KCSE Past Papers 2011 History and Government (311/1)

History and Government Paper 1 (311/1)

SECTION A (25 marks)

1 Give two unwritten sources of information on History and Government. (2 marks)

(i) Oral traditions/oral sources/riddles/myths

(ii) Archaelogy/paleontology

(iii) Genetics

(iv) Linguistics

(v) Anthropology

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

2 What was the main reason for the migration of the Eastern Bantu from Shungwaya during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)

Due to attacks by the Galla/attacks

1 x 1 = 1 mark

3 Give two reasons why Kenyan Communities fought against each other during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)

(i) Competition for land for cultivation/settlement.

(ii) Competition for Water/pasture.

(m) To demonstrate their military power.

(iv) To raid for cattle.

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

4 Identify the two main item of trade from the interior of Kenya during the long distance trade.

(2 marks)

(i) Ivory

(ii) Slaves

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

5 Identify two contributions made by the early Christian missionaries in the field of education in Kenya. (2 marks)

(i) They set up schools/encouraged Africans to go to school.

(ii) They taught Africans how to read/write.

(iii) They taught Africans vocational skills

(iv) They translated the Bible into African languages

(v) They wrote books/dictionary

Any 2 X 1= 2 marks

6 Give the meaning of the term ‘national integration. (1 mark)

It is the process of bringing together people of diverse backgrounds in a country. 1 x 1 = 1 mark

7 What constitutional amendment made Kenya return to a multi-party state‘? (1 mark)

Repeal of section 2A of the constitution in 1991.

1 x l = 1 mark

8 Name the document which contain the Rights of the child in Kenya. (1 mark)

The Children’s Act of 2001.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

9 Identify two economic benefits of the Kenya-Uganda railway during the colonial period. (2 marks)

(i) It facilitated the transportation of goods/services.

(ii) It led to the development of urban centres.

(iii) It facilitated the movement of traders/promoted trade.

(iv) It opened up the interior for economic development. eg. plantation agriculture and industry

(v) It led to the creation of employment opportunities.

(vi) It led to development of other forms of transport & communication eg. roads and telecommunication

(vii) It was a major source of revenue for the colonial authority.

Any 2 X 1=(2 marks)

10 Give two ways through which the white settlers acquired land in Kenya during the colonial period. (2 marks)

(i) The colonial government provided land to the settlers.

(ii) The white settlers bought land from the colonial government.

(m) The colonial govemment passed land legislations that encouraged white settlers to own land.

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

11 State two problems faced by trade union movement during the colonial period in Kenya. (2 marks)

(i) It had insufficient funds to run its activities.

(ii) The colonial government harassed its leaders.

(iii) Constant wrangling among the leaders which weakened the movement/poor leadership

(iv) Most people did not support trade unions due to ignorance.

Any2 x 1 =2marks 12 State one change introduced by the Lyttleton constitution of 1954 that benefitted the Africans in the struggle for independence. (1 mark)

(i) It led to the establishment of a multi-racial council of ministers to replace the Governor’s executive council.

(ii) The ban on political organisations was lifted/allowed political organisations to operate at district level.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

13 What was the main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the History of Kenya?

He led/organised the trade union movement.

i 1 x 1 = 1 mark

14 State the main functions of parliament in Kenya. (1 mark)

To make laws.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

15 Give one member of the AEMO at its inception in 1957. (1 mark) – Daniel Arap Moi

– Masinde Muliro

– Lawrence Oguda

– James Muimi/James Nzau

– Tom Mboya

– Ronald Ngala

– Bemard Mate

– Oginga Odinga

Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark

16 Name the education commission that recommended the introduction of 814:4 education system in Kenya. (1 mark)

Mackay Report/Commission.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

17 Give two external sources of Government revenue in Kenya. (2 marks)

(i) Loans.

(ii) Grants.

(iii) Donations

Any 2 x 1 =2 marks

SECTION B (45 marks)

18 (a) State five economic activities of the Borana during the pre-colonial period.

(5 marks)

They participated in trade.

They kept livestock.

They hunted wild animals.

They were gatherers.

They practised crafts.

They practised fishing.

They made iron tools.

They grew food crops.

Any 5 points x 1 = 5 marks

(b) Describe the social organisation of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)

The lowest social unit was the family which comprised of the father, his wife/wives and children.

Several related families formed a clan.

The Maasai were organised into age groups/age sets which were made up of people who were circumcised at the same period.

There was a warrior class whose duty was to defend the community/conduct raids.

The Maasai believed in the existence of a supreme God Enkai, who was the creator of the universe.

There was a religious leader, Laibon who mediated between the community and Enkai.

Theyoffered sacrifices to God in special places/celebrated the Eunoto ceremony that marked graduation into Moranhood..

They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits whom they revered.

Any 5 points x 2 = 10 marks

19 (a) State three reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan Coast in the 15th Century. (3 marks)

They wanted to find a sea route to India.

They wanted to spread Christianity/reduce the Muslim influence.

They wanted to take part in the Coastal trade.

To control strategic points on the East African Coast from other European rivals/to act as a supply basis for their sailing vessels.

Due to desire for exploration/adventure. Any 3 X 1 = 3 marks

(b) Explain six effects of the Portuguese rule on the East African Coast. (12 marks)

The Portuguese built Fort Jesus for defence purpose which later became a tourist attraction.

Their harsh and cruel manner of suppressing rebellions led to loss of lives.

They introduced new food crops which are staple foods for many Kenyans.

Constant rebellions against the Portuguese rule interfered which the trading activities leading to its decline.

The coastal towns that resisted Portuguese rule were destroyed and left in ruins.

They educated the coastal people on how to use animal manure in farming and thus increasing crop yields.

Some words borrowed from Portuguese language were used to enrich Kiswahili language.

