KCSE Past Papers 2011 History and Government (311/2)

History and Government Paper 2 (311/2)

SECTION A (25 marks)

1. Give two archaeological sources of information on History and Government. (2 marks)

(i) Tools/utensils used by man;

(ii) Weapons used by man;

(iii) Settlements/ruins of the past/rock painting;

(iv) Remains of human/animals;

(v) Plant remains

(vi) Garments/Ornaments

(vi) Coins used by man

(any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

2.Give two reasons that made early human beings to live in groups during the Stone Age period.

(2 marks)

(i) For companionship;

(ii) For security;

(iii) To share resources;

(iv) To help one another. (any 2 X 1 = 2 marks)

3. Identify two ways through which early agriculture spread in Africa. (2 marks)

(i) through migration;

(ii) through trade;

(iii) through intermarriages;

(iv) through wars. (any 2 x 4 = 2 marks)

4. State two limitations of using animal transport. (2 marks)

(i) Animals are affected by poor health/injuries/attacks by wild animals;

(ii) Rugged terrain/extreme weather conditions hampers the movement of animals;

(iii) Animal transport has limited carrying capacity;

(iv) Animal transport is time consuming/slow;

(v) Some animals are stubborn;

(vi) Animal transport is limited to daytime and not night time.

(any 2 X 1 = 2 marks)

5. Why was silent trade practised by Trans-Saharan traders? (1 mark)

– Due to language barrier/lack of common language.

6. Identify the main factor that led to the growth of the ancient town of Meroe. (1 mark)

– Existence of iron ore.

7. What was the main function of the Council of elders among Africa societies during the pre-colonial period? (1 mark)

– They mediated/settled disputes/made peace in the community.

8. State two social factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa by European powers. (2 marks)

(i) The need to abolish slave trade;

(ii) The desire to spread Christianity/protect missionaries;

(m) The desire to spread western civilization/education;

(iv) The need to settle surplus population. (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

9. Name one African country that was not colonised by the European powers. (1 mark)

(i) Ethiopia

(ii) Liberia (any 1 x l = 1 marks)

10. State two roles played by the African Chiefs in the British Colonial administration in Nigeria.

(i) They represented the colonial government at the local level; (2 marks) (ii) They recmited labour for public Works;

(m) They collected taxes for the colonial government;

(iv) They communicated colonial government policies to the people;

(v) They tried/heard cases in the local courts. (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

11. Name the chartered company that administered Zimbabwe during the process of colonization. (1 mark)

– The British South Africa Company (BSAC). (1 mark)

12. Give the main reason for the formation of the League of Nations in 1919. (1 mark)

– To promote/sustain world peace/security. (1 mark)

13. Give two economic reasons for the growth of African nationalism in Ghana. (2 marks)

(i) The order by the colonial government that Africans uproot cocoa trees affected by diseases;

(ii) The colonial government denied Africans trading licences;

(iii) African farmers earned low incomes from the sale of cocoa to European firms;

(iv) High unemployment rate for the Africans.

(v) Sharp increase in prices of goods. (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

14. Outline two factors that enabled Tanzania to maintain national unity since independence. (2 marks)

(i) Adherence to the policy of socialism (ujamaa);

(ii) Application of the constitution;

(iii) Use of Kiswahili as a national language;

(iv) Leadership that was willing to embrace changes/good leadership

(any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

15. What is ‘veto power’ as used by the United N ations? (1 mark)

A decision cannot be adopted if any of the permanent members of the Security Council votes against it. – (1 mark)

16. Name one major political party in the united states of America. (1 mark)

(i) Republican party;

(ii) Democratic party. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

17. Name one type of election held for the House of Common in Britain. (1 mark)

(i) General election;

(ii) By-election. (any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

18. (a) Give three physical characteristics of the Homo erectus. (3 marks)

(i) had upright posture/bipedal;

(ii) had protruding jaws;

(iii) was about 5 feet tall/1.52m;

(iv) had slopping forehead.

