life.
- It raises self confidence as you recognize your own ability and confidence in achieving the goals you have set.
SET PERSONAL GOALS
- Consider what you want to achieve in life
- Break this down into smaller targets that you must hit to reach your lifetime goals.
- Career-what level do you want to reach in your career?
- Finance-how much do you want to have and by what stage. How does this relate to your career goals
- Education-is there any knowledge you want to acquire in particular. What information and skills will you need to have in order to achieve your goals?
- Attitude-is there any part of the way you behave that you do not like, if so set a goal to improve your behavior. Find a solution to the problem.
The goals that we set must be; SMART
Set precise goals so that you can measure achievement. It is important to set goals that you can achieve.
It is the process of gathering information about yourself in order to make informal decision e.g. interests, values, personality, skills, talents
- What do you like or dislike about yourself?
|s/no||Examples of likes||Examples of dislikes|
| i. I like being smart
ii. I like being skillful
iii. I like my personality
iv. I like my interest
v. I like my talent
| i. Dislikes being discouraged
ii. Dislikes being not motivated
iii. Being misled
iv. Being looked down
v. Being proud of nothing
- What are your strengths and weaknesses
|s/no.||My strengths||My weaknesses|
| i. I am educated e.g. able to read and write
ii. Strong technical knowledge to be acquired within your field
iii. Communication skills
iv. Interpersonal skills
v. Leadership skills
vi. Personal characteristics
Can work under pressure
I am creative
High levels of energy
Strong work ethic
| i. Having low grades
ii. Pursuing wrong courses
iii. Weak technical knowledge
iv. Weak skills for example in leadership, team work, communication
Negative personal characteristics e.g. poor work ethic, lack of discipline, lack of motivation, indecisiveness, shyness or being too emotional
List words that describe you. Many of these characteristics are your strengths. In accessing your weaknesses, we all identify where we may need to improve if you identify a skill that you know is in your chosen field but you are weak in that skill area you need to take steps to improve that skill.
CHALLENGES THAT HINDER ATTAINMENT OF LIFE’S GOALS.
Challenges are demanding situations, problems or difficulties. They can also be described as something hard to understand accomplish or deal with.
- Health problems
- Poor time management
- Poor career choice
- Lack of communication skills
- Low self esteem
- Poor grades
Solutions to overcoming these challenges/problems
- Ignoring of cultural beliefs and norms that will affect your life goals like being a lady or a man.
- Borrowing finance from well wishers and sponsors through donations.
- Being self motivating and having positive attitude to yourself
- Being dependant on your own
- Avoiding bad company
- Being focused on your career.
- accept that challenges exist
- Develop positive attitudes when dealing with challenges. ie learn from the challenges that you come across
- seek guidance and counseling
- Avoid the use of alcohol and drugs as solutions to your challenges.
This refers to the way we think and feel about ourselves. It is the way we rate ourselves, the respect we accord ourselves and the confidence we have in ourselves. if we have confidence and are self assured we will have healthy relationships however if our self esteem is low we might put up with things which we should not such as bullying or violence in a relationship.
SIGNS/ATTRIBUTES OF HIGH SELF ESTEEM
Someone with self esteem generally feels good about their ability to participate confidence and social situation and happy with the way they are.
- Self confidence- I believe that I can achieve good things and that I make positive contributions to my environment and relationships.
- Sense of self worth- I believe I am important and deserve to be treated well
- Self care- I will look after myself well
- Positive- I generally think in a positive way.
- Relating well with others- I will support my friends and my family in what they do.
- Good communication- I know how to ask for things I want and need and am able to listen to others.
- Participation- I will join a team or activities or try a new hobby
- Self discipline and ambition- I have some ideas about the future and what I want to achieve.
- Learn from mistakes- I make mistakes and accept it, I see mistakes as opportunities to learn so that I don’t repeat the same.
SIGNS OF LOW SELF ESTEEM
A person with low self esteem can be very critical of themselves viewing themselves in a negative way, feeling other people don’t think highly of them and that they are not very good in school, sports or interacting with friends or peers.
- Isolation- I feel lonely and isolated a lot most of the time.
- Self doubt- lacking confidence is thinking I am not good in anything and I know other people think like that.
- Self neglect- I don’t feel important and don’t care how I am good.
- Vulnerability and over-sensitivity- people are always criticizing me and the way I do things, I can do anything right.
- Anxiety- I tend to worry about things and feel anxious a lot of time.
- Aggressiveness- humiliating and intimidating others in order to hide in policies questions and cowards who use aggression as an effort of attack.
- Low performance of tasks because of difficulties in concentration.
- Hopelessness- I am hopeless about everything.
- Fear- I am afraid to try new things.
Importance of self esteem
- We become confident
- We understand ourselves and what we want in life.
- We become focused to determine and able to set realistic goals.
- One works hard and achieves his goals in order to become successful in life.
Reasons for low self esteem
- Feeling unlovable and disadvantaged
- Be made fun of.
- Be rejected or abandoned.
- Be marginalized or discriminated against.
- Constant failure or no achievement.
Effects of low self esteem
- It leads to unhappiness all the time.
- Vulnerability to HIV infection *one exposes oneself to risk situations by trying to gain acceptance.
- Drug abuse- in order to gain confidence.
- Accepting physical and emotional abuse one puts up with a lot of abuse.
HOW TO IMPROVE SELF ESTEEM
- Learn to be positive.
- Identify our mistakes and deal with them.
- Identify your weaknesses and seek ways of minimizing them.
- Deal with peers as they arise and seek help when it arises i.e. from counselors.
- Avoid self criticism and be obedient to yourself.
- Learn to love yourself.
- Be willing to support and help others.
- Avoid self pity that is poor meant attribute.
- Do not blame yourself for the mistakes of others.
- They organize- plan your life and decide what you want and strike to get it.
- Do not set unrealistic standards for yourself.
- Get active exercises makes you feel good as the brain relaxes chemicals which cause stress and anxiety.
- Look after yourself.
- Learn from mistakes.
- Try new things.
- Give your opinions differently.
- Spend time with people who respect and listen to you.
Values associated with high self esteem
People with high self esteem are humble, have self respect and are happy.
Identify factors that enhance high self esteem
Confidence, positive, relating well with others, learn from mistakes, good communication; maintain good health habits, goal setting, good grooming.
Stress: It is a normal physical response to events that make you feel threatened or upset your balance in some way. Stress can make you feel frightened, angry or even sick.
Symptoms of stress
You may be under stress if you have headaches, stomachaches, dizziness, rapid heart bits, anger, forgetfulness, inability to make decisions and sweating.
Excessive drinking and smoking and drug use, it can also cause yelling, depression, throwing of things around, sleepless nights. Stress affects all aspects of the mind and body i.e. physical, emotional, mental and spiritual.
Causes of stress
- Growth and development- change and adjust to change are major sources of stress, physical changes mean that you have to develop a new self image. This puts stress on the emotions as well as all the body. It is stressful when you don’t like what is in the mirror.
- Stress in the home- stress can begin at home with conflicts between parents interacting with the family can also be a source of stress e.g. fighting with siblings, stress can also be put on parents putting excessive pressure on you to succeed. You may also cope with money problems, divorce, death or illness of a family member, single parenting or parents who abuse drugs or alcohol, victims of sexual emotional or verbal abuse should seek professional help for example from a counselor.
- Pressure to perform- you may get pressure by both yourself and your parents to do more better i.e. in academics.
- Your self image- how you view yourself will influence how you view stress and how you cope with it. If you have low self esteem or you fear failure you are adding to your stress when you are confident to deal better with stress and may not even think of certain situations as stressful.
- Need to belong- struggling with the desire to be independent you may even consider joining a gang to feel accepted by your viewers.
