Section A: (25 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section.
1. Name two types of hypabyssal rocks. (2 marks)
2. (a) The diagram below shows intrusive volcanic features.
Name the features marked E, F and G.
(b) Name two active volcanoes in Kenya.
3. (a) Give three processes in the hydrological cycle.
(b) State four factors that facilitate deposition in rivers.
4. (a) Explain two reasons why wind is the dominant agent of erosion in arid areas.
(b) Identify two features formed as a result of wind deposition in arid areas.
5. (a) Describe podzolization as a process of leaching. (2 marks)
(b) State three ways in which mulching helps in soil conservation.
Answer question 6 and any other TWO questions from this section
6. Study the map of Migwani 1:50,000 (sheet 151/1) provided and answer the following questions.
(a) (i) Give the longitudinal extent of the area covered by the map. (2 marks)
(ii) What is the magnetic variation of the map? (1 mark)(iii)
Give the six-ﬁgure grid reference for the junction of the roads D503 and D507. (2 marks)
(b)(i) Using a vertical scale of l cm to represent 100 metres, draw a cross section along the line marked J -K. (4 marks)
(ii) On it, mark and label the following:
- footpath; (1 mark)
- road; (1 mark)
- water pipeline; (l mark)
- steep slope. (1 mark)(iii) Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross-section. (2 marks)
(c) Citing evidence from the map, give three economic activities carried out in the area covered by the map. (6 marks)
(d) Explain how relief has inﬂuenced the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map. (4 marks)
7. (a) (i) Describe the solar system. (2 marks)
(ii) The local time at Manaul 60°W is 11.30 a.m. What is the time in Nairobi 37° E? (3 marks)
(ii) (b) (i) State ﬁve characteristics of the mantle in the interior structure of the earth. (5 marks)
(i) (ii) Outline the evidence which support the theory of continental drift. (4 marks)
(c) The diagram below represents the revolution of the earth.
(i) Name the solstice marked P. (l mark)
(ii) ldentify the season represented in the region marked Q. (1 mark)
(iii) Describe the climatic conditions in Europe when the Earth is in position R. (3 marks)
(d) With the aid ofa Well labelled diagram, describe the occurrence ofthe solar eclipse. (6 marks)
8. The map below shows some climatic regions of Kenya. Use it to answer question (a)
(i) Name the climatic regions marked X and Y. (2 marks)
(ii) State three characteristics of the climatic region marked Z. (3 marks)
(b) Explain how each of the following factors inﬂuence climate:
(i) Altitude; (4 marks)
(ii) Ocean currents. (4 marks)
What are the negative effects of climate change on physical environment‘? (6 marks)
(d) Students visited a Weather station to study recording of weather elements.
(i) State three qualities in the construction of a Stevenson screen they would have observed during the study. (3 marks)
(ii) Identify three types of data they are likely to have collected during the study. (3 marks)
9. (a) (i) Name two types of submerged highland coasts. (2 marks)
(ii) Identify two resultant features of the emerged highland coasts. (2 marks)
(b) State three factors inﬂuencing deposition by ocean waves. (3 marks)
(c) With the aid of labelled diagrams describe the formation of the following coastal features:
(i) Fringing reef; (5 marks)
(ii) Spit. (5 marks)
Explain the signiﬁcance of oceans to human activities. (8 marks)
10. (a) (i) Name two mountains in East Africa which are ice capped. (2 marks)
(ii) Identify three ways in which ice moves. (3 marks)
Describe the formation of the following glacial features:
(i) Hanging valley; (6 marks)
(ii) Pyramidal peak. (6 marks)
(c) You are required to carry out a ﬁeld study on erosional features in glaciated lowland area.
(i) Give two reasons why you would require a working schedule. (2 marks)
(ii) Name three erosional features you are likely to observe during the ﬁeld study. (3 marks)
(iii) Give three follow-up activities you would undertake after the ﬁeld study. (3 marks)