KCSE Past Papers 2014 History and Government (311/1)

History & Government Paper 1 (311/1)

Section A (25 marks)

1. Give two ways in which archaeologists identify a pre-historic site.

(i) Existence of a collection of artefacts/tectonic forces/erosion.

(ii) Evidence of burial sites/cultivation/construction/fossils.

(iii) Evidence of ruins of settlements/vision.

(iv) Evidence of alt/ paintings.

(v) Historical research and documentation.

(vi) Use of experience and skill.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

2. Identify one natural factor that caused the Abagusii to migrate from Mount Elgon region to their present homeland.

(i) Due to famine.

(ii) Due to disease.

(iii) Due to drought.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

3. State the main factor that contributed to the growth of city-states along the Kenya coast before 1500 AD.

Trade between the Coast and the outside world. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

4. Give one way in which the translation of the Bible into vernacular languages facilitated the spread of Christianity in Kenya.

(i) The local people could read the Bible.

(ii) It created better understanding of the teaching of the Bible.

(iii) More Africans could identify themselves with Christianity.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

5. Give one economic responsibility of a Kenyan citizen.

(i) Participating in development activities.

(ii) Paying taxes.

(iii) Engaging in income generation.

(iv) Protecting the environment.

(v) Fighting corruption.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

6. Give one economic factor that promotes national unity in Kenya.

(i) Equitable distribution of resources.

(ii) Commercial interaction/ trade.

(iii) Equal employment opportunities.

(iv) Use of a common currency.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

7. Identify one way in which elders resolve conflicts in the community.

(i) through arbitration.

(ii) through mediation.

(iii) through conciliation/reconciliation.

(iv) negotiation.

(Any 11 x 1 : 1 mark)

8. State two similar grievances of the Taita Hills Association and the Ukamba Members Association to the colonial government.

(i) They resented land alienation by the White settlers.

(ii) They were against destocking order by the government.

(iii) They protested forced labour.

(iv) They Were against taxation.

(Any 2 X 1 = 2 marks)

9. Outline two ways in which the ex-soldiers of the second world war contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya.

(i) They were instrumental in the formation of the Mau Mau movement.

(ii) They trained freedom fighters in war tactics.

(iii) They waged armed struggle against the colonial government.

(iv) They made Weapons used in the struggle.

(v) They dispelled the myth of European supremacy.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

10. What was the main contribution of Prof. Wangari Maathai to the development of Kenya?

Environmental conservation/ Tree planting. (Any 1 x 1 : 1 mark)

11. State two functions of the supreme court in Kenya.

(i) To hear/ determine disputes relating to the election of the President of Kenya.

(ii) To hear/ determine appeals from the Court of Appeal/ other courts/ tribunals.

(iii) To give an advisory opinion concerning County Governments.

(iv) To handle any case/ issue which has to do with the interpretation/ application of the constitution.

(v) To review the certification made by the Court of Appeal on a matter of general public importance.

(vi) To make rules for the exercise of its jurisdiction.

(Any 2 X 1 = 2 marks)

12. State two qualifications that a person must fulfill in order to be allowed to register as a voter in Kenya.

(i) Must be a Kenyan citizen.

(ii) Must be 18 years old or above.

(iii) Must be of sound mind.

(iv) Not been convicted of an election offence during the period preceding 5 years.

(Any 2 x 1 : 2 marks)

13. State two functions of the Secretary to the cabinet in Kenya.

(i) He/ she is in charge of cabinet office.

(ii) Keeps minutes of the cabinet.

(iii) Arranging the business of the cabinet/Agenda.

(iv) Convey decisions of the cabinet to appropriate authorities/ persons.

(v) Executes directives of the cabinet.

(Any 2 x 1 : 2 marks)

14. Name the two branches of National Police Service in Kenya.

(i) The Kenya Police Service.

(ii) The Administration Police Service.

(Any 2 x 1 : 2 marks)

15. Give one reason for the adoption of Harambee strategy in Kenya after independence.

(i) To pool the scarce resources together.

(ii) To eradicate poverty among the people.

(m) To promote unity among the people.

(Any 1 x 1 : 1 mark)

16. Identify two types of land ownership in Kenya.

(i) Public land.

(ii) Community land.

(iii) Private land.

(Any 2 x 1 : 2 marks)

17. Give the main function of the commission on Revenue Allocation in Kenya.

To ensure equitable sharing of revenue between National and County governments/ among County governments. (1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)

l8. (a) Identify the three Luo groups which migrated into Kenya during the pre-colonial period .

(i)Joka – Jok

(ii)Joka – Owiny

(iii)Joka – Omolo.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Describe the political organization of the Luo during the pre-colonial period.

(i)The family was the lowest unit and its head was the father who was referred to as Jaduong’.

(ii)Several related families formed a clan.