- Poor pressure- it creates a lot of stress friends mat encourage you to try alcohol or drugs which you know is wrong.
- Goals- you probably have goals and standards of achievement if you don’t reach those goals you create stress for yourself.
- Academic performance- the most frequent cause of stress is consant with academic performance there is pressure to get high grades in order to succeed in the profession of your choice.
- Social problems- dealing with tribalism and racism can be a source of stress you may be rejected because of a mental or physical disability, your age, your race or personal characteristics.
- Stress on the job- you are afraid of losing your job or your job takes too much time or there is too much pressure put on you by your employer or parents to succeed on your job.
- Conflicts, arguments, relationships and conflicts on a job can be a source of stress to many people.
- Lack of positive time management- it can cause stress because one is always late and not able to meet targets.
EFFECTS OF STRESS
- Fight and flight response i.e. increased heart rate, breathing rate the muscle tense the mind becomes alert and ready to respond.
- When you are under stress the immune system doesn’t function efficiently. You can get infections and diseases easily.
- It can cause headaches, diarrhea, high blood pressure which may increase the risk of heart disease.
- It can lead to eating disorders burning attacks, phobia, violent behavior, depression or suicide.
- Inability to concentrate, memory loss, increased use of tobacco or cigarettes drug abuse and hopelessness and helplessness.
- Under stress you don’t think clearly so you are more at risk eg can easily fall sick.
- With stress you may have difficult enjoying positive things in life. You may also engage in risky behavior or immorality and get STDs and AIDS.
- You may lose interest in your academics and stop paying attention in class causing your brain to drop.
- Social maladjustment you may withdraw from participation in extra-curricular activities and keep away from friends you may exhibit anti-social behavior e.g. be argumentative or taking drugs.
- If you feel too much pressure to succeed you may look for ways to fail in order to relief that pressure.
- Some lose interest in the appearance for example not dressing well and not paying attention to personal hygiene.
- Post traumatic stress disorder (PSTD). People who have suffered a traumatic experience /event or life situation such as robbery, death natural disaster or war often live with long term stress.
COPING WITH STRESS
- Organize your work in order of priority. work within possible working schedules
- Setting goals: what are my goals, how can I reach my goals in a positive way. Will my decisions create more or less stress in my life? Prioritize your activities.
- You can say no, you can cope with stress by saying no to something that will add to your stress.
- Organize your life wake up early make a schedule.
- Make your decisions to avoid stress that comes from pressure. Think for yourself.
- take a break/ relax/exercise eat well get enough sleep and participate in physical activities eg swimming, running, working etc when you feel drained stop and take a break for example go for a walk and have fresh air.
- Breathing and relaxation. Deep slow breathing is a process.
- massage : this can lower your heart beat and blood pressure, improve circulation and relax tense muscles
- it gives you a chance to think about something other than events that causes you stress it builds your self esteem because you are helpful to be people in need.
WHY COPE WITH STRESS?
- It saves you time and money trying to treat symptoms caused by stress.
- Not coping with stress may cause a decline in school or job performance and increase in personal conflicts.
- if left un managed stress may lead to mental illness or complete physical exhaustion
- it builds your self esteem. ie you gain control over your responses to your stress even if you can not completely control the cause of the stress
- it is an important tool for living successfully that you learn skills that you will use throughout life.
STRESSORS: These refer to any challenges or change that places a demand on the body.
EXAMPLES OF STRESSORS
- beginning a new job/ moving to anew a town
- meeting deadlines
- Conflicts in relationships
- Public speaking
- major life changes
FORMS OF POSITIVE STRESS
- emergency situation stress can save your life because you can avoid accidents
- Stress response helps you to meet your challenges e.g when doing a presentation and doing an interview.
- Drives you to study for an examination instead of watching tv
- Stress helps you study stay focused energetic and alert.
VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH POSITIVE STRESS
- peace- you become calm
- tolerance- you learn to accept others even though you have different beliefs
- Cooperation- you will be able to work with other to identify others.
- give examples of stressors
- demonstrate ways of stress management
- identify forms of positive stress
- identify values associated with positive stress management
DEFINITION: emotions refer to any strong feelings such as fear, anger sorrow, joy and love. They are strong feelings that one has when something has happened or something has been done to you that you don’t like. Emotions are motivated by psychological arousal and pleasantness or unpleasantness.
Emotions can be good or bad. Common negative emotions include anger, fear, guilt, jealousy, shame, bitterness
Common positive emotions include: love, interest, curiosity, happiness, etc
ANGER: It is an emotion related to perception of having been offended or wronged and it is a tendency to undo that wrong doing by retaliation. It is normal for people to express anger. Anger is healthy when the person experiencing it is able to control the emotions. We ordinarily express our anger through words. However when people are unable to control their anger they express it physically e.g. by hitting, slapping, punching, physical rage etc
CAUSES OF ANGER:
- A memory can make you angry
- You may become angry when you have a problem that frustrates you and worries you.
- Your anger can be directed at a person or situation
EFFECTS OF ANGER
- When you are angry, your heart beats faster, you experience muscle tension, grinding of the teeth, ringing in the hear, excessive sweating, severe head ache etc
- With anger one may make risky decisions
- People normally express anger in an aggressive manner e.g by cursing, swearing, fighting etc
- Destructive behavior. With anger people do stupid things due to judgment mage while angry
- Anger can cause depression
- Anger can lead to drug and alcohol addiction
ANGER MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
- Relaxation, deep breathing and repeating calming words to calm you down, reduce the intensity of your anger. This will reduce your angry feelings so that you can take better hold of your emotions.
- making conscious efforts not to curse or swear when angry
- Counseling will help you understand your anger and how to deal with anger issues.
- Exercise it is important to learn safe and effective ways to release your anger i.e. sleeping or going away from the situation.
- if you feel out of control walk away from the situation temporarily until you cool down
- changing the way we react to triggering situations it is the inappropriate reactions to anger that are wrong
- Practicing forgiveness, anger often results in resentment. This can be resolved through forgiveness.
SHYNESS: It is a form of fear whereby sometimes one shrinks from familiarity and contact with other people.
EFFECTS OF SHYNESS
- Persistent shyness produces timidity resulting in underachievement.
- can lead to generalized fear of strange things and this may hinder creativity
- socially shy children tend to be overlooked and neglected by the group leading to poor adjustments
- people who are shy find it difficult to assume leadership roles
SHYNESS MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
- replace negative thoughts with positive action
- set realistic and meaningful goals for yourself
- rehearsing a situation before hand
- acting confidently
GRIEF: It is a natural response to a loss. it also refers to an emotional suffering you feel when something or someone you love is taken away. the death of loved one cause the most intense grief.
COMMON SYMPTOMS OF GRIEF
- Shock and disbelief- you may trouble believing that the loss really happened or even deny the truth
- sadness- you may feeling of emptiness, despair or loneliness
- guilt- you may regret or feel guilty for not doing something to prevent the death or even if there was nothing you would have done
- Anger- you may be angry at yourself, God the doctors or even the person who died for abandoning you.
- Fear- you may feel anxious or insecure. You may have to face life without the person who died.
COPING WITH GRIEF
- accepting the help of friends and family members
- you can go to church and pray
- counseling- man experienced therapist can help a person work through intense emotions and overcome obstacles to grieving
- acknowledge the pain trying to avoid feelings of sadness and loss only prolonged the grieving process and unresolved grief can lead to complications such as depressions, substance abuse and health problems
- look after you physical health
Curiosity-This is a pleasant emotional state. It provides motivation to explore things
Love- it is considered an emotion of strong affection and personal attachment
Happiness- it is a state of mind or feeling characterized by contentment, satisfaction pleasure or joy.
Interest- it is a feeling or emotion that causes attention to focus on an object event or process.