(v) had deep set eyes/deep eye socket;

(vi) Had hairy body. i (any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six cultural practices of Homo Sapiens during the New Stone Age. (12 marks)

(i) made microlithic tools which were small and more efficient than the earlier tools;

(ii) lived in rock shelters/caves/huts to protect themselves from harsh weather/wild animals;

(iii) Decorated shelters with animal paintings/hunting scenes;

Began to domesticate animals/plants in order to ensure regular food supply;

(v) Developed speech which made communication easier;

(vi) Developed government by setting up rules/laws;

(vii) Developed religion as evidence by the practice of burying the dead with their possessions.

They practised simple Art and Craft work/pottery/basketry/weaving;

They started a settled way of life where they established villages;

They wore a variety of garments/clothings;

They decorated bodies with red ochre/wore ornaments.

(any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)

19. (a) State three disadvantages of coal as a source of energy. (3 marks)

(i) Coal is bulky to transport;

(ii) Coal causes pollution;

(iii) Mining of coal can lead to injuries/death;

(iv) It is a non-renewable source of energy;

(v) Coal was expensive to mine and transport.

(any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six effects of the scientific inventions on industry. (12 marks)

(i) Machines have been improved which produce goods on a large scale;

(ii) Alternative sources of energy have been developed for use in industries;

(iii) Invention of steam engine has improved transportation of raw materials to the industries finished goods to the market;

The development of the printing press has enabled people to read and acquire knowledge/information about industrialization;

there has been loss of lives through industrial accidents;

Data processing/storage has been improved by use of computers;

Robots have been developed which have reduced over reliance on human labour/reduced labour costs.

Development of telecommunication has led to buying/selling of goods on the internet/e~commerce;

Research has enabled industries to recycle waste products in manufacturing usable goods. (any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)

20. (a) State three factors that contributed to the development of the Trans-Atlantic trade. (3 marks)

availability of trade items;

demand for slaves in the New World;

availability of sailing ships;

the discovery of the compass;

availability of fire arms;

existence of trade routes/trade links. (3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six negative effects of Trans-Atlantic trade on African Communities. (12 marks)

There was increased instability/conflicts among communities as traders raided for slaves;

Many Africans lost their live during the slave raids;

Traditional industries declined as Africans acquired a taste of European goods;

There was increased suffering among families as their loved ones were separated/sold to slavery;

Some kingdoms declined due to continuous attacks from their neighbours in search of trading items;

There was destruction of property as communities raided each other for trade items;

It contributed to the decline of the Trans-saharan trade as many people found it more profitable;

There was a decline in agricultural production as the able bodied people were taken away into slavery.

There was serious depopulation in west and parts of Central Africa due to slave’~ trade;

Trade exposed west Africa to new diseases;

There was fear and insecurity due to frequent raids on African settlements;

Weakened African Communities – could not resist colonisation;

African lost confidence in their chiefs who sold them to slave dealers.

(any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)

21. (a) State three factors that enabled Europeans powers to colonize Africa in the late 19 Century. (3 marks)

Disunity among African communities;

Superior weapons used by European armies;

Weak African communities due to wars/natural calamities;

Some communities collaborated with the Europeans;

African ignorance about Europeans intentions;

(any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on African communities.

Africans lost independence as Europeans established colonies;

African economies weakened by the European exploitation of the resources;

the African system of government were replaced by European system;

Africans adopted European language which became official languages in the colonies;

Modem African states were created by the boundaries drawn during the partition;

Some African communities were split by the boundaries which were drawn during the partition;

Africans lost land as Europeans established permanent settlements.

Africans lost their lives/property as they resisted occupation.

African cultures were undermined through the introduction of Western education/spread of Christianity/health;

Closer ties were forged between Africans and Europeans which

created over-dependance on Europe;

Intensification of warfare among African communities;

Infrastructure was developed to link major mining and agricultural areas;

Introduction of new policies eg. forced labour, taxation which were unpopular among Africans.

