3.5 PHYSICS (232)
3.5.1 Physics Paper 1 (232/1)
SECTION A: (25 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.
1 A student measured the length of a wire four times using a metre rule and obtained the following readings: 18.6 cm; 18.5 cm; 18.6 cm and 18.5 cm. Determine the length the student should record. (2 marks)
2 Figure 1 shows a magniﬁed scale of a micrometer screw gauge.’
Record the reading indicated. (1 mark)
3 State the reason why it is not correct to quote the weight of solid objects in kilograms. (1 mark)
4 Figure 2 shows a section of a curved surface ABCD. Point A is higher than point B while BCD is horizontal. Part ABC is smooth while CD is rough. A mass m is released from rest at A and moves towards D.
State the changes in the velocity of m between:
(a) B and C; (1 mark)
(b) C and D. (1 mark)
5. Figure 3 shows two cylinders of different cross-sectional areas connected with a tube. The cylinders contain an incompressible ﬂuid and are ﬁtted with pistons of cross-sectional areas 4 cm2 and 24 cm2.
Opposing forces P and Q are applied to the pistons such that the pistons do not move. if the pressure on the smaller piston is 5 N cm’. Determine force Q. (2 marks)
6. An oil drop of volume V m’ introduced on the surface of water spreads to form a patch whose area is A ml. Derive an expression for obtaining the diameter, d of a molecule of oil. (2 marks)
7. Figure 4 shows a source of heat placed at equal distances from two identical ﬂasks X and Y containing air. The surface of X is painted black while Y 1S clear.
X and Y are linked by a U-tube ﬁlled with water whose levels S and T are initially the same. It is later observed that S falls while T rises. Explain this observation. (2 mark)
8. Figure 5 shows a uniform rod 4 m long and of mass 2 kg. It is pivoted 1 m from one end and balanced horizontally by a string attached near the other end.
Determine the position where a mass of 5 kg should be placed on the rod so that the rod remains horizontal and the tension in the string is Zero. (3 marks)
9. Figure 6 shows two identical rods JK and LK connected with a hinge at K. imageeee The position of the centre of gravity for the system is at P. The arrangement is now adjusted so that J and L move equal distances towards O. Sketch the new arrangement on the same diagram and mark the new position of the centre of gravity. (2 marks)
10. A light spiral spring extends by 4 mm when loaded with a weight W. The spring is connected in series with an identical spring. The combination is loaded with the weight W. Determine the extension of the combination. (2 marks)
11. Figure 7 shows an incompressible ﬂuid ﬂowing through a pipe, AI and AZ are the cross-sectional areas of the pipes in the larger section and smaller section of the pipe respectively, while V1 and V2 are speeds of the ﬂuid at the two sections of the pipe.
Derive an expression for the ratio of the speeds % in terms of AI and A2. (2 marks) 12 On the axis provided, sketch the graph which shows the relationship between volume and temperature of a ﬁxed mass of water in the temperature range 0°C to 10°C. (1 mark)
13 Figure 8 shows a graph of the variation of temperature with time for a pure substance heated at a constant rate.
Assuming that heat transfer to the surroundings is negligible, state the changes observed on the substance in region:
(a) BC; (1 mark)
(b) DE. (1 marks)
14 In a smoke cell experiment to demonstrate Brownian motion, smoke particles are seen moving randomly. State the cause of the randomness. (1 mark)
SECTION B: (55 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.
15 Figure 9 shows a velocity-time graph for the motion of a body of mass 2 kg.
(a) Use the graph to determine the:(3 marks)
(i) displacement of the body after 8 seconds.(3 marks)
(ii) acceleration after point B;(3 marks)
(iii) force acting on the body in part (a) (ii).(2 marks)
(b) Sketch a displacement-time graph for the motion from point A to C.
16 Figure 10 shows a trolley of weight 20 N pulled by a force of 4 N from the bottom to the top of an inclined plane at a uniform speed.
(a) (i) State the value of the force acting downwards along the inclined plane.(1 mark)
(ii) Explain how the value in pan (a) (i) is obtained.(2 marks)
(b) For the system, determine the:
(i) mechanical advantage; (3 marks)
(ii) velocity ratio; (3 marks)
(iii) efficiency. (2 marks)
17 (a) A long horizontal capillary tube of uniform bore sealed at one end contains dry air trapped by a drop of mercury. The length of the air column is 142 mm at l7°C. Determine the length of the air column at 25°C. (3 marks)
(b) The pressure of the air inside a car tyre increases if the car stands out in the sun for some time on a hot day. Explain the pressure increase in terms of the kinetic theory of gases. (3 marks)
(c) In an experiment to determine the speciﬁc latent heat of vapourization of water, steam of mass 10 g at 100°C is passed into 100 g of Water initially at 20°C in a container of negligible heat capacity. The temperature of the Water rises to 70°C.
(Take the speciﬁc heat capacity of water as 4.2 >< 10“ J kg” K” and the boiling point of water as 100°C)
(i) Determine the speciﬁc latent heat of vaporization of water. (4 marks)
(ii) State two sources of error in this experiment. (2 mark)
18 (a) When a bus goes round a bend on a ﬂat road, it experiences a centripetal force.
State what provides the centripetal force. (1 mark)
(b) State the purpose of banking roads at bends. (1 mark)
(c) A student Whirls a stone of mass 0.2 kg tied to a string of length 0.4 m in a vertical plane at a constant speed of 2 revolutions per second.
(Take acceleration due to gravity g as 10 ms’)
(i) State two forces acting on the stone when it is at the highest point. (2 marks)
(ii) Determine the:
i angular velocity of the stone; (3 marks)
ii tension in the string when the stone is at the highest point; (3 marks)
19 Figure 11 shows a test—tube whose cross-sectional area is 2 cmz partially ﬁlled with lead shot ﬂoating vertically in water.
(Take gravitational acceleration as I O ms’ and density of water ,Ow as I g cm”) (a) (i) Determine the:
l volume of the water displaced; (2 marks)
ll weight of water displaced. (3 marks)
(ii) State the combined weight of the test—tube and the lead shot. (1 mark)
(iii) Determine the length of the test—tube that would be submerged in a liquid of density 0.8 g cm’3. (4 marks)
(b) The set up in ﬁgure 11 can be used as a hydrometer to measure densities of liquids.
State how such a hydrometer would be improved to measure small differences in densities of liquids. (1 mark)