Refers to skills, capabilities and competencies that influence a person’s ability to succeed copying with environmental demands and is composed of 5 dimensions
- self awareness- ability to be aware of who you are
- self management – ability to manage one s own emotions and impulses
- self motivation- ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures
- empathy- ability to sense how others feel
- social skills- ability to handle the emotions of others
HOW TO CONTROL NEGATIVE EMOTIONS
- Seeking counseling
- Being confident
- Accepting that things happen naturally identifying problematic emotions
- Talking to friends
- Delaying your reactions
VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
- Humility- allow to consult and seek help when dealing with problematic emotions
- tolerance- you will not easily get emotional about other people’s opinions e.g. becoming angry
- respect- you will not insult/ Harm or show any form of disrespect to yourself and others because of your emotions, you will learn to control your emotions
IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL CONFIDENCE
- it is important to manage our emotions properly because our emotions affect our behavior
- our emotions affect our decision making
- our emotions affect our interpersonal relationships
- it leads to improved health through avoiding stress
Empathy Human beings at anyone point in life encounter challenges or experience problems. It is important for other members of the society to understand what the person is going through, demonstrate care and concern and provide support to the affected person. The facilitator is expected to expose participants to relevant scenarios that will enable them practice the skill of empathy.
Empathy is the ability to understand what the other person is experiencing and to be able to communicate this feeling in time.
The ability to understand, imagine and appreciate a challenging situation another person is going through thereby assisting him/her to come up with a solution is demonstration of empathy.
Empathy brings joy to both the giver and the receiver.
We can help people explore and cope with their feelings if we are able to see situations from their perspective.
Situations that require Empathy: Bereavement Success in exams Failure e.g. in examinations Retrenchment of a member of the family Celebration of anniversaries e.g. Birthdays Lose of property due to violence Sickness Birth of a baby sister/brother
Different ways of expressing empathy: Empathy can be demonstrated in different ways. The following are examples of different ways of expressing empathy. Actively listening Sharing resources Providing help when needed Being polite, non-judgmental and understanding
Other skills that enhance empathy: Most life skills are interrelated and compliment each other. The following are examples of skills that enhance empathy. Effective communication Problem solving Creative thinking Coping with emotions
Effective Communication: Effective communication entails sending accurate information and receiving feedback that the message has been received without distortion. Acquisition of this skill enables people to overcome their inhibitions, communicate effectively and maintain healthy social relationships.
- a) Communication process Communication begins with a message that is developed at the source. The source channels the message to the receiver. The receiver then sends feedback to the sender. Communication process has the following components:
Message Source/Sender Channel Feedback
Effective Channels of Communication
Communication channel is the medium through which a message is transmitted. The message can be verbal or non-verbal. For effective communication to take place the channel used should be:
Appropriate; suitable for the situation. Accessible; easily available. Affordable; within your means Convenient; easy to use. Appealing; attractive.
Barriers to effective Communication
Effective Communication entails sending accurate information and receiving feedback that the message has been received without distortion. Poor listening habits and lack of interest are common barriers to effective communication. Speaking clearly, paying attention and active listening are factors that enhance effective communication. Effective communication entails application of other life skills such as coping with emotions, creative thinking and living values such as cooperation, responsibility, tolerance, peace and love.
The following are examples of barriers to effective communication.
Poor listening habit Insufficient knowledge of the subject Biases and stereotypes Lack of interest Personal opinions Interruptions Religious and cultural differences Personality types Language barrier Age difference
Ways of overcoming barriers to effective communication Overcoming stereotypes Observing simplicity as a value Speaking clearly Being open minded Exercising empathy
Factors that lead to effective communication The following are examples of the factors that enhance communication Paying attention to and being interested in the subject/message. Willingness to respect other people’s views. Trusting and being non-judgmental. Listening actively. Being clear and specific. Being simple, brief and straight forward. Ability to respond appropriately.
- You notice a cliff you focus and it becomes a threat.
- Collect information of offender start lobbying for support you prepare to attack.
- Values are destroyed one begins to fight /abuse others, destroy properties and people.
- Someone withdraws e.g. if I don’t want to fight to fight
- Share facts effect common skills become handy .\start sharing feelings e.g. I was hurt start sharing vision of way forward e.g. I was wondering whether we can sit down and share our feeling
- This is where one repents and confesses and forgives.
- Conflict is defined as disagreement between individuals. It can vary from a mild disagreement to an emotionally parked confrontation.
- It is a clash of interests, values, actions views of direction.
Causes of conflict
- Violation of human rights.
= This involves mistreating a person based on gender, race ethnic group. When you are discriminated against you are likely to feel angry. You may confront the person who has discriminated against you and this can lead to conflict.
- Religious intolerance.
= Different religions have different teachings, believe and practices. Without tolerance people from different religions groups will have disagreements e.g. one insulting other religion or forcing the other to convert to their religion this disagreement may develop into conflict.
- Breakdown in communication.
= When there is breakdown in communication people misunderstand each other. People can also form wrong opinions about others or about a given issue. It can make them take actions that offend others thereby leading to conflict.
- Negative ethnicity.
= It is the believe that one’s culture and ethnic group is superior to other someone holding such an opinion may insult, mistreat and frustrate those from different ethnic group this will result in feelings of bitterness leading to serious conflict.
- Violation of human rights.
= When your rights are violated by another person you are likely to confront them and this may lead to conflict e.g. if a person ties forcefully acquire your property. Conflict is likely to arise as you defend your right of property.
- Inequitable distribution of resource.
= When there is an equal distribution of resources, those who are given a smaller share may feel cheated, angry and frustrated. They may end up demanding more from the person/group responsible for the distribution they may forcefully try to acquire more resources from those who have being allocated more and this will lead to conflict.
- Different political inclinations.
= Members of one political party may insult or try to intimidate members of another party. They may also try to force members of another party to super their party. This can lead to conflict between members of the different parties.
= When you are experiencing stress or troubled by some issues we may overreact. In another unrelated situations we may also be unable to reason properly and act intentionally this offend other people who may choose to confront us leading to conflict.
- Physical and emotional abuse.
= Conflicts may arise as the person being abused confronts the abuser or demands an end to the abuse.
- Drugs and substance abuse.
= When people abuse drugs they lose their self control and inhibitions. The incarge in behavior that may provoke other people into violence they also become unreasonable and a small disagreement can become a major conflict.
- Strained resources.
= Competition for scarce water and pasture can lead to serious disagreement.
= Influencing an individual or group to harm or fight others. It involves using lies and creating fear. Those who are may confront others.
How can we avoid conflict?
CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICTS: Negative
=The effects of conflicts can either be positive or negative. The negative effects unresolved conflicts will include the following:-
- Strained relationship—people in relationships will not relate well with each other. We avoid talking or interacting.
- Physical confrontation: – i.e. increase in the possibility of violent conflict.
- People may engage in disruptive/destructive behavior i.e. riots, fights demonstrations.
- Violence: – people can lose their lives, suffer, injuries, lose property.
- Displacement of people: – People may leave their homes and forced to settle in other areas.
- Fear and insecurity: – When people are involved in conflict they are fearful and suspicious of each other and may not feel safe in the presence of the other. There may be also attacks on each other leading to insecurity in the area.
=A conflict gives positive effects if handled constructively. They include the following: –
- Positive change in society.
- Opportunities for new ideas or new possibilities.
- Renewal in relationships.
- Increase in productivity of all sectors.
- Change that will aid in the development of the society.
Types of conflict.
=There are various types of conflicts grouped according to those involved in the conflict;
- Intrapersonal conflicts – These are conflicts that occur within you they occur when you act or attempt to act in a way that goes against your values and goals.
- Interpersonal conflicts – These are conflicts between two or more people who hold different opinions or perception about an issue or situation.
