KCSE Past Papers 2013 English Paper 3 (101/3)

  • 5.13 English Paper 3 (101/3)


    Paper 101/3 is intended to test the candidates’ ability to communicate in writing. Communication is established at different levels of intelligibility, correctness, accuracy, fluency, pleasantness and originality. Within the constraints set by each question, it is the linguistic competence shown by the candidate that should carry most of the marks.

    Examiners should not hesitate to use the full range of marks for each essay.

    It is important to determine first how each essay communicates and in which category A, B, C or D it fits. D CLASS The candidate either does not communicate at all or his langiage ability is so (01 — O5) minimal that the examiner practically has to guess what the candidate wants to say. The candidate fails to fit the English words he knows into meaningful sentences. The subject is glanced at or distorted. Practically no valid punctuation. All kinds of errors (“Broken English”).

    D – 01- 02 Chaotic, little meaning whatsoever. Question paper or some words from it simply copied. D 03 Flow of thought almost impossible to follow. The errors are continuous. D+ 04-05 Although the English is often broken and the essay is full of errors of all types, we can at least guess what the candidate wants to say.

    C CLASS The candidate communicates understandably but only more or less clearly. (06 – 10) He is not confident with his language. The subject is often undeveloped. There may be some digressions. Unnecessary repetitions are frequent. The arrangement is weak and the flow jerky. There is no economy of language; mother tongue influence is felt.

    C – 06-07 The candidate obviously finds it difficult to communicate his/her ideas. He/she is seriously hampered by his/her very limited knowledge of structure and vocabulary. This results in many gross errors of agreement, spelling, misuse of prepositions, tenses, verb agreement and sentence construction.

    C 08 The candidate communicates but not with consistent clarity. His/her linguistic abilities being very limited, he/she cannot avoid frequent errors in sentence structure. There is little variety or originality. Very bookish English, links are weak, incorrect, repeated at times.

    c+ 09-10 The candidate communicates clearly but in a fiat and uncertain manner. Simple concepts sentence forms are often strained. There may be an overuse of clinches, and unsuitable idioms. Proverbs are misquoted or misinterpreted. The flow is still jerky. There are some errors of agreement, tenses and spelling.

    B CLASS -This class is characterized by greater fluency and ease of expression.

    The (ll – 15) candidate demonstrates that he/she can use English as a normal way of expressing himself/herself. Sentences are varied and usually well constructed. Some candidates become ambitious and even over-ambitious. There may be items of merit of the one word or one expression type. Many essays in this category may be just clean and unassuming but they still show that the candidate is at ease with the language. There may be a tendency to under mark such essays. Give credit for tone.

    B – 11-12 The candidate communicates fairly and with some fluency. There may be little variety in sentence structure. Gross errors are still found occasionally, but this must not be over punished by the examiner.

    B (13)The sentences are varied but rather simple and straight forward. The candidate does not strain himself in an effort to impress. There is a fair range of vocabulary and idiom. Natural and effortless. Some items of merit, economy of language.

    B+( 14-15 ) The candidate communicates his ideas pleasantly and without strain. There are errors and slips. Tenses, spellings and punctuation are quite good. A number of items of merit of the “whole sentence” or the “whole expression” type.

    CLASS A (16-20) The candidate communicates not only fluently, but attractively, with originality and efficiency. He/She has the ability to make us share his deep feelings, emotions and, enthusiasm. He/She expresses himself freely and without any visible constraint. The script gives evidence of maturity, good planning and often humour. Many items of merit which indicate that the candidate has complete command of the language. There is no strain, just pleasantness, clever arrangement, felicity of expression.

    A- (16-17) The candidate shows competence and fluency in using the language. He may lack imagination or originality which usually provide the “spark” in such essays. Vocabulary, idiom, sentence structure, links, and variety are impressive. Gross errors are very rare.

    A (18) Positive ability. A few errors that are felt to be slips. The story or argument has a definite impact. No grammar problem. A variety of structures. A definite spark. Many margin ticks.

    A+( 19-20) The candidate communicates not only information and meaning, but also and especially the candidate’s whole self: his/her feelings, tastes, points of view, youth, culture. This ability to communicate deeply may express itself in a wide range of effective vocabulary, original approach, vivid and sustained account in the case of a narrative, well developed and ordered argument in the case of a debate or discussion. Errors and slips should not deprive the candidate of the full marks he deserves. A very definite spark.

    I The main signs indicate three degrees of seriousness of error.






    __, /\


    ‘ This sign in the margin is used only when a construction error affects more than one line.

