KCSE Past Papers 2014 History and Government (311/2)

History & Government Paper 2 (311/2)

Section A (25 marks)

1. Give two methods used by elders to pass information to the young generation on History and Government in the traditional African communities.

(i) Through proverbs;

(ii) Through legends;

(m) Through stories/folktales/narratives;

(iv) Through songs/poems;

(v) Through riddles;

(vi) Through myths;

(vii) Dances.

Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

2. State two disadvantages of using caves as shelters by the early human beings during the stone age period.

(i) The caves could collapse over them.

(ii) Wild creatures could bite them/animals.

(iii) Human enemies could easily attack them.

(iv) Caves were exposed to floods/wind/cold.

Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

3. State two negative effects of the land enclosure system in Britain during the 18th Century.

(i) It displaced the poor people/landlessness;

(ii) It forced the poor people to migrate to urban centres;

(iii) It increased pauperism/poverty in Europe;

(iv) It created immigrants to other parts of the world.

Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

4. Give the main reason why the camel was preferred as the means of transport during the Trans- Saharan Trade.

– It could withstand harsh desert conditions. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

5. Outline one role that was played by the middlemen during the Trans-Atlantic Trade. (1 mark)

(i) They transported goods to and from the interior/porters.

(ii) They obtained goods in the interior.

(iii) They exchanged/traded with European traders at the coast.

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

6.Give two benefits of the development of the railway transport in Europe during the 19th century.

(i) Goods could be transported with ease.

(ii) It enabled trade to expand.

(iii) It led to the development of urban centres/towns.

(iv) It promoted industrialization.

(v) It created employment opportunities.

(vi) It eased the movement of people.

(vii) It was a source of government revenue.

(viii) It led to exploitation of natural resources such as mining, fisheries and forests.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

7. State two advantages of using fire and smoke signals to pass messages in traditional societies. (2 marks)

(i) Messages could only be understood by the communities using them] messages were limited to the users.

(ii) They conveyed messages faster.

(iii) It was a cheaper method of sending messages.

(iv) Messages could reach many people/visibility.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

8. State two ways in which the growth of the city of Cairo was influenced by the River Nile. (2 marks)

(i) It was used for transport.

(ii) It provided Water for domestic/industrial use.

(iii) The Nile Valley was fertile/agriculture.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

9. Identify one symbol of unity in the Shona kingdom during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)

(i) Mwene Mutapa/king/emperor.

(ii) The Royal fire.

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

10. State one way in which the acquisition of firearms enabled the king of Buganda to expand during the pre-colonial period. ( 1 mark)

(i) They were used to conquer/suppress neighboring kingdoms/enemies.

(ii) To protect the kingdom.

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

ll. Name the leader of the Lozi who collaborated with the British in the late 19th Century. (1 mark)

– Lewanika.

12. Identify two European activities in Africa during the 19th Century. (2 marks)

(i) trading/legitimate trade;

(ii) spreading Christianity;

(iii) exploring;

(iv) establishing settlements;

(v) establishing colonial rule/colonization.

(vi) establishing Western education.

(vii) establishing health facilities. (viii) mining.

(ix) Agricultural activities.

(x) stopping slave trade and slavery.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

13. Outline two similar methods used to recruit African labour in the British and French colonies in Africa. (2 marks)

(i) Imposition of taxes on Africans;

(ii) They used chiefs to recruit labour;

(iii) They introduced forced labour.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

14. State one economic problem that was experienced by the British colonialists in Nigeria. (1 marks)

(i) They lacked adequate funds;

(ii) Poor transport/communication undermined their work;

(iii) They lacked adequate skilled labour.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

15. Name the political party that led Ghana to independence from Britain in 1957. (1 mark)

– The Convention People’s Party (C .P.P.)

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

16. Name the country that was blamed for the outbreak of the First World War. (1 mark)

– Germany.

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

17. Give the main reason why the United States of America adopted the Marshall Plan after the Second World War. (1 mark)

– In order to influence many countries adopt capitalist ideology/economic recovery in Europe.

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)

l8. (a)State three characteristics of microlithic tools used during the Late Stone Age Period. (3 marks)

(i)They Were small in size;

(ii)They were more efficient;

(iii)They Were crafted/fitted with handles;

(Iv)They Were used to perform multiple tasks;

(v)They Were sharp.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six challenges faced by early humans in hunting and gathering activities.