- Community conflicts – These are conflicts between different groups within the same community for example over sharing of resources.
- National conflicts – These are conflicts that occur within a country and affect all members of a country.
- Cross border conflict – Major causes are competition for scarce water and pasture especially during the dry seasons forcing locals to migrate to neighboring countries.
- Workplace conflict – It is a condition between two workers whose jobs are interdependence who perceive the others as being at fault and act in ways that cause a business problem.
Ways of dealing with conflict
- Adjudication – This is a legal way of solving disputes, a judge listens to the views of both sides and makes a judgment that brings an end to the conflict the parties involved do not have much choice over who listens to the case. The judge has the authority to state the cause of action to be taken by the parties involved in the conflict.
- Arbitration – The parties in conflict agree on a third party who listen to each side and then makes a decision. Both parties must agree on the third party before the conflict resolutions proceed. They must agree to participate in the process and abide by the verdict.
- Mediation – It is a process in which the parties in conflict involve a third person whom they both consider to be impartial to help them reach an agreement. The mediation only facilitates discussions between the two parties.
- Negotiation – It is the process through which the parties in conflict hold discussions in order to come to an agreement it involves marking offers and comprises by both parties until a common agreement is reached.
- Resolution – In this method of conflict resolution discussion are held to establish the cause of conflicts the parties concern then agree on a specific cause of action which is called RESOLUTION.
- Reconciliation – This method (reconciliation) of conflict resolution places emphasis on abolishing or reestablishing good relation between those who are in conflict. This is done by encouraging conversation by violators and forgiveness by victims. It is the basis for the formation of tone and reconciliation commissions.
- Transformation – Conflict transformation involves changing various aspects of society in order to solve conflicts and to prevent such conflicts from reoccurring. It involves going to the roots of the conflict and carrying out radical changes transforming relationships that led to the occurrence of the conflict of the first place.
Peaceful conflict resolution methods and their advantages and disadvantages
Definition Advantages Disadvantages
It is a process in which a third party helps parties in conflict to find a solution to their problem. The third party facilitates the process but remains neutral.
It is slow There is too much suspicion and mistrust It is expensive
Promotes understanding and dialogue Less chaotic – peaceful No loser
It is a legal process to solve conflicts
Aims at achieving justice through courts
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVATAGES
Acts as a deterrent adheres to the rule of law Less expensive More save Free to express one’s feelings
No reconciliation Violence may increase Amy promote underground movements Time consuming One side wins Truth may never be known.
It is a private process of conflict resolution in which one or more third parties decide how the conflict will be resolved. The role of the disputants is to tell their stories only. The decision reached by the
More transparent Less expensive All views considered There is more freedom
Time consuming Distort information Can be biased It is expensive Attempts to judge It is slow
third party may be accepted or rejected by the parties in conflict. Should be impartial Acceptable by both sides Strikes a deal
It is a process in which a third party tries to help the parties in conflict to agree to meet and determine a common way to resolve their conflict.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
Promotes forgiveness, harmony and peace Promotes unity through integration Solution is permanent All parties satisfied No revenge Development not impended.
Time consuming There is no justice
Qualities of a good mediator
- Big heart – to love impartially
- Hard head – to consolidate issues
- Big ears – to listen a lot
- Small mouth – to speak less
- Wide eyes to see far/be visionary
- Big feet – to stand firm against all odds
- Big bladder – not to keep on moving out
Benefits of constructive/effective conflict resolution
- Helps with reflection and ingenuity. Makes people aware that there is a problem that needs to be resolved.
- Prevents stagnation and fosters complex reasoning and creative problem solving leading to inventions, new institutions are forged in the heat of conflict.
- Conflict handled skillfully foster intimacy – love only endures when the differences caused by conflict are faced openly.
- Encourages personal and intellectual growth and spurs development.
- Helps people to better deal with conflict thus enhances healthier cognitive, social and psychological development.
- When in conflict people think, observe and call on their memory and so fosters quality decision making.
- People get out of passivity, increase motivation and energy to take action.
- Higher quality of relationships develops.
- Empathy – It enables you to make necessary compromises and offers that will lead to a peaceful resolution conflict.
- Respect – If you respect rights you ensure that your actions do not violate the rights of others and this creates room for dialogue.
- Negotiation – consider what your needs are and what the other persons are. Consider outcomes that would address what you both want.
- Assertiveness – appropriate assertiveness is being able to state your case without arousing the defenses of the other person.
- Seeking assistance – e.g. from elders, religious institutions, councilors.
Institutions that resolve conflict in the community
- The courts.
- Religious institutions.
- Committees can be formed to hold for conflict resolution.
- Council of elders.
Values related to conflict resolution
- Co-operation – When people work together they are able to come up with solutions that are acceptable to both parties.
- Humility – If you are humble you will be willing to make compromises. You will be understanding and reasonable in trying to resolve conflict.
- Tolerance – You will not take offence when others express views that are different from your own. You avoid becoming angry and resulting to violence.
- Responsibility – As a responsible person you will pursue non-violent means of resolving conflict.
= What are the barriers to non-violent conflict resolutions; –
- Prejudice :Someone based on race, gender, religion
- Low-confidence: When you lack confidence it’s difficult to engage in a discussion and you fear that people will take advantage of you.
- Dishonest: A dishonest person is not likely to give the true position of critical issues.
- Peer pressure: It may influence you to make bad decision that makes it difficult to resolve conflict peacefully.
- Poor communication: People in conflict will be unable to share the feelings and opinions which are key to non-violent conflict resolution.
Definition: refers to the process through which differing parties come up with a solution that is agreeable to both parties it may involve compromises by both parties.
negotiations can also be defined as the process through which one is able to get what he/she wants.
Importance of negotiations
- coexistence through negotiation people accommodate each other desires and beliefs. they are also able to resolve their differences in a friendly way thus live in peace.
- conflict resolution- negotiations allows people to resolve their conflicts in a peaceful way without loss of live or damage to property. when there is conflict people engage in discussions and reach a peaceful compromise.
- enhances interpersonal relations. in our relationship with other people we often have differences concerning issues through negotiations. we come up with agreements or solutions that leave each party feeling satisfied.
- formation and maintenance of friendship. people who may not haver been friends may engage in negotiation to resolve some differences between them during these processes or after the individuals may discover they have some things in common and a friendship may develop.
- empathy enhanced- during negotiations the parties are given a chance to explain themselves this gives each party an opportunity to see the situation from the other point of view in therefore enables them to emphatize with each other.
Factors that enhance negotiations
- assertiveness- when negotiating being assertive will enable you to stand up for what you want and defend your rights. passiveness may result in taken advantage of. aggressiveness may lead to violence.
- knowledge on the subject matter- being knowledgeable about the subject of negotiation gives you confidence and the ability to come up with alternatives.
- effective communication- this ensures that you able to state your opinions and positions without being misunderstood.
- empathy- you will be able to put yourself in the position of another. you will also understand why someone is taking a particular position. you will make harsh judgments and appropriate compromise.
- self awareness- it ensures that we use our strengths and seek help over our weaknesses to ensure that the negotiations are successful.
- calmness- it ensures that you are able to think clearly through issues. you will also be able to express yourself clearly and to listen to others. you will not engage in violence and disrupt the process.
Situations that require negotiations.
1.Business transaction- negotiation is necessary in order to get the best e.g. cut in prices or more items or better qualities.
- conflict in relationships- sometimes we get into conflicts with the people we have a relationship with negotiation we can resolve the conflict and the relationship.
- marriage- negotiation will be necessary to ensure no one feels taken advantaged of i.e. financial responsibility.
- harmful traditional practices- there are certain cultural practices that may be harmful to our health go against our values or interfere with our goals for example early marriages or FGM.