    I The following symbols may also be used


    REPET_ITI_QN – (of words) a circle around the word

    R ‘ – (of ideas) usually in the margin


    l L.L

    VAGUENESS obscure/vague (in margin)

    \/ Obsc. . Ls

    WRONG WORD ORDER Underline once and write W.O. in margin


    ILLOGICAL or CONTRADICTORY ‘\/\/\.. ILL (in margin)

    BROKEN ENGLISH when the candidate fails to communicate BR in margin.


    COW to indicate that a candidate has used a pencil to make a correction.


    BRACKETS [ ] indicate a part of a D script that communicates.

    * Use an asterisk to indicate an item or a sentence that the rubrics indicate should be used

    II TO INDICATE AN ITEM OF MERIT use a tick (\/ ) either above a word or in the margin for the whole sentence.


    (a) Almost any error of agreement


    (b) Serious tense error –

    (c) Errors of elementary vocabulary: spelling and misuse

    (d) Punctuation errors or missing punctuation which causes serious lack of communication.

    (e) Elementary errors of sentence construction.

    (f) Ridiculous use of an idiom that affects communication.

    (g) Misuse of common prepositions

    (h) Misuse of capital letters – Use CAPS underline the first page

    (i) Contracted forms and use CAPS on subsequent pages

    where the mistake persists.


    (a) Decide on the degree of communication achieved, A – D

    (b) After underlining decide on the mark category

    (c) Allocate a numerical mark to the essay.


    All problem scripts must be marked by the examiner and then sent to the Team Leader with comments.


    (a) Consistent distortion of question, evasion of question, writing on a totally different subject with a clumsy attempt at connecting the essay to the subject given, inclusion of memorised passages, etc.

    (b) The question is given an unacceptable or questionable interpretation.

    (c) Essays contain long, semi-relevant digressions or lack coherence.


    The examiner marks the essay, gives a linguistic mark and comments on the nature of the irrelevancy. The essay is then passed over to the team leader who judges whether the irrelevancy should be judged as a deliberate attempt to deceive or should be attributed to the candidateOs poor understanding of the subject. Deduct up to 4 marks for irrelevancy in the essay. If dishonesty is suspected, the Chief Examiner should be informed. Any deduction of 3 marks or more should be referred to the Chief Examiner.


    Since the rubrics may change from year to year, the POINTS OF INTERPRETATION that are part of this MARKING SCHEME must be consulted and adhered to faithfully.


    (a) Decide on the category D+ D or D-.

    (b) Mark the errors on the whole essay.

    (c) Team leaders should look at a good number of those scripts and ensure that the mark given is fair.


    It should be remembered that the main quality of an essay is how effectively it communicates. If an essay looks too short, the examiner should take the time to count the exact number of words. If it exceeds 450 words – 2 pages – 2 AD KENYAN Efl§il,l§H

    A good number of words and expressions are understood and currently used by all Kenyans. They can be used in essays without any need for quotation marks or explanations. We can include among those:

    panga, rungu, shamba, murram, matatu

    wananchi, ugali, madarasa, harambee, matoke

    maendeleo ya Wanawake, salaam, ayah, askari

    debe, duka, Nyayo, boma, sukumawiki, goat party, manyatta, magendo.

    AM§RlQAfl §PELLIN§i

    Although “English” spelling is more common than “American” spelling in Kenya, examiners should accept both spellings and no penalty should be given for such variations. Penalize for lack of consistency in usage of either.


    1 (a) Must be a story. If not deduct 4 marks AD.

    Must be illustrative of a situation in which timely intervention saves the day. The situation could be a crack in a building, flying in bad weather etc. Some candidates may write on a situation gone awry because quick action is not taken.

    (b) Expect a story

    Must be a narrative or descriptive composition. If not deduct 4 marks AD

    Must end with the given sentence. If not deduct 2 marks AD Must be a personal account detailing a situation in which a friend offers assistance/advice that makes a significant difference in the life of the writer.