(i)Attacks/injuries by animals discouraged them as it posed threats to their lives.

(ii)Scarcity of animals/fruits in some cases denied them regular supply of food / calamities.

(iii)Unfavourable Weather conditions made it difficult to carry out the activities.

(iv)Locating animals/fruits was difficult as it would involve combing large areas.

(v)It was time consuming as it involved chasing the animals for long distances.

(vi)Many people Were required for the success of the activities.

(vii)It was tedious as animals ran faster than human beings/wild fruits /roots could be found in far off areas.

(viii)Poisonous fruits/roots could be gathered leading to loss of life.

(IX)Stiff competition with wild animals/ among human beings for food.

(Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

19.(a)Give three uses of electricity in Europe during the 19th Century. (3 marks)

(i)Driving machines in factories;

(ii)Providing light;


(Iv)Powering locomotives/trains;

(v)Powering communication gadgets.

(12 marks)

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six factors which promoted industrial development in India. (12 marks)

(i)The existence of mineral resources which were used as raw materials to establish industries.

(ii)The existence of cottage industries/industrial base laid the foundation for industrial development as people had acquired relevant skills.

(iii)The availability of funds/loans provided by foreign governments enabled the country to set up industries.

(iv)Provision of technical/scientific education emphasized by the produced skilled labour required in the industries.

(v) Good transport/communication system made transportation of goods/services easier/cheaper thereby encouraging investment.

(vi) The availability of various sources of energy required enabled the establishment of more industries.

(vii) The provision of credit facilities/loans to local investors facilitated expansion of industries.

(viii) The development plans adopted by the government emphasized industrialization thereby giving impetus to the sector.

(ix) Political stability in the country gave people confidence to invest in industries.

(x) Availability of market for industrial goods provided by the large population encouraged more people to venture into industrialization.

(xi) Protective tariffs were applied in order to protect the local industries from unfair competition thereby promoting growth of industries.

(xii) Availability of external markets/trade.

(xiii) India’s large population which provided unskilled labour.

(Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 2 marks)

20. (a) Outline three reasons why the policy of assimilation was easily applied in the four communes of Senegal. (3 marks)

(i) The people had earlier interacted with the Europeans.

(ii) They had inter-married with the Europeans.

(iii) Most of the people were Christians.

(iv) People were exposed to the outside world due to the proximity to the Coast.

(v) People were detribalised/of mixed origin/mulatoes.

(vi) People in the communes had learnt how to speak French.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six effects of the British direct rule in Zimbabwe. (12 marks)

(i) Africans lost large tracts of land to the White settlers thereby straining relations between the two groups.

(ii) Introduction of forced labour as the White settlers required cheap labour in their farms.

(iii) Formation of African Nationalist movements to address their grievances against White domination.

(iv) Loss of power by traditional rulers as the British appointed their own administrators who ruled the people directly.

(v) Imposition of taxes on Africans in order to force them to provide labour to the Whites so as to raise money.

(vi) Africans were exposed to deplorable working conditions which exposed them to risks.

(vii) Introduction of pass laws which restricted the movement of Africans.

(viii) Africans were confined into reserves thereby creating room for European settlement.

(ix) Exploitation of mineral resources/agricultural resources for the benefit of the colonial government at the expense of African development.

(x) Loss of independence by Africans as they were subjected to British colonial rule.

(xi) It undermined African culture/introduction of Western education/Christianity and separation of families.

(xii) Africans were subjected to racial segregation.

(xiii) It led to the development of transport and communication network.

(xiv) Africans were subjected to poverty and suffering.

(Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

21. (a) State three political causes of instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo between 1960-1965. (3 marks)

(i) Tribalism/ethnic differences created conflicts among communities.

(ii) Domination of public service/army by the Belgians/foreigners

(iii) Kasai/Katanga secession from the rest of the country.

(iv) The assassination of Patrice Lumumba.

(v) Ideological differences between leaders divided the country.

(vi) The army mutiny.

(vii) Military coup in 1965 by Mobutu Sese Seko.

(viii) Dictatorship.

(ix) Interference by the UNO in the internal affairs of the Congo.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Describe six social developments that have taken place in Tanzania since independence.

(12 marks)

(i) The establishment of more schools/colleges/universities has enabled many people to access education.

(ii) The introduction of free universal primary education has reduced illiteracy levels among the people.