- human rights violation- the enjoyment of your right may violate the right of others therefore negotiation is needed in order to avoid violating the rights of others e.g. listen to loud music as others want to read.
- when in risk situation of danger using negotiation you can get out of a risk situation without getting harmed. you can convince whoever is threatening you not to cause harm.
- child neglect -i.e. not providing basic needs. the neglected child can engage the parent in negotiation in order to rectify the situation.
The Negotiation process
The key steps are as follows:
- Establishing the key of concern –it means being clear about what you are disagreeing about.
- identifying the parties involved –it include all those people who are involved in the process this will ensure that they accept the solution because they were involved in coming up with them.
- presentations of ideas by the concerned parties –these concerned or their representatives explain their situation from their perspective. they also make suggestion on how to resolve the disagreement. mutual points of agreement between the two parties should be identified.
- consensus building –this means working to reach an agreement. it involves giving and taking where the parties concern make compromises and offers until an agreement is reached. you should make settlements that will last and be acceptable to both sides.
Values Related To Negotiation
- Responsibility –as a responsible person you engage in negotiation to resolve a problem.
- Co-operation –co-operation ensures that people work together to resolve their differences and to reach an agreement.
- Honesty –when there is honesty all parties will feel well treated and be willing to pursue negotiation.
- Respect –it makes the parties more willing to accommodate each other to make compromises and offers that ensure consensus is reached.
- Tolerance –it enables you to be patient and understanding and accept others opinions.
EFFECTIVE DECISION MAKING
Meaning of decision making
= It refers to picking one option from among many others.
= Decision making is the ability to think and come up with a solution or way forward to an issue or difficult situation. It is about making choices.
Situations that require effective decision making
- Career choice –There are many careers that exist decision making will help us weigh our abilities against various careers so that we make good choices.
- Choosing to live a drug free life –It is important to not to engage in drug abuse, understand the effects of drug abuse on your health. Consequences of drug abuse on your relationships. Consequences to the law and ways of avoiding drug abuse.
- Avoiding harmful cultural practices –There are some cultural practices that are harmful making it important for us to avoid engaging in them. We are required to make a decision because there is a lot of pressure from friends and adults to participate in them.
- Dealing with peer pressure and peer influence –in making decisions to resist or accept peer pressure or influence ask yourself whether it is beneficial to you, whether it will help you achieve your goals or if it is against the values and the law, if it has negative consequences resist it if it is beneficial to accept it.
- Mass media influence –You must make a deliberate decision on which mass media content to pay attention to and which one to avoid. Weigh the content against your values and expectations avoid those that go against our expectations for example pornographic materials.
- Use of leisure time –You need decision making skills to decide on what to do to make effective use of your free time for example activities and their consequences. Available resources to carry out their activity and the benefits of these activities.
- Choice of religion –While some regions have positive teachings and healthy practices. Others have negative teachings which may be harmful; you require decision making skills to choose which religion to follow. Are the religion and its practices legal and the teaching agreeable with the values?
- Physical and emotional abuse –People in abusive environments have several choices for example suffer in silence confront the abuser, seek help or revenge. Decision making skills enables people to make appropriate decisions depending on the situation.
- Choosing a healthy lifestyle –It involves personal hygiene, eating nutritious meals, exercising, having adequate rest and avoiding activities that may harm your health.
Factors that influence decision making
- Personal interest –You are more likely to make a choice in favor of what you like or against what you don’t like you make decisions based on what benefits you will get.
- Values –People tend to make decision that do not conflict with their values e.g. if you are honest you will not make decision that involve cheating or lying.
- State of the mind –If you are angry you are likely to make rash in decisions without thinking through them properly.
- Information —Having adequate and appropriate information enables one to make effective decisions. Inadequate information limits your options.
- Influence of friends –You are likely to make decisions that are similar to those of our friends. We also have to make decisions that make our peer happy.
- Media influence –Radio, TV, newspaper, magazines, internet affect the way we make decisions. Some people make decisions based on what they heard or saw a person in the media do.
- Personality –While some people are conscious others are impulsive some are outgoing while others are quiet and reserved people will make decisions that suit their personality.
- Social cultural factors –The cultural beliefs and practices we have acquired will play a part in the decision we make. We often make decision in line with our beliefs and practices.
- Degree of challenge –Some challenges require that we make decisions that are critical and reversible. Such decisions require that you pay them a lot of attention.
- Personal goals and ambitions –Your goals and ambitions will greatly influence your decisions.
Consequences of not making effective decisions
- Education :
- Dropping out of school.
- Poor grades.
- Poor concentration in class.
- Likely to miss classes very often.
- Health :
- Contracting diseases like STI, HIV and diseases.
- Injuries to your body.
- Poor body functions.
- Social :
- Conflicts and disagreements.
- Drugs and substance abuse.
- Teenage pregnancy.
- Legal area :
- Being arrested and jailed.
- Paying fines.
- Doing community service.
- Spiritually :
- Joining cults.
- Emotional/physiological area :
- Stress and anxiety.
- Low self esteem.
- Mental breakdown.
Steps towards effective decision making
- Identify and define the problem –this involves determining the real problem rather than just dealing with the symptoms.
- Problem diagnosis –example extend seriousness.
- Explore possible options –exam the advantages and disadvantages of each option.
- Choosing the best option –choose the option with the greatest benefits or advantage.
- Implement the decision –make a plan on how to implement the decision then carry out the plan.
- Evaluate the decision –determine whether it is working or not. If it is not working begin the process.
Decision making institutions within the community
- Schools and colleges.
- Peer arbitrators.
- Religious bodies.
Values associated with effective decision making
- Honest: It enables you to seek help that you need in making a decision and also appreciate the consequences.
Integrity: Without integrity one can be bribed to make a decision that can have negative consequences on the individual and others.
Peace: You will make decision that will bring peace and calmness of mind.
- Kindness: You will take the welfare of others into consideration when making decision.
= It refers to a very keen evaluation of a problem, situation or cause of action; Faced with demands, expectations from peer, parents and adverts, music etc.
= It’s evaluating a challenge from a different perspective you do not take things at base value but find out more about an issue.
Importance of critical thinking
- It is an important skill in assisting one to shape his reasoning.
- Helps one to express independent judgment in all issues.
- It requires that one take time to ask questions before taking action. It therefore helps one to avoid making rash decisions that we may end up regretting.
- It helps us address the root cause of a problem rather than just dealing with the symptoms.
- It helps us pick the most effective alternative after evaluating the others.
- It enables you to think of consequences of a given choice.
- It will help you avoid being influenced into irresponsible behavior because you will see negative consequences.
- Self awareness is made possible through critical thinking; you will know your strengths, weakness, and abilities.
Situation in which people use critical thinking
- When doing an exam.
- Challenging friends and colleagues who are involved in actions that deviate from the norm for example drug abuse.
- Refusing to give up in challenging situation or when one needs a setback.
- Setting life goals and life dreams –critical thinking assists individuals to make out how they can achieve their goals.
- Challenging and exposing injustice in the society.
- Providing constructive criticism at all levels for example college level, community level.
- Going to a bar.
- Attending unruly parties.
- Getting involved in riots.
- Becoming drunk.
Dangers in such situations
- You can become reckless.
- Your reasoning ability is affected.
- We can engage in risk behavior for example the pre-marital sex which can lead to STI, HIV and AIDS, pregnancy, rape; you can injure yourself and other health problems.
Ways of evaluating ideas
- Weighing options objectively
- Making rational choices
Consequences of making decisions before thinking critically
- HIV infection
- Drug and substance abuse.
- Unplanned pregnancy.
- Early marriages.
Values associated with critical thinking
= Freedom –It enables you freely to explore options. You also learn to think for yourself.