(iii)There were lineage councils (Buch Dhoot) which settled domestic issues.

(Iv)A council of elders existed in the clan which was responsible for settling inter- family disputes called Doho.

(v)Clans were grouped together to form Oganda headed by a chief elder (Ruoth/ Gweng’).

(vi)There existed a council of elders (Buch Piny) which comprised of representatives from each clan and mainly settled inter-clan disputes.

(vii)There was a class of warriors (Thuondi) headed by a war leader (Osumba Mrwayi) and its main responsibility was to defend the community.

(viii)The Luo was a decentralized community as they did not have an overall leader.

(IX)Religious leaders eg. diviners, medicine-men, healers, rainmakers etc influenced their politics.

(Any 6 points well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

19.(a)State three methods used by the British to establish colonial rule in Kenya.

(i)They used military force.

(ii)They signed treaties/ agreement with some African rulers/ collaborations diplomacy.

(III)They used divide and rule tactics.

(Iv)They lured Africans with gifts/ presents/treachery.

(v)They established bases of operation/company rule.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six problems experienced by the Imperial British East Africa Company in Kenya.

(i)There was scarcity of mineral wealth and profitable export commodities which made it difficult for the company to generate enough wealth to meet the cost of administration.

(ii)There was poor transport network which made movement of goods slow/ difficult/ expensive thereby making the enterprise less profitable.

(iii)There was lack of proper co-ordination between the company headrIIIa”ers in Britain and the officials in Kenya hence delays/ waste and mis

(iv) The company officials lacked the experience which was necessary for the success of the administration in the protectorate.

(v) Some of the company officials were corrupt and therefore concentrated on their personal enrichment at the expense of the enterprise.

(vi) Resistance from the local communities posed a great challenge to the company as it had to administer and at the same time suppress the communities.

(vii) There was inadequate capital to carry out its operations thus making the administration of the protectorate ineffective.

(viii) Unfavorable climatic conditions tropical diseases claimed lives of some of the company personnel.

(ix) Lack of enough personnel.

(x) Rivalry from German East Africa affected its operations.

(Any 6 points well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

20. (a) Give reasons Why Africans were put in reserves during the colonial period.

(i) To create a pool of African labour for settler farming Europeans/ public works.

(ii) To avail land/ create space for white settlement.

(iii) To restrict the movement of Africans.

(iv) For easy control/ monitoring of African activities.

(v) For easy control of African nationalism.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six problems faced by Africans working for the European settlers during the colonial period.

(i) They were paid low wages which could hardly meet their expenses thereby making them lead squalor/ impoverished lives.

(ii) The living conditions were poor as they were crowded in residential houses with inadequate sanitation.

(iii) The working conditions were very difficult as they were sometimes mistreated whipped.

(iv) They were subjected to long working hours without compensation which made them develop negative attitude towards work.

(v) They were forced to pay taxes despite their poor remuneration/ low wages.

(vi) There were inadequate social amenities/ schools/ health facilities to cope with the large number of workers.

(vii) They were despised on the basis of their color/ race and this lowered their dignity.

(viii) They were not allowed to form workers’ union as the settlers feared that they would incite/ organize strikes against them.

(ix) They were provided with inadequate food rations which led to malnutrition.

(Any 6 points well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

21. (a)State three challenges that have contributed to high illiteracy levels in Kenya since independence.

(i)Traditional/ cultural beliefs in some communities discourage people from schooling.

(ii)Lack of schools inadequate educational facilities has made education inaccessible in some regions.

(iii)High poverty levels in the society has made education unaffordable.

(iv)Misconceptions that one can succeed without education.

(v)Nomadic Way of life in some communities has hampered provision of education.

(vi)Negative attitude towards adult education programmes has resulted in low enrollment.

(vii)Insecurity in some regions eg. Kapendo, Baragoi, Tana River etc.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Discuss six factors that have facilitated industrialization in Kenya since independence.

(i)The availability of modern sources of energy has enabled the establishment of more industries which process different products.

(ii)Availability of both skilled/ unskilled labour from large population provides the work force required in industries.

(iii)Good transport and communication infrastructure has created a viable environment for industrial development as the products can be transported with ease.

(iv)The rich agricultural country provides raw materials required in the processing of various products.

(v)The existence of mineral resources has given rise to industries which process them into finished products.

(vi)The existence of both natural and man-made forests has promoted the development of furniture industries in many parts of the country.

(vii)Availability of varied tourist attractions in the country has promoted tourism as many local and international tourists visit the countryside.

(viii)Availability of water resources rich in fish has given rise to fish processing industries in the country.

(IX)Government initiative through creation of ministries of trade, commerce and industry offering technical and financial aid/support.

(Any 6 points Well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

Section C (30 marks)

22(a)State five decisions reached after the first Lancaster House conference of 1960.