(iii) Education system geared towards promoting socialism ideals has created an egalitarian/selfless society thus promoting equity.

(iv) Improvement of health through the expansion/establishment of more health facilities/hospitals/dispensaries thereby promoting quality of life.

(v) Social cohesion/unity of diverse elements has been promoted by the socialist ideology (Ujamaa) thereby creating a more stable society.

(vi) Kiswahili has been made the national language and given more emphasis in the education system thereby breaking communication barriers/promoting interaction among the people.

(vii) Theater and sports have been promoted through the establishment of sporting facilities.

(viii) Promotion of African cultural values leading to preservation of African heritage.

(ix) The country guarantees freedom of worship.

(x) The role of women in society was greatly appreciated eg. in educational opportunities, senior positions in government and in party leadership.

(Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

Section C (30 marks)

22. (a) Identify five main organs of the United Nations. (5 marks)

(i) The General Assembly;

(ii) The Security Council;

(iii) The Secretariat;

(iv) The International Court of Justice;

(v) The Economic and Social Council;

(vi) The Trusteeship Council.

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Explain five ways through which the United Nation promotes peace in the World.

(10 marks)

(i) It sends peace-keeping missions to conflict areas in order to enforce ceasefires prevent further confrontation.

(ii) It uses envoys to mediate disputes between warring groups so as to find amicable solutions to problems.

(iii) It hears cases through the International Court of Justice between states/ individuals with a view of administering justice.

(iv) It imposes sanctions against states that defy its resolutions in order to force them to comply.

(v) It uses peace messengers to sensitize people on importance of peace/encourage peaceful co-existence.

(vi) It encourages disarmament by signing arms control treaties/agreements with a view of reducing tension/suspicion between states.

(vii) It promotes human rights/freedoms by enforcing international laws which protect people against abuse.

(viii) It provides humanitarian assistance to the needy by giving them protection/basic needs.

(ix) It promotes democracy and good governance in countries by providing electoral assistance/sending observers to monitor elections in order to ensure fairness/ credibility.

(x) It condemns all forms of terrorism/putting in place mechanism of combating it through international agreements.

(Any 5 points, well explained X 2 = 10 marks)

23. (a) State five functions of the Commission of the African Union. (5 marks)

(i) It implements the decision of the union;

(ii) It co-ordinates African Union activities/meetings;

(iii) It receives application for membership;

(iv) It performs administrative functions of the A.U.;

(v) It makes/initiates proposals to other organs.

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Discuss five achievements of the Pan-African movements. (10 marks)

(i)It promoted African nationalism by encouraging Africans to unite against colonial injustices.

(ii)It restored African dignity/confidence by demanding respect for African values.

(iii)It led to the formation of Organization of African Union.

(iv)It condemned/mobilized people to protest against European colonization/ domination of Africans eg. Mussolini in Ethiopia in 1935.

(v)It made Africans aware of their status in society thereby encouraging them to struggle for their rights.

(vi)It created a sense of unity among people of African descent by enlightening them on their common origin/similar prejudices from the Europeans.

(vii)It appealed/put pressure on international community to act against apartheid regime in South Africa.

(viii)It encouraged the formation of nationalist movements which liberated Africans from colonial rule.

(IX)Provided a forum for the African people to discuss their common problems both internal and external.

(X)It laid the basis for interest in research on African cultures.

(Any 5 points, well explained x 2 = 10 marks)

24.(a)Give five responsibilities of the state governments in the United States of America.

(5 marks)

(i)To maintain law and order.

(ii)To generate revenue.

(iii)To provide educational facilities.

(Iv)To administer justice.

(v)To provide health facilities.

(vi)To provide recreational facilities.

(vii)To make/pass laws. (Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Explain five functions of the cabinet in India. (10 marks)

(i)It formulates policy matters that are followed by the state/federal governments in the provision of services.

(ii)It recommends all the major appointments made by the president in the various sectors of the government.

(iii)It advises the president/prime minister on various matters of the state/federal government.

(iv)It settles interdepartmental disputes in order to ensure harmonious working relations between them.

(v)It co-ordinates activities/programmes/functions of the departments in their respective ministries.

(vi)It defends government policies/decisions both within and outside the parliament, thereby popularizing those policies.

(vii)It approves all proposals for the legislative enactment of the government policies.

(viii)It oversees the execution/implementation of government policies so as to ensure service delivery to the people.


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