= Integrity – you make decision based on facts rather than personal preferences
=simplicity- it makes your faces difficult situations with a simple mind.\
Definition: It means using our imagination to come up with innovative ideas of looking at problems issues or situations.
It means coming up with new ideas, procedures and alternatives of resolving a problem or dealing with a situation.
It means identifying different ways of doing things.
Importance of critical thinking
- It helps us to come up with ways of dealing with challenges that we face
- It allows us to come up with ideas that become income generating
- Using creative thinking you can come up with dangerous situations without getting harmed
- Using creative thinking you are able to use resources such as time and money in an effective way i.e. you multitask
- A creative person will find a way of dealing with a problem rather than trying to pass the responsibility to someone else.
- Creative thinking enables you to come up with solutions to problems that seem impossible to others.
Situations that require critical thinking
- In abusive circumstances creative thinking can help you find ways to escape from the abusive environment and event and report or alert other people about the abuse.
- Bullying- using creative thinking to avoid the possibility of it happening avoid certain places or reporting the matter without being identified as the one who reported it.
- Forced and early marriages- use creative thinking to escape or convince those who are forcing you to keep quite to find time to complete your studies
- Gender discrimination- creative thinking will help you come up with ways of dealing with the situation
- Corruption-creative thinking will help you avoid paying bribes
Consequences of not being creative
- it makes you be poor
- You will responsibility of being creative
- One will be involved in use of drugs
- You will end being jailed when you are involved in corruption through bribes
- Will lead to development of hatred.
- Early marriages/forced marriages
- Violence arises
- Gender discrimination
- No innovation
- Changes not solved.
A problem is a difficult matter, question or task that requires a solution. It is something hard to understand, accomplish or deal with.
Problem solving is the process through which people find answers, actions or courses that effectively remove or deal with a difficult situation.
Problem Areas and Causes Of Problems
- At school- problem can result from poor academic performance, others are caused by disciplinary problems and interpersonal relationships among student and staff
- At home- domestic violence can be a problem
Lack of basic needs e.g. food and clothing
Teenagers can become rebellious and become a problem to parents
- Relationships-some problems arise from the way we relate with other people, these are people who are judgmental and critical and who always find fault with others some are arrogant and create problems for others and others lack courtesy.
- The way we perceive ourselves-when we suffer from self image it leads to low self esteem and lack of confidence.
- Financial problems- those who are poor lack basic needs like clothing, food and shelter, health and education. those with lots of money misuse their money on drugs and alcohol
- Natural calamities like earthquake. This problem is often unexpected and causes a lot of suffering to people.
Problem solving skills
The following approaches can help in problem solving:
- Admitting that the problem exists- this will enable us to look for ways of dealing with the problem.
- Being positive- problems are temporary and should not stop us from moving on
- Seeking guidance and counseling from counselors, religious leaders people we trust our peers they may propose possible solutions
- Avoid rush or irrational decisions- analyze a problem and evaluate all possible solutions so that the best one is selected
- Avoid alcohol and drugs- they may provide temporary relief but not solve the problem.
Problem solving process
- Identify all possible choices
- Weigh the options
- Take action
Values required in problem solving
Honesty-we will be truthful and analyze the options we have before cheating
Responsibility-that we bear the consequences of our actions
It’s important for us to accept we will experience problems in life some will be minor while others will be major. There are those that can be solved and those that cannot be solved, we should confront problems realistically understand possible consequences, find solutions where possible or learn to cope with the situation.
Definition: leisure refers to free time that we have to do what we enjoy. It is a break from normal work. It provides both mental and physical relaxation from daily routine. It involves spending ones free time in a meaningful creative manner. It is beneficial to our health that is mental, physical social and spiritual well being.
Forms of leisure
Active leisure—here we use physical energy i.e. mountain climbing, swimming singing etc
In passive leisure we largely use mental energy i.e. reading, watching a play or a movie etc.
USES OF LEISURE
- Entertainment:=Story telling, dances are forms of entertainment that people engage in during leisure time.
- Religious service:=Participating in religious ceremonies, helping the needy is generally done during once leisure time.
- Socialization:=Socializing leisure activities bring people together for sharing, entertainment and education.
- Relaxation and enjoyment:
IMPORTANCE OF LEISURE
= It helps individuals to discover their hidden talents and develop them for useful purpose in life for example one may discover their talent as a musician, painter and this can lead to future career.
= Leisure relaxes the mind –when we work the mind becomes tired. If we continue working in this state we find that we mistakes. Leisure provides an opportunity to reorganize oneself for the next face of work e.g. one decides to take a nap or go for a walk.
= It releases tension, depression and anxiety as we engage our mind in positive thinking and in fulfilling our activities.
= It refreshes the body –there is need to exercise the body to be fit. There is also a need to take a rest from work and to turn to activities that are less exhausting.
= It gives us an opportunity to visit the sick, those in prison and to welcome visitors.
= It provides time for worship and spiritual renewal. We find time to pray and to thank God.
= It enables people to enjoy their freedom. It enables us to be free from established routines.
= It can be used to do things like painting which can help a person financially.
=It’s time also that one can explore the world for example by going for walks.
Activities for positive leisure
- Ball games activities.
- Mountain climbing
- Going for walk
Effects of misuse of leisure
~~ There are people who mistake passive leisure for idleness. Idleness kills creativity. It also makes an individual a burden to others in the community.
~~Some leisure activities require money i.e. gambling those who have no money may be tempted to steal in order to have access to these activities.
~~Some of the programs we listen to or watch in TV or internet could influence us negatively if they promote sexual immorality and other vices.
~~Some people may use leisure to tempt others and to lead others astray. People become drug addicts through the influence of others especially through peer pressure.
~~If a person spends all the income on leisure activities such as drinking and gambling. A person may also spend all the time outside the family living no time for the family i.e. time and money are spend outside the family is wrong.
~~Leisure activities that cause physical harm to the body are wrong e.g. alcoholism. When a person is drunk they weak less and can engage in risk sexual behaviors which can lead to STIs, HIV and AIDS and pregnancy. They can also engage in criminal activities. Leisure activities that lead to addiction is wrong (addiction is when a user becomes completely depended that cannot do without it.)
~~Leisure activities that results in regret both now or in the future is wrong and should be avoided.
~~Diseases that are caused by smoking or drinking alcohol or drug abuse which can include mental problems.
Life skills for positive use of leisure time
Ø Empathy –we can use our free time to show empathy to others by visiting the sick, helping in hospitals during our free time.
Ø Creative thinking –we can be creative in the way we use our free time even without money example; going for walks/creative writing/drawing.
Ø Critical thinking –we should evaluate leisure activities before engaging in them.
Ø Negotiation –you can discuss with your peers about certain leisure activities are not productive and should be avoided.
Ø Assertiveness –we should not allow ourselves to be led into wrong ways of using our free time. We should express ourselves in a firm but respectfully way.
Values associated with leisure
- Freedom ~~we should be able to choose leisure activities without being intervened or excessively influenced by others.
- Honest ~~we will tell the truth about the advantages and disadvantages of various leisure activities.
- Humility ~~we consider others to be as equally important as we are we will avoid hurting or disregarding others when choosing leisure activities.
- Tolerance ~~accepting others even though they hold different views beliefs and practices from our own.
- Drugs and substance abuse.
- Differentiate between drug substance abuse and drug misuse.
- Explain the causes of drug and substance abuse.
- State commonly abused drugs and substances.
- Identify signs and symptoms of drug and substance abuse.
- Explain the effects of drug and substance abuse.
- Ways of preventing drug and substance abuse.
HIV and AIDS assignment
- Meaning of HIV and AIDS.
- State ways through which HIV is transmitted.
- Describe signs and symptoms of AIDS.
- Explain ways of preventing HIV infection.
- Explain ways of taking care and supporting the affected and infected.
