KCSE Past Papers 2021 History and Government Paper 1 (311/1)

History& Government Paper:311 /1 KCSE 2021 Marking Scheme Section A (25 MARKS)

1.Identify two linguistic groups in Kenya

i) Bantu

ii) Nilotes

iii) Cushites

2.State two ways in which the Agikuyu interacted with the Akamba during the Pre-colonial period

i) Through intermarriage

ii) Through trade

iii) Through warfare

iv Through raiding

v) Through sporting activities/wrestling

3. Give the main economic activity of the plain nilotes during the pre-colonial period


  • Pastoralism /Livestock keeping4. Highlight two factors which led to increase in demand for slaves along the East African Coast during the 19 century

    i) Demand for cheap African labour in Portuguese/French plantations

    ii Demand for domestic workers in Arab world/Arabia

    iii) Establishment of plantation agriculture at the Coast

    5. Name the document that contains the Bill of Rights for Kenyan Citizens


  • The constitution of Kenya6. Give the meaning of the term ‘conflict’


  • It is a situation where people/groups/countries are involved in a disagreement/fight/war between people/state of disharmony7. Identify the type of the constitution used in Kenya


  • Written8. Identify two colors of the national flag in Kenya

    i) Green

    ii) White

    iii) Red

    iv) Black

    9. State two causes of the Bukusu resisistance against the British

    i) They were against imposition /recognition of Nabongo Mumia as their leader

    ii) They were opposed to British demand to surrender their guns

    ii) They wanted to safeguard their independence

    iv) They were opposed to taxation

    They detested the European interference with their cultural practices

    10. Identify the Cushitic community which attacked the Bantu at Shungwaya during the pre-colonial period


  • Oromo/Orma/Galla/Wagalla11. Name the political party that led Kenya to Independence


  • The Kenya National African Union (KANU)12. State one common political characteristic of the National Philosophies in Kenya

    i) They promote Nationalism/patriotism

    ii) They promote national unity/cohesion

    iii) They promote democratic practices

    13. Give two types of elections held in Kenya

    i) General elections

    ii) By-elections

    14. Highlight two branches of the National Government of Kenya

    i) Legislature/ parliament(Not National Assembly /Senate)

    ii) Judiciary

    iii) Executive

    15. Give one reason for the adaptation of the African Socialism in Kenya

    i)The desire to promote unity in the country

    ii)The desire to create a society free from inequality/oppression/racism

    iii)The desire to create just/humane society

    16 identify the commission that recommended cost sharing in education sector in Kenya


  • The Kamunge Commission17. State two ways in which the National Government of Kenya spends its recurrent expenditure

    i) It repairs/maintains infrastructure

    ii) It establishes /maintains security organs

    iii) It pays salaries for state/public officers

    iv ) It services domestic/external debts

    v) It maintains foreign embassies

    vi) It provides for social services/health care/education/cash transfers to elderly

    vii) It caters for emergencies

    viii) Contributes to international organizations i.e UNO,COMESA,AU,EA

    18. a) State five causes of migration of the Highland Nilotes into Kenya during the pre-colonial period(5 marks)

    i) There was outbreak of diseases

    ii) There was population pressure

    iii) Due to their love for adventure/spirit of adventure/curiosity

    iv)Due to natural calamity/drought/famine

    v) They were searching for land for cultivation

    vi)They were running away from hostile neighbors/external attacks

    vii) Due to internal conflicts /family feuds

    viii) They were searching for pasture/water

    b )Describe the social organization of the Borana in the 19th century (10 marks)

    i) It was a patrilineal society where first born son inherited the fathers property

    ii) Basic social unit was a family with the most senior married man as the head of the family

    iii) They practicised circumcision for boys which marked a higher stage in life

    iv) It had ageset system/Gada which comprised of people initiated at the same period

    v) They practiced polygamous and exogamous marriage where one would marry from a different clan

    vi) They were religious/worshipped God called Wak/Waq who was the creator of the universe

    vii) They had religious leaders/Qaalu through whom they worshipped their God

    viii)They performed social ceremonies/marriages/religious rituals/offering sacrifices to mark/celebrate important events in life/community

    ix) Women were incharge of household chores/built houses/cared for the children/Division of labour

    x) The society was divided into clans consisting of related families

    xi) Related/unrelated families lived in camps

    19 a) Identify five categories of special groups of people whose rights are enshrined in the constitution of Kenya (5 marks)

    i) The youth

    ii) Persons living with disabilities

    iii) Children

    iv) The minority/marginalized

    v) Older members of the society

    vi)The Arrested/detained/held in custody/imprisoned

    b) Explain five challenges faced by African political organization in Kenya up to 1939 (10marks)

    i)The leaders/members were arrested deported in order to disconnect them from the people/curtail their political activities.

    ii) Their members were harassed by colonial authorities through the introduction of Kipande system/to

    monitor their movements

    iii) They experienced leadership wrangles/competition which weakened their fabric/undermined their activities

    iv) They lacked the requisite/necessary leadership experiences/skills which made them less effective

    v) Some of them were banned/proscribed by the colonial government (Kikuyu Central Association) thus hindering their operations

    Vi )Disunity /Tribalism/ethnicity among the organizations which facilitated divide and rule scheme by the colonial government.