The Portuguese imposed heavy taxation which impoverished the coastal people.

They fostered good relations between the EA coast and India.

Any 6 x 2 =12 marks

20 (a) Identify three methods used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya. (3 marks)

Signing treaties between colonial agents and African rulers/collaboration.

Use of military attacks against unfriendly communities/use of force.

Establishing administrative stations/operational basis.

Offering gifts to friendly chiefs/treachery.

Use of missionaries to pacify Africans through preaching.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(b) Explain six results of the Nandi resistance against British occupation. (12 marks)

The land belonging to the Nandi was alienated for white settlement.

The Nandi lost their independence as the British established their rule.

The Nandi were resettled in reserves where they could not carry out their farming activities.

They were forced to live as squatters on European farms where they provided cheap labour.

There was massive loss of life as the British forces raided/carried out punitive expeditions.

The Nandi lost property which was either destroyed or confiscated by the British.

The Nandi lost their military superiority in the region as they were subdued by the British.

The Nandi warriors were conscripted into the colonial security forces.

Any 6 x 2 =12 marks

21 (a) State five demands made by the East African Association (EAA) to the British Colonial Government in Kenya. (5 marks)

They demanded for the retum of alienated land.

They wanted the colonial government to abolish hut/poll tax.

They demanded for the abolition of the Kipande.

They demanded for better working and living conditions.

They demanded that elections to the legislative council be on a common roll.

They demanded for the abolition of forced labour.

They demanded for more education for Africans.

They demanded an end to compulsory dc-stocking.

They demanded for the revocation of the colonial status in Kenya.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

(b) Explain five factors that promoted the rise of African nationalism in Kenya after 1945. (10 marks)

Acquisition of Western Education by many Africans enabled them to understand political developments at international level and forcefully demanded for independence.

The experiences of the ex-soldiers in the second world war made them realize that Europeans were not superior hence the demand for self rule.

The realization by Britain that colonies were expensive to administer hence the need to grant them self rule/ The rise to power of the British Labour Party.

The granting of independence to India in 1947 inspired Africans to demand for political independence.

The support given by pan-Africanists in demanding for political independence gave Africans confidence to press for political freedom.

The decolonization policy by the United Nations inspired African nationalists to press on for independence.

The failure by the colonial government to reward the ex-world war II soldiers increased the agitation for independence.

The signing of the Atlantic charter in 1941.

Any 5 x 2 =10 marks

SECTION C (30 marks)

22 (a) State three circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied the right to life. (3 marks)

When defending one self/property.

When effecting a lawful arrest.

When preventing escape of a lawfully detained person.

When preventing a person from committing a crime/felony.

In a situation of war.

When suppressing a riot/rebellion/mutiny.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(b) Explain six civic responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen. (12 marks)

A responsible citizen pays tax to enable the government meet its financial obligation.

To participate in community development activities to improve the welfare of people in the community.

To participate in the democratic process by electing leaders/being elected to ensure good governance.

To obey laws so as to enhance peace in the society.

Takes care of the environment in order to promote healthy living.

Prevents/fights corruption to promote proper utilization of resources by all.

Promotes/protects the rights and freedom of all people in society for harmonious co- existence.

Promotes the rule of law by reporting wrong doers/law breakers to the police.

Participate in National debates.

Any 6 x 2 =12 marks

23 (a) Give three reasons why general elections are important in Kenya. (3 marks)

They provide Kenyans with an opportunity to choose political leaders.

They enable Kenyans to exercise their democratic rights.

They offer alternative ideas of running the government through different political parties manifestos/removal of leaders who have failed.

It is a constitutional requirement.

They make elected leaders/prospective leaders work hard to ensure that they are re- elected/elected.

Any3 x 1=3 marks

(b) Explain six functions of the body in charge of elections in Kenya. (12 marks)

To maintain and revise the voters() register to ensure it is up to date.

To prepare, distribute and ensure safety of election materials/polling’ stations.

To conduct voter education in the country in order to prepare citizens for the voting exercise.

To conduct and supervise elections so as to ensure they are free and fair/appoint and train election officials.

To conduct language proficiency tests for candidates interested in vying for different posts before nomination is carried out.

To announce and provide a time-table to be followed during the election period.

To receive nomination papers fi-om the candidates cleared to vie by their political parties.

To announce the results and declare the winners for the respective seats.

Divides/delimits,names and review of electoral areas.

Any 6 x 2= 12 marks

24 (a) Identify three social functions of local authorities. (3 marks)

They issue trade licenses.

They provide market areas.

They provide employment opportunities.

They approve building plans/provision of housing services.

They impose cess/other levies.

Provision of education services eg. nursery and Primary education.

Provision of health/sanitation services eg. hospitals & mortuary services.

Provision of entertainment facilities eg. stadiums, social hall & parks.

Provision of security and fire brigade services.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(b) Explain six challenges facing local authorities in Kenya. (12 marks)

Most local authorities have inadequate funds hence not able to provide quality services.

Increased population has led to congestion in urban centres hence overstretching the social amenities.

Corruption/mismanagement of funds by some officers has made it difficult for the local authorities to pay its employees and provide quality services.

Some local authorities are too small to be able to sustain themselves.

Influential politicians interfere with the running of the local authorities hence making it difficult for them to operate efficiently/lack of authority from central government.

Increased crime rate has led to vandalization of properties belonging to local authorities hence leading to heavy losses.

The presence of street families/children has contributed to insecurity/puts strain on provision of social services

Slums have mushroomed which have interfered with proper planning leading to poor service delivery/poverty eradication.

Poor disposal of waste has resulted to environmental degradation leading to outbreaks of diseases/epidemics.

Shortage of qualified manpower/personnel.

Traffic congestion.

Any 6 x 2= 12 marks

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