(any 6 x 2 =12 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

22. (a) Give three functions of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period- (3 marks)

(i) He was the Commander in-Chief of the armed forces;

(ii) Kabaka appointed/dismissed Saza chiefs/senior government official;

(iii) He was head of traditional religion;

(iv) He was the head of judiciary/final court of appeal;

(v) He awarded honotus to officers who offered distinguished service;

(any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Describe the political organisation of the Shona during the pre-colonial period. (12 marks)

(i) The Shona were ruled by an emperor/King who had absolute authority over the subjects;

(ii) The emperorfis position was hereditary so as to reduce succession disputes;

(iii) The emperor was assisted in the administration by the queen mother, the queen sister, army commander, head drummer, head door keeper or head cook ;

(iv) There was an advisory council whose work was to advise the emperor.

(v) there empire was divided into provinces which were headed by Provincial/lesser kings;

(vi) the provinces were divided into Chiefdoms ruled by chief;

(vii) Under the chief were headmen Who were in charge of the villages.

(viii) The empire had a standing army whose main duty was to defend/expand the empire.

(ix) The king/emperor was symbol of unity as he was semi-divine .

(x) there existed priests who acted as spies for the emperor/king.

(any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)

23. (a) Identify five ways through which the United Nations (U.N) promotes good govemance in the world. (5 marks)

(i) Sends observers to monitor national elections in various states.

(ii) Provides financial/logistical assistance to countries during national elections;

(iii) Helps countries to attain independence/establish democratic governments;

(iv) Sends peace keeping forces to war torn countries;

(v) Ensures representation of member states in the General Assembly;

(vi) Arbitrates disputes between countries/warring groups;

(vu) Monitors/condemns violation of human rights.

(any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Explain five achievements of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) since its formation. (10 marks)

(i) Provided a platform where member countries would speak with one voice in international fora.;

(ii) Has encouraged member countries to articulate their national interests before those of the super powers;

(iii) Enables the member countries to exert their voting power/influence in world affairs.;

(iv) Hastened the attainment of independence to those countries that were still under colonial rule;

(v) Has promoted peace/security by encouraging member countries to observe neutrality in super power conflicts;

(vi) Has played a key role in disarmament by condemning the arms race.

(vii) Has promoted the creation of a new international economic order by encouraging member countries to trade with any of the two super power blocs/ financial assistance from both power blockers.

(viii) Has given funds to the needy countries through a fund, created to address , demanding circumstances.

(any 5 x 2 = 10 marks)

24. (a) State three objectives for the formation of Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). (3 marks)

(i) to cooperate in creating a conducive environment for foreign/cross border/domestic investment;

(ii) to cooperate in the promotion of peace/security/stability among member states;

(iii) to strengthen relations between COMESA members and the rest of the world/adopt a common position in international fora;

(iv) to cooperate in realizing the objectives of the African economic community;

(v) to promote a more balanced/harmonious development of its production marketing structures;

(vi) to promote joint development in all economic fields in order to raise the living standards of the people.

(any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six challenges facing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. (COMESA). (12 marks)

(i) poor transport network has hampered movement of goods/services between member states;

(ii) The member countries produce similar goods thus limiting the market;

(iii) Some member countries belong to other regional economic blocks/hence not fully committed to COMESA/divided loyalty;

(iv) Civil wars in some member states hamper smooth flow of goods due to insecurity hence lowering the volume of trade;

(v) Border disputes among some member states make it difficult for them to cooperate;

(vi) Some member states prefer trading with their former colonial masters thus posing stiff competition to products from COMESA region;

(vii) Failure of some member states to harmonise tariffs has undermined free flow of goods /services;

(viii) withdrawal of some member states has undermined the planning/financing of COMESA operations;

(ix) Member states pursue their national interests thereby working against the objectives of COMESA;

(X) Personality differences between the leaders eg. Museveni and Albashir;

(xi) Quarrels over trading rights eg. Egypt and Kenya;

(xii) Natural calamities eg. floods, drought leading to massive food shortages and famine

(any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)

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