    20 a) Highlight five features of the independence constitution of Kenya (5marks)

    i) It provided for the position of the head of stte/Governor General

    ii) It provided for a Bicameral government/Senate and the House of Representative

    iii) It provided for a public service commission/civil service

    iv) It provided for automatic citizenship for all Kenyans

    v) It provided for a coalition government/power sharing between political parties

    vi) It provided for multipartism

    vii) It created an independent/impartia judiciary/judicial service commission

    viii) It provided for regional/majimbo/federal system of government

    ix) It created an independent Electoral Commission/Electoral Commission of Kenya

    x) It provided for the Bill of Rights

    xi) It provided for the position of the Prime Minister who was the head of Government

    b) Describe five factors which led to the collapse of the Imperial British East African Company(IBEAC)in 1894 (10marks)

    i)Resistance by Africans who undermined the company’s operations

    ii) There was poor communication between it and the Head office in Britain hence poor coordination of activities.

    iii) There was lack of strategic natural resources/minerals for export leading to poor/weak revenue base

    iv) Many of the company officials lacked requisite/necessary administrative skills/experience

    v) Inadequate finds made it difficult for it to effectively carry out its operations

    vi) Poor transport/lack of navigable rivers hampered movement of goods/administrators

    vii) Corruption among some company officials led to misappropriation /loss of funds/resources

    viii) Some company personnel experienced health challenges/tropical diseases/harsh climatic conditions which made them less productive

    ix) Rivalry from German East African Company(GEACO) which hindered its operations

    x) The area was too vast for the few officials to manage

    21 a) State five characteristics of the independent churches in Kenya during the colonial period (5marks)

    i) They worked closely with the African political associations

    ii) They opposed the westernizing influence of the missionaries

    iii) They allowed the practice of African culture/values

    iv) Positions of leadership were held by Africans

    v) Most of the founders were educated/trained by the missionaries

    vi) They had their following from rural masses

    vii) They retained some of the aspects of mainstream churches in Kenya

    b)Explain five roles played by women in the MAUMAU Liberation movement (10marks)

    i)They acted as spies/provided intelligence/information to MAUMAU fighters by befriending the home guards/passed information to fighters.

    ii) Some women took up arms/fought alongside men

    iii) They coordinated supplies/food/weapons/medicine for MAUMAU fighters

    iv) They encouraged people to join/continue with the struggle

    v) They composed/sang songs to mobilize/support/motivate fighters/ridicule collaborators

    vi) They participated in the administration of oaths which bound the fighters to stay on course

    vii) They cared /managed the families as men went into the forest to fight


    22 a) State three members of the County Executive Committee of County Governments in Kenya(3 marks)

    i)County Governor

    ii)Deputy County Governor

    iii) Members appointed by the Governor

    b) Discuss six functions of the County Governor in Kenya (12 marks)

    i)he/ she is the Chief Executive of the county as public servants in the county Government are accountable to him/her

    ii)He/she appoints members of County Executive Committee who are Chief Officers in charge of various departments in the County Government

    iii)He/she assigns responsibilities to the Deputy Governor who is his/her principal assistant in the running of the county

    iv)He supervises the County Executive Committee members to ensure service delivery in the respective departments

    v)He/she assents to the bills which have been passed by the County Assembly into by-laws

    vi)He/she is in charge of implementation of the county and National legislations in his/her respective county

    vii)Delivers state/county address in the County Assembly

    viii)Submits to the County Assembly plans/policy approvals

    ix)In the event of death /resignation/impeachment of a sitting governor ,the new governor will appoint

    a deputy governor

    23 a)State the composition of the cabinet in Kenya(3 Marks)

    i)The president

    ii)The Deputy president

    iii)The Attorney General

    iv)Cabinet secretaries

    b) Explain six functions of the National Assembly in Kenya (12 marks)

    i)It makes/amends laws of the land which are used to govern the country

    ii)It determines the allocation of public revenue between the National government and the County Governments

    iii)It represents the interests of the people through their elected members.

    iv)It deliberates on national/international issues of concern with a view of addressing them

    v)It exercises oversight over public revenue and its expenditure through its watchdog committees

    /Parliamentary Accounts Committee/Public Investment Committee

    vi)It checks the conduct of public/state officers/president/Deputy president/other state officers/can initiate the process of removing them if need be.

    vii)It approves declaration of war/state of emergency

    viii)It vets senior government/public officers appointed by the president/presidential

    nominees/appointees before they take office.

    ix)It participates in National budget marking by scrutinizing sources of revenue/expenditure by National government

    24 a)Name the three branches of the Kenya Defense Forces (3 marks)

    i)The Kenya Army

    ii)The Kenya Air Force

    iii)The Kenya Navy

    b) Discuss six functions of the Kenya Police Service (12 marks)

    i)It liaises with international police/Interpol in order to prevent/combat international crime

    ii)It maintains law/order by arresting law breakers

    iii)It controls crowds during public gatherings so as to ensure peace

    iv)It entertains the public during national days/madaraka Day/ Mashujaa Day/Jamhuri Day through mounting parades

    v)It confines suspected criminals in custody/cells as they wait to be arraigned in court

    vi)It regulates traffic by directing/arresting traffic offenders/inspecting vehicles to determine their roadworthiness

    vii)It conducts driving tests for trainee drivers/recommends persons to be issued with driving licenses by

    National Transport Safety Authority(NTSA)

    viii)It investigates reported crime/suspected crime with a view to gathering evidence to help in court cases

    ix)It protects property/government installations/provides security to senior government officers/VIPs/VVIPs

    x)Prevent corruption and promot


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