KCSE Past Papers 2021 History and Government Paper 2 (311/2)



1.Identify two forms of government(2 marks)



iii)Aristocratic /Aristocracy/Oligarchy

iv)Monarchical /monarchy

v)Theocratic /Theocracy

vi)Plutocratic /Plutocracy

2. State two basic methods in which the early human beings obtained food(2 marks)

i)They hunted wild animals

ii)They gathered wild fruits/roots

iii)They cultivated crops

iv)They carried out fishing

v)They kept livestock

3. Define the term Agriculture (1 mark)

Is the cultivation of crops and rearing/keeping of livestock

4.Givethe main reason why the Atlantic ocean was important in the Trans Atlantic Trade(1 mark)

It enabled the movement/transportation of goods/people by ships from Europe/Africa/America

5.Highlight two types of indirect Democracy (2 marks)



iii)Composite/local authority

6.Give two limitations of using motorcycle as a means of transport(2 marks)

i)Frequent accidents

ii)Limited carrying capacity

iii)Affected by adverse weather conditions/Wet weather

iv)It is expensive to use/purchase/maintain

v)It is prone to attacks

7. Highlight one factor that to the growth of the ancient city of Athens(1mark)

i)Its proximity to the port/water transport

ii)Participation in trade/commerce

iii)Its strategic position/surrounded by water/defence site

iv)Cultural centre

v)Educational centre

vi)Religious centre

8. Give one reason why Lubengula was defeated by the British(1 mark)

i)The British had superior weapons than him

ii)Lack of unity among his people/lack of support from his neighbors e.g Shona

iii)British army was batter trained/well organized

iv)Lubengulas soldiers were weakened by small pox

v)British army got reinforcement from South Africa

vi)The fleeing of Lubengula demoralized his people

9. Identify two racial groups who competed for the control of South Africa during the Apartheid Era (2marks)

i)The Europeans/the Dutch/Afrikaners/boers/Whites/British

ii)The Asians/Indians

iii)The Africans/the Blacks

iv)The coloured

10. Give the method of administration by the British in Northern Nigeria (1 mark)


  • Indirect rule11. State two types of nationalism in South Africa during the struggle for majority rule(2 marks)




    12. Name the person who initiated the formation of the Tripple Alliance in 1882(1 mark)


  • Otto Von Bismark (accept Bismark)13.Give the body that was formed after the second World War to promote world peace(1 mark)


  • The United Nations Organization/United Nations14. Highlight two organs of East African Community 2001.(2 marks)

    i)The secretariat

    ii)The Summit

    iii)The East African Legislative Assembly

    iv)Coordinating committee

    v)Council of Ministers

    vi)The East African Court of Justice

    vii)Sectoral Committee

    15. State two common functions of early urban centres in Africa (2 marks)

    i)They were administrative centres

    ii)They were trade/commercial centres

    iii)They were cultural/recreational centres

    iv)They were defence centres/security

    V)They were transport/communication centres

    vi)They were educational centres

    vii)They were religious centres

    viii)They were mining/industrial centres

    16. State the main function of the House of Commons in Britain


  • It legislates/makes/amends laws17. Name one ideological bloc which was involved in the Cold War(1 mark)




    18.a) state five factors that contributed to the development of agriculture in ancient Egypt(5 marks)

    i)The close proximity to Mesopotamia

    ii)Availability of water from river Nile /water for irrigation

    iii)Existence of indigenous crops/animals

    iv)They had visionary leaders

    v)Invention of farming tools/ox plough/bronze hoes

    vi)Invention of irrigation methods

    vii)Availability of fertile soils/silt on the Nile Valley

    viii)High demand for food

    ix)Availability of labour

    x)The Nile Valley was well protected against foreign invasion

    b) Explain five effects of Agrarian Revolution in Britain(10 marks)

    i)The farmers abandoned subsistence farming in favour of large scale farming

    ii)It contributed to industrial Revolution by providing the raw materials required in industries.