    2. The compulsory set text


    Change, even when it beneficial, is usually resisted, This is because people are more comfort- able with what is familiar than what they do not know / In fact there is a saying that “It is better the devil you know than the angel you don’t know” / In The River Between, there is plenty of evidence to show that people will not accept change passively; they resist it. (Accept any other relevant introduction = 2 mark)



  • Education is resisted. Those who are loyal to the traditions fear that it will corrupt their c h il- dren. They are afraid that abandoning the traditions may have grave consequences for the com- munity.
  • Waiyaki who advocates for change and the introduction of westem education faces much 1 opposition from Kabonyi and others. They accuse him of being a traitor, His crime? Trying to reconcile the new and the old ways of life. pgs 14-15, 69-70, 85 – 88, 105-106, 113-114,124,126, 138 etc.
  • Joshua embraces the new religion with fanatical zeal, but some members of his household reject his brand of Christianity and rebel. His family disintegrates.
  • The changes brought about by the missionaries and the white men tear the community apart. There is rivalry and hatred. Some members of the Kiama even bum some homes belonging to Christians. pgs 5, 7-8, 28-29, 32, 67, 82-84, 96-97 etc
  • One of the changes that evokes tension in the community is the attempt to proscribe female circumcision. Muthoni refuses to abandon this custom although she knows the consequences – her father disowns her. Nevertheless, she dies a fulfilled woman. pgs22, 24, 25, 32, 54, 56-57, 65, 66 etc Colonial/new administration introduces tax, a government position and allienates land which is resisted by the Kiama who want to maintain the traditional governance through the Council of elders. pgs 30,60.61,1l4,123-124, 138,143 etc Leadership was a preserve of the elders but in the new order, younger people like Waiyaki take up leadership roles despite resistance from some elders like Kabonyi. This is eventually accepted. Pgs. 2, 3, 6-7, 20-21, 37-38, 78-79, 81, 91-93, 120-125 etc.Conclusion

    Changes that are introduced in Kameno and Makuyu by the coming of the European are not embraced without a fight. It is tnie that some people accept the changes but on the whole, the society is deeply divided. A once cohesive community is facing disintegration. Even a person like Waiyaki who is committed to serving the people is rejected.

    (Accept any other valid conclusion = 2 marks)

    Accept any 4 developed points = 12 marks

    Grammar and presentation = 4 marks

    The Short story (20 marks)

    3 (a) Introduction

    Superstition does cause all manner of problems in society and in human life as we can see in Haruki Murakami’s story “The mirror.”

    (Accept any other relevant introduction = 2 marks). .


  • Outlook: The narrator talks of “ghosts and the like” as the link between the world of the living and the dead. People who claim they have seen ghosts are superstitious. Others have premonitions and can predict the future. page 64.
  • Elevator: When the narrator is in the elevator with two friends, the friends claim there was a woman standing next to him, the narrator. The narrator doesn’t see the woman, but he wonders about the friends because he doesn’t think they can play tricks on him.
  • Superstitions probably reflect our wishful thinking and our desires. These friends
  • conveniently” see a woman wearing a grey suit (grey being a colour of ambiguous significance). page 64
  • Fear/weird night events: The story seems to imply that superstition is associated with our fears. The narrator is a watchman” working at night (a time associated with fear). Before his strange encounter, he wakes up at 3 a.m. feeling (under stably?) weird. Pages 66 – 67
  • Carefree: Superstition could also be associated with an aimless and wandering life. The narrator drops out of school, becomes a hippie, and roams the country, doing unstable jobs. And for two months, he works as a watchman in a school in a tiny town. These are ideal conditions for superstitious thinking. page 65
  • The gate: Then there is the climate autumn. It is windy and hot. It is a time like this when your imagination can run away with you. The gate at the swimming pool keeps opening and closing, creating a rhythm that enhances the narrator’s superstitious fear. I Denial: Superstition makes us do unreasonable things. The narrator has not talked about this incident for ten years for fear that it might happen again. The narrator has lived without a mirror; he shaves without it. Pages 64-65, 70
  • The Mirror: Superstition can make one hate himself/herself. In this story, it leads to a mild form of the so-called split personality. When the narrator is looking at him- self in the non—existent mirror, he hates what he sees and the “other” loathes him. He fears that if he looked in the mirror, he would have to confront something of himself that he doesn’t want to confront. Pages 66 – 67, 68 ConclusionGhosts are products of our imagination and conditions in the physical environment. In the final analysis, the narrator is saying we need to come to terms with our inner selves in order to deal with the problem of superstition and fear associated with it. To deal with the problem of ghosts in particular and superstition in general, we need to understand our inner selves, resolve our internal conflicts, and come to with the external environment.

    (Accept any other valid conclusion = 2 marks)

    Accept any 4 developed points = 12 marks

    Grammar and presentation = 4 marks

    (b) The Play


    Ruganda interwcaves the King of Termites story with the main story. Much of what Odie says of the King of Termites applies to and is representative of what the powers that be are and have wrought upon the populace.

    (Accept any other relevant introduction = 2 marks)


    (i) Crashing opposition: Odie, the captor, addresses a captured and not quite van quished King of Termites (opponent tribe of Termites) (p.43).