(i)Maintenance of the 12 elective seats in the LegCo.

(ii)Composition of the Council of Ministers was to be changed to include 4 Africans, 3 Europeans and l Asian.

(iii)There were to be 33 open seats in the LegCo, which were to be contested/ vied for on a common roll.

(Iv)20 seats would be reserved that is 10 for Europeans, 8 for Asians and 2 for Africans.

(v)Formation of countrywide political parties e.g. KANU and KADU was allowed.

(vi)The state of emergency was lifted.

(vii)A Bill of Rights would be included in the Constitution.

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Describe five main features of the Constitution of Kenya.

(i)It vests sovereign power on the people of Kenya who can exercise it directly or through their representatives.

(ii)It contains a comprehensive Bill of Rights which has been expanded to include socio-economic and cultural rights as well as group rights.

(iii)It spells out national values and principles of governance which guides/ binds all people / institutions.

(iv)It contains affirmative action for women/ the youth/ persons with disabilities/ marginalized communities as it protects them from all forms of discrimination.

(v)It defines the powers of the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary as it provides for checks/ balances in governance.

(vi)It provides a mechanism for its implementation by creating specific organs for that purpose.

(vii)It has provision for transitional requirements that ensure a smooth transition of government.

(viii)It provides stringent amendment procedures in order to safeguard peoples’ interests.

(iX)It provides for devolved government by creating forty seven counties.

(X)Citizenship – it describes what citizens are entitled to eg. acquisition and revocation of citizenship.

(Xi)It outlines the principles of Land Policy and classification.

(xii)Leadership and Integrity – it states the responsibilities, conduct and restriction on activities of state officers.

(xiii)National security – it establishes 3 national security organs ie. Kenya Defense (xiv)Forces, National Intelligence Service and National Police Service.

(Xv)It establishes a Bicameral Legislature composed of the National Assembly and the Senate.

(xvi)It creates an independent Judiciary composed of a system of courts with superior and subordinate courts.

(xvi)It provides for a Public Service which stipulates the values and principles of professional ethics and accountability.

(Any 5 points well explained x 2 = 10 marks)

23.(a)Give five reasons Why human rights are important.

(i)They give the general public access to information necessary for protection of democracy and accountability.

(ii)They assist in achieving a dignified life which respects human needs.

(iii)They guide organs of state on the exercise of state power.

(iv)They provide basis for granting special treatment to persons with special needs.

(v)When respected, these rights reduce conflicts and enhance national integration.

(v)They empower citizens by giving them control in decision making organs of the state.

(vi)Rights are inherent to human beings since one has rights because they are human. (Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Explain five functions of the Kenya National Commissions on Human Rights.

(i)To protect respect for human rights/ develop a culture of human rights in the country.

(ii)To receive complaints about alleged abuses of human rights from the citizens.

(iii)To monitor/ investigate on the observance of human rights in the country and take appropriate action.

(iv)To provide a shadow report to the United Nations on the status of observance of human rights in the country.

(v)To formulate/ implement programmes intended to create public awareness of the rights/ obligations of citizens.

(vi)To ensure that the country complies with international treaties/ conventions regarding human rights.

(vii)To work with the National Gender and Equality Commission and Commission on Administrative Justice to ensure efficiency/ effectiveness/ complementary in their activities.

(viii)To make recommendations to the state to improve the functioning of the state organs.

(Any 5 points well explained x 2 = 10 marks)

24.(a)State five qualifications of a presidential candidate in Kenya.

(i)Be of sound mind.

(ii)A Kenyan citizen by birth.

(iii)Not have served for more than 2 consecutive terms as president.

(iv)Nominated by a political party or is an independent candidate.

(v)Nominated by at least 2000 voters from each of majority of counties.

(vi)Not have been declared bankrupt by a court of law.

(Vii)Abide by the requirements of chapter 6 of the constitution on integrity.

(viii)Must be a registered voter.

(ix)Be qualified to stand for election as an MP.

(X)Does not owe allegiance to a foreign state.

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b)Explain five functions of the National Assembly in Kenya.

(i)It makes laws that govern the country so as to ensure smooth running of the country.

(ii)It determines the allocation of public revenue to all government sectors in order to promote development.

(iii)It approves funds for expenditure by the national government to ensure provision of services.

(iv)It exercises oversight over public revenue and expenditure thereby promoting accountability/ transparency.

(v)To review the conduct in office of the executive in order to check excesses in government.

(vi)To approve appointments made by the president to ensure merits professionalism integrity of the appointees.

(vii)To approve declaration of War and extension of states of emergency.

(viii)It represents peoples’ interests through their elected members of parliament.

(iX)Oversight of state organs i.e. it supervises and checks state organs ensuring proper and accountable handling of duties.

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