    iii)There was increased food production due to improved farming methods

    iv)It led to mechanization of farming which enabled tilling of large tracts of land.

    v)Food was produced in large quantities which boosted food security

    Vi)It led to rural urban migration as poor peasants sold their lands to the rich

    vii)It boosted trade as surplus Agricultural products were sold locally/internationally

    viii)It enhance research /scientific innovation which improved Agricultural production/Royal Agricultural Society

    ix)High quality livestock breeds like Fressian cow/Leicester/Suffolk sheep were reared

    x)It stimulated the expansion of the transport network thereby easing movement of farm produce

    xi)It led to migration of some landless people to USA/Canada/New Zealand/Australia/South Africa in search of opportunities

    xii)It led to increase in land prices due to high demand

    xiii)It led to population increase due to availability of food

    xiv)It led to the emergence of the social classes in the society e.g the poor and the rich

    Xv)It led to improved living standards due to increased income from Agriculture

    Xvi)t led to unemployment due to farm mechanization

    19.a) State five similar effects of early Agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt(5 marks)

    i)It led to sedentary life/settled life

    ii)It led to increased food production

    iii)Trading/commercial activities developed

    iv)It led to development of urban centres/towns

    v)Specialization/division of labour was realized

    vii)It led to the discovery of writing/arithmetic/geometry

    viii)It caused population increase

    ix)It led to stratification in the society

    x)It led to the development of religion

    b) Describe five characteristics of industrial Revolution in Europe (10 marks)

    i)Development of better of transport/road/railways/water which enabled faster movement of


    ii)There was large scale production of goods due to use of machines

    iii)The increased use of steam power led to efficiency in production of goods/services

    iv)There was rise in capitalism as a class of wealthy people emerged/social stratification

    v)There was application of scientific knowledge leading to mass production

    vi)There was development of trade as surplus manufactured goods were exchanged

    vii)There was increased use of iron/steel in the construction of industries/machines

    viii)The use of machines replaced human labor thereby lowering cost of production

    ix)There was rise of factory system as many industries were established in towns

    x)Trade unionism/movement developed as workers agitated for better wages/working conditions/rights

    xi)It improved living standards of the people due to income

    xii)Factory workers were organized in shifts for continuous production

    20.a) State five limitations of written records (5 marks)

    i)It takes/consumes a lot of time to read /write

    ii)The information may be biased/exaggerated /distorted

    iii)They are expensive to buy

    iv)Vital information may be omitted

    v)It is prone to misinterpretation

    vi) Their use is limited to the literate in the society

    b) Explain five results of African collaboration with Europeans in late 9th century (10 marks)

    i)They acquired western Education/cultural civilization as they embraced western lifestyle/Material

    wealth e.g clothes and glassware

    ii)They were protected against their enemies,provided with ammunition/gun to protect themselves

    iii)Their leaders were given special recognition as they were made paramount chiefs/lost authority/lost power

    iv)The collaborators were used to conquer other African communities who were resisting European invasion

    v)African communities were dispossessed their land,rendering them squatters/pushed them to reserves

    vi)Trade intensified as European goods were acquired by Africans

    vii)They lost independence /were colonized

    viii)Africans were subjected to forced labour

    ix)There was introduction of taxation

    21a) Identify five senior positions in Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period(5marks)

    i)Katikiro /Prime Minister

    ii)Omulamuzi/ Chief Justice

    iii)Omwanika /Treasurer

    iv)Kabaka /king

    v)Mugema /senior chief among the Bataka/Saza Chiefs

    vi)Mfumbiro /Chief Bakers

    vii)Queen Mother

    viii)Queen sister/Ubunga

    ix)Musenero/Chief Bakers

    b) Discuss five political challenges experienced by the nationalists during the liberation struggle in Mozambique (10 marks)

    i)The negative attitude of the church towards FRELIMO /nationalists limited the support by the faithful.