DRUGS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Drug abuse:-It is the using of a substance habitually even when it may damage the body or mind.
Drug misuse:-This might be someone who takes a drug, or more of a drug that is necessary, in order to alter their perception or thought process.
Causes of drug and substance abuse.
- Peer pressure.
- Stress in families due to family conflict.
Signs and symptoms of drug abuse.
- You’re neglecting your responsibilities at school, work or home.
- You’re using drugs under dangerous conditions or taking risks while high such as driving while on drugs.
- Gets one into legal trouble –i.e. arrest for disorder conduct or stealing to support a drug.
- It causes problems in relationships such as fights with your partners or family members, an unhappy boss.
- You have to put up a drug tolerance by taking more drugs.
- Loss of control over your drug use.
- Your world revolves around drug use.
- You’ve activities that you used to enjoy.
- You continue to use drugs despite knowing it’s hurting you.
Physical warning signs of drug abuse.
- Bloodshot eyes or pupils that is larger or smaller than usual.
- Changes in appetite or sleep patterns.
- Deterioration of physical appearance and personal grooming habits.
- Usual smells on breathe, body or clothing.
- Tremors, slurred speech or impaired coordination.
Behavioral signs of drug abuse.
- Drop in attendance and performance in school.
- Unexplained need for money or financial problems.
- Engaging in secretive or suspicious behavior.
- Sudden change in friends, favorite hangouts and hobbies.
- Frequently getting into trouble (fights, accidents, illegal activities)
Physiological warning signs of drug abuse.
+Unexplained change in personality or attitude.
+Sudden mood swings, ignitability or angry out bursts.
+Period of unusual hyperactivity, agitation or giddiness.
+Lack of motivation.
+appears fearful, anxious or paranoid.
MEANING OF HIV AND AIDS.
=HIV means (human immunodeficiency virus) which causes AIDS.
=AIDS means (acquired immunodeficiency virus)
II. Ways through which HIV is transmitted.
- Blood transmission.
- Sexual activity.
iii. Sharing of objects i.e. syringes.
- Breastfeeding of baby by affected mother.
III. Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS.
- Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.
- Rapid weight loss.
- Recurring fever or profuse right sweat.
- Memory loss, depression and other neurological disorder.
IV. Ways of preventing HIV/AIDS infection.
- Use of concern during sexual intercourse.
- Taking education of causes of HIV/AIDS diseases.
- Needle exchange and harm reduction of blood during transmission.
- Over viewing of HIV prevention –introducing HIV prevention around the world.
- Prevention of HIV transmission from mother to the child i.e. avoiding breastfeeding.
- Taking treatment i.e. taking drugs ARV’S.
V. Ways of taking care and supporting the affected and infected people.
- Educating the victims on how to prevent spread out of the disease (guidance and counseling)
- Providing nutritious food.
- Providing of healthcare.
- Keeping company.
- Washing clothes and keeping the place clean.
- Showing love and care.
- Provincial of capital finance.
=Time is the most valuable resource. By analyzing time usage on a regular basis it is possible to understand the most efficient ways to use time.
=Time management refers to making the best use of time to achieve the max output in the time available.
=It is the processes of exercising control over the amount of time spent on specific activities especially to increase efficiency.
+It is a plan that gives a list of jobs or events together with the time at which each thing should be done. It involves blessing talks into a timetable. You record any specific activities you need to do in a regular basis. You also leave time for relaxation and personal needs like cleaning and laundry.
Time management chart
- I) List all your schedule items in column one of a day to include:-
- Class time
- Meal time
- Exercise and games
- Studying time
- Cleaning time
- Time to get up to bed
- Leisure time
- II) At the end of the day write what you actually did in column 2 of that day so that you get a clear picture of what you did and if you manage your time.
Importance of managing time
- We are able to focus on priorities –We are able to identify our priorities and direct our efforts towards achieving these priorities.
To make the best use of time you begin with your priorities.
- Helps you attain your goals –When you manage your time well you will be able to reach your goals. You are in control of your life and not always behind schedule.
- Sense of direction –you will not be distracted by other activities that end up wasting your time.
- Reduces stress –When you manage your time well you will not be overwhelmed and this reduces stress. You will know how to deal with unforeseen circumstances that can disturb your schedule.
- Client satisfaction or customers satisfaction –You will get important satisfaction done on time and you will be more effective and productive this ensures customer satisfaction.
Time robbers: Time wasters will include the following:-
- Procrastination avoidance of doing a task which needs to be accomplished.
- Talking for too long –chatting with friends for too long can eat up our time.
- Day dreaming or thinking about none work matters losing or falling asleep when you should be working or reading.
- Indecisiveness –not knowing which of the several tasks to work on and ending up not working on any of them. You waste time through being indecisive.
- Disorganization –you can’t find information or the things you need in order to begin a task.
- Uncontrolled media influence for example TV; internet can take up time that is meant for other activities.
Allowing people to disturb you during periods that you have designated for work later then saying I am working go away or please come back later.
STRATEGIES OF TIME MANAGEMENT
1) Identify daily specific goals i.e. what do you want to accomplish it
2) Establish clear lines and keep a schedule of activities,
3) Don’t do everything, select priorities.
4) Work in blocks of time –keep most effective time for hard task.
5) Be action oriented that is on the specific course of action then beginning.
6) Plan in detail for tomorrow.
7) Learn from your experience that is determine which activities where productive and which one were not and avoid those one.
8) Question your time use e.g. do I set priorities when deciding which activities to do.
9) I am able to concentrate on one activity at a time.
Values associated with time management
- A) Responsibility –we will be answerable for our actions and do what is require of us without being asked hence manage our home well.
- B) Honest –we will tell ourselves the truth of how we use our time.
- C) Simplicity –we will be uncomplicated and use our time well
=State reasons for poor management.
=Give reasons for drug and substance abuse.
=State effects of drug and substance abuse.
=Describe methods that can be used to curb drug abuse.
+Child –according to the laws of Kenya a child is a person below the age of 18 years. However, according to the international labor organization convention number 138 of 1996 .The minimum age of admission for employment is 14 years (compare to employment at 2007)
=Not all the work done by children should be classified as child labor that should be targeted for elimination. Children participation in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interferes with their schooling is generally regarded as something positive. It include:-
- Helping parents around the home.
- Assisting in a family business.
- Earning pocket money after school hours or during holidays.
=These activities contribute to child development and welfare of the family, they provide children with experience and skills and prepare them to be productive members of the society in future.
=It is giving children a job that should be done by adult to earn a living.
=It refers to work that deprives children of their childhood their potential and their dignity and that are harmful to physical and mental development.
=It refers to the work that is mentally, physical, socially, morally, dangerous and harmful to children and interferes with their schooling by depriving them of the opportunity to attend school, making them leaving school prematurely or requiring them to attempt to combine school attendants with excessively long hours and heavy work.
FORMS OF CHILD LABOUR
- Farm hand
- House helping
- Child helping in plantations
- Drug trafficking
Note: these forms of labor happen throughout the day
WORST FORMS OF CHILD LABOUR
- All forms of slavery or practices similar i.e. selling and trafficking of children , death bondage and surf dorm and compulsory labor, recruitment of children for use in harmed conflict
- Use of children in child prostitution or production of pornography
- Working under the difficult conditions e.g. very long hours during night or working where the child is confined in the premises of the employer
- Use of children in drug trafficking
REASONS WHY CHILDREN MAY BE FORCED TO WORK
- Large families require a variety of income to feed their members
- Some jobs require small hand and bodies
- It’s cheaper to pay smaller children because they are likely to complain about the salary amore than adults
- Girls are often kept at home to look after younger children and to do household work
- Family think that school won’t help their children survive therefore they send their child to work where they can make money to feed themselves and family members
- Many families around the world are unfamiliar with the rights of the children and think it is acceptable to send the children to work. Agricultural jobs pay per amount of produce picked to encourage families to bring along their children.