    Social comment: Odie accuses the regime of annihilation of the opposition. pages l4, 46-47.

    (ii) Indifference: Odie relates the events happening outside in the real world, directly to and perhaps attributes them to the King of Termites. (pp2 -3)

    Social comment: Odie accuses the regime of indifference to the suffering of the people.

    (iii) Brutality: Odie‘s brutality and torture machines seem to mirror and exceed the torment and torture he underwent. He even ascribes it to the colonial masters in the regimes previous to the neo-colonial regimes now toppled. (p. 3-6)

    Social comment: Odie accuses the regime of brutalizing the people ) p13-18)

    Odie attributes his current circumstances to the regime. (p12-l5,l8)

    (iv) Torturing Wak; It represents and mirrors Odie‘s mental state and expresses what he could do with the now retumed half-brother Wak. The possibility of imprisoning Wak permanently and subjecting him to a slow bloodless death. (p3, 22> (PP 9,15,24)

    Social comment: Odie has tools of torture: ice cubes, bumsen bumer, which brings out what he intends to mete out on Wak. Just as the regime tortures its citizens.

    (v) Wak’s insensitivity: Odie compares and even equates the retumee brother, Wak,

    to the King of Termites and declares he should be shot. (pl 3) Odie accuses the regime of being insensitive to their suffering.

    (vi) Projection: It is a projection – What Odie cannot do to the current regime he metes out to the King of Temites.

    Social comment: Odie harbours resentment and anger against the regime in what he says of Major General Ali. (p29 – 32). Conclusion

    Although the episodes involving Odie with the King of Termites may seem irrelevant diversions of a person mentally deranged, they provide a clue to and point to the main action of the play. They also provide relevant points and commentary on the situation obtaining in the general society. and provide the characters with occasion to comment on and play out their roles.

    (Accept any other relevant conclusion = 2 marks)

    Expect 4 well developed points marks = 12 marks)

    Prologue and commentary must correspond

    Grammar and presentation = 4 marks

    The Novel


    This saying illustrates that there are usually clear early signs of what a child will grow into. There is an aura of mystery about Kahu‘s life, and as she grows she distinguishes herself by exhibiting unique qualities.

    (Accept any other relevant introduction = 2 marks)

    ‘ Birth: Kahu’s birth caused a stir. Koro Apirana was disappointed it was a girl, but Nani Flowers was happy. Her mother died after she was born but she survived. Pages 12 – I3, 22, 26

    ‘ Naming: Though a girl, she was given the name Kahutia Te Rangi – a man’s name. This was the name of the great ancestral whale rider. ‘Her birth cord was buried “in the sight of Kahutia Te Rangi” – for the great ancestor to watch over her (pg l7).

    After the burial of her birth cord, Rawiri saw something like a small spear flying through the air, and he heard the whale sounding. Pages l4- 18, 22, 1 l8

    ‘ Love: Kahu had a very strong attraction to her great-grand father that could not be

    cut by the latter‘s negative attitude. She also resembled her great-grandfather.

    ~ Big Toe: She bit the big toe of her great grandfather -which is what the great grand- father did as part of the test to qualify as the leader. Pages 26-28. 177-1 l8.

    ‘ Instructions: She was interested in the instructions that Koro Apirana was giving to the men and boys. Pages 30, 37, 38.

    Sea creatures: From very early she seems to have a connection with sea creatures – for example: when Koro Apirana tells the ancestral tale about whales, and when she attends the movie. Pages 34, 35, 72-73, 80, 116.

    – The Stone: When Koro Apirana gives the boys the test of finding a stone dropped in the ocean and they can’t find it, it is Kahu who finds it.

    ~ The Sacred Whale: Finally it is Kahu who communicates with the whales and rid- ing the sacred whale leads the whales to safety/saves the tribe. Pages 80, 85-86, 92 -93, 101 – 103,10, 107,117-118, 120 -122.

    – Culture: Kahu has a special liking for Maori food (p26) and she also shines in the cultural event at school that is based on the Maori culture (p68-69)

    The candidate should demonstrate awareness not only of the events but of the significance of the events to culture and leadership.

    Conclusion Right from birth there are indicators that Kahu, though a girl, is set apart for something big.

    It’s no wander then that she finally rescues the whales and brings hope to her people.

    Accept any other valid conclusion = 2 marks

    Accept any four well developed points = 12 marks

    Grammar and conclusion = 4 marks

(Visited 131 times, 2 visits today)
Share this:

Written by