    ii)The apartheid administration in South Africa /Unilateral Declaration of Independence(UDI) in Southern Rhodesia helped the Portuguese to fight the nationalists

    iii)FRELIMO experienced internal division as a result of ideological differences among the leaders

    iv)The Portuguese applied methods of brutal/cruel methods of suppressing nationalist/arrested/detained/impro\isoned/captured/tortured/killed

    v)There was disunity among nationalists therefore were unable to forge a common front

    vi)The Portuguese had strict laws which outlawed political movement thereby forcing nationalists to operate from other countries/Banned political parties

    vii)The assassination of Eduardo Mondlane demoralized the nationalists


    22.a) Highlight three causes of Second World War(3 marks)

    i)The policy of Appeasement

    ii)The Great Depression

    iii)Violation of the Versailles Treaty

    iv)Growth of nationalism in Europe

    v)Failure of the League of Nations to prevent war

    vi)Formation of Alliances

    vii)The emergence of dictators in Europe

    viii)Rise of Adolf Hitler/his ambition

    ix)Arms race/rearmament/militarization

    b) Explain six achievements of Pan African Movement (12 marks)

    i)It laid the basis of the formation of the Organization of African Unity(OAU)which enabled Africa to speak in one voice in international forum

    ii)It provided a forum for African nationalists to articulate /discuss anti-colonial sentiments

    iii)It restored the dignity of the African people which had been eroded by slave trade/colonization/racism

    iv)It created political awareness among the people of African descent

    v)It laid the foundation for research on African culture/history/literature which enabled them to understand their status

    vi)It strengthened the Africans resolve to struggle against colonialism in Africa

    vii)It condemned Italian invasion of Ethiopia through protests in major cities/towns across the world

    viii)It put pressure on international community to act against the apartheid regime in South Africa

    ix)It created a sense of unity among the people of Africa origin as they had a common origin

    23.a) State three aims of the Non Aligned Movement(3 marks)

    i)To promote economic independence of member countries

    ii)To safeguard sovereignty of member states

    iii)To promote neutrality among members

    iv)To fight racism

    v)To avail funds for improvement in Agriculture

    vi)To fight decolonization of the Third World Countries

    vii)To pursue an independent policy of peaceful coexistence

    viii)To promote active participation of members in UN programs

    ix)To work for disarmament

    x)To discourage military Alliance by super powers

    xi)To ensure favorable terms of trade

    xii)It led to the establishment of world economic order to ensure favorable terms of trade

    b) Discuss the main role of each of the following specialized agencies of the United Nation(12 marks)

    i)The World Health Organization(WHO)

    It promotes health in the world by fighting/preventing spread of diseases

    ii)The International Monetary Fund(IMF)

    It stabilizes currencies of different countries in the World through short term loans

    iii)the United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)

    It promotes education/science/cultural activities in the world through research/sponsorship.

    iv)Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO)

    it promotes food security by coordinating programmes which enhance food production in the world

    v)United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)

    It promotes conservation of the environment

    vi)the United Nations High Commission for Refuges (UNHCR)

    It deals with the needs of refugees/ provide shelter/resettlement of refugees

    24.a) Identify three arms of government of India (3 marks)

    i)The Legislature

    ii)The Executive

    iii)The Judiciary

    b) Explain six ways through which the powers of the president of the United States of America are checked(12 marks)

    i)The supreme court may declare a decision /action by the president unconstitutional thereby rendering it invalid.

    ii)Presidential appointees are approved by the congress before assuming office to ascertain their suitability

    iii)A sitting president may be impeached by the congress if his/her conduct is deemed unconstitutional.

    iv)The congress may disapprove the budget to support foreign policy if it disagrees with it .

    v)The presidential term is limited to two four year terms by the constitution in order to inject new

    thinking/dynamic leadership

    vi)The president is obliged to consider public opinion/pressure groups in marking decisions

    vii)The press/mass media monitors president’s speeches so as to inform the public accordingly

    viii)The pressure groups act to check on the president power/action


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