FACTORS LEADING TO CHILD LABOUR
- POVERTY- lack of money forces the child to work in order to help their parent to acquire basic needs.
- DEATH- some children work because they have lost their parents they have nobody to feed them. They work to raise money for their fees or siblings.
- DROPPING OUT OF SCHOOL- some children have dropped out of school e.g. because of pregnancy, indiscipline, lack of school fees, poor academic these have lead them taking up a job to earn money.
- LACK OF SCHOOLING- there are children who have never had a chance to go to school e.g. because of parent ignorance, lack of interest and cultural values. These children often start wage employment at early age.
- CULTURAL VALUE- some children drop out of school due to cultural values i.e. circumcision. They see no need of schooling once they have been circumcised and declared as adult they regard schooling as a task for children.
- LURE BY EMPLOYER- since children are a source of cheap labor employer lures them into wage employment. Since children do not understand their labor rights they are exploited by the employers they may be underpaid or overworked. They may work for many gears or casual.
- Give reasons for condemning child labor (10 marks)
- To improve education i.e. children have to be informed of their rights.
- To reduce child prostitution.
- To avoid children ending up getting involved in drug abuse.
- To discourage early marriages by young children.
- Children can end up knowing money at early age and hence causes habit of stealing when there is shortage of capital/money.
- To improve child growth and development.
- Give possible interventions to eliminate child labor.
- Enforcing laws on child rights.
- Educating children about their rights through the curriculum.
- Empowering community leaders and local administration.
- Organizing lobby groups at community levels.
- Setting help /reporting desks at community levels.
Associated life skills
=Negotiation—get the parent’s views/opinions about child labor and makes them understand the negative effects of child labor.
=Assertiveness—we should teach our children to be assertive i.e. to express their views clearly and firmly without disrespecting others/their parents.
=Decision making—community can make a decision to stop child labor.
=Empathy—children forced with labor deserve empathy.
=They bare rights and freedoms that all people are entitled to regardless of nationality, age, sex, ethnic religion, race, religion, language or social status. Human rights are universal with all people having equal rights by ________ of being human they may exist as natural rights or as legal rights in both national and international law.
=Every person is entitled to fundamental human rights simply by the fact of being human they are rights because there are things you are allowed to do or to have. Rights are for our protection, they also help us get along with other and live in peace.
=The Kenyan constitution out lines the rights and freedom of an individual. These rights are derived UN (United Nation) declaration of human rights and have been widely adapted by many countries of the world.
=Some of the rights include:-
- Right to life.
- Right to education.
- Right to marry and raise a family.
- Right to vote.
- Right to work to provide for personal necessities.
- Protection of freedom of religion.
- Protection of freedom of movement.
- Protection from slavery and forced labor.
- Protection of private property.
- Protection of freedom of expression and speech.
Results/implications of violating human rights.
- War within political leaders.
- Power overthrown of government.
- Choosing of wrong leaders.
- Police state—police entering into your house and throwing away property inside your house.
- Curfews i.e not entering a certain border.
- Detention without trials—denying people’s rights.
- Rigging of election.
- Civil wars __________.
- Censorship—when the state wants to control what they are watching, reading.
- Mass murder—many people being killed i.e. from one tribe.
- People are exiled to other countries.
- Underground movement—i.e. mungiki.
- Political assassination.
- Displacement of people.
- Denial of right to educate.
- Separation of family partners.
- Restricted from involving in cultural practices.
- No chance for social gathering.
- Denial of right to marry.
- Involved or subjected to slavery.
- Female circumcision.
- Child labor.
- Children dropping out of school.
- High level of corruption in a country.
- Injustice—i.e. honest being jailed.
- Early marriages.
- Crimes like rape where a lot of force is used when weak.
- Destruction of property.
- Denial of freedom of trade.
- Denial of owning a property.
- Restriction to work.
- Poor infrastructure.
- Unjust wedges i.e. paying 3000 instead of 7000/=
- Poor productive i.e. under development in a country i.e. food
- Clashes of a scarce resources like water and pasture.
HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE
=When human rights are not well known by people abuses can arise for example persecution, moral less, _____
Human rights violation
= Human right violation occur when the state or individuals abuse ignore or deny others basic human rights.
=Human rights abuses are monitored by UN committees, government and non-government organizations/including human international. These organizations collect evidence and documentation of alleged human rights abuses and applied pressure to enforce human right loss.
Continuation of definition of terms
=Neglect- it is failure by a parent or career to meet a child basic needs such as safety food warmed in a way that affects their health development or safety.
=Ratification- it’s signing a written agreement to make it official.
=Labor- productive work especially physical toil due for wages.
= Needs- basic human needs are those things that are required for complete physical and mental well being. They are divided into:-
Physical needs—these are needs for the survival of an individual. They include water, food, sleep, exercise, shelter, clothing
=Gender– it is the way society assigns roles, responsibility and power to men and women, girls and boys in a given culture.
=It is the way boys and girls are brought up and made to learn what it means to be b0ys or men and girls or women. It’s related how women and men are perceived or perceives themselves and are expected to think and act because of their social differences.
=Girls and boys learn who they are and the tasks assigned to them through socialization, observation and imitation, boys imitate what older boys and men do as dictated by culture. Girls learn what they see older girls and workmen doing.
=Gender varies from culture to culture and changes with time.
=Sex-It’s the biological and physiological make up of males and females as determined by nature.
+These are tasks and functions done by males and females based on their biological make up for example the female role of giving birth and breastfeeding and the male role of fertilizing the egg are biologically determined.
~They are tasks and functions assigned to women and girls, men and boys based on their sexy roles.
~Gender roles are learned, they vary among cultures and changed overtime. It is the society that determines what role is appropriate for each gender. If the society is sensitized to the _______ of these roles, it can change to create a more just system.
~Because of giving birth, workers are expected to nurture and look after children. This leads people to think that child _______ cannot be done by women only.
~Gender roles are not biologically determined, they are interchanged. What is done by men in one society may be done by women in another.
Agents of socialization:
— Children are brought up differently and given different opportunities at home. Girls from a very early age are socialized and given work to look after younger siblings.
— Boys look after animals and plays. It is within the family that gender identifies starts to build e.g. the type of toys bought for girls from those bought for boys this signify the roles that boys and girls will grow to perform. Girls are bought dolls, plates and cups while boys are bought toys, cars and toy guns.
— As the children grow they are socialized on what it’s to be a boy or a girl in a particular society e.g. how to dress, talk, seat, and work.
— Girls learn to be feminine while boys learn to be masculine conformity to the same behavior is encourage and rewarded while non-conformity is punished.
— Society influences how girls and boys behave and what they grow to be.
— The gender roles already learned at family level and affirmed at schools. A person’s self image is shaped at home, strengthen and in school and by the community.
LIFESKILLS CONTINOUS ASSESSMENT TEST (CAT).Time: 1 hour
- Define Life skills education. (3 mks)
- You have been admitted to Thika Technical Training Institute. The Head of Department has informed you that part of your course will include the study of life skills. using your own words discuss at least three (3) benefits of the study of Life skills as a subject (9 mks)
- Explain the three (3) categories of life skills (9 mks)
- Define the following terms (10 mks)
- leisure time
- decision making
- self esteem
- a) Explain any two (2) causes of conflicts (4 mks)
- b) In your own words explain the following three (3) ways of resolving conflicts.
- Differentiate between critical thinking and creative thinking (6mks)
- a) explain three (3) benefits of leisure (6 mks)
b). highlight four (4) effects of misuse of leisure (8mks)
- c) . State any four (4) activities for positive use of leisure (8mks)