KCSE Past Papers 2011 Chemistry Paper 1 (233/1)

Chemistry Paper 1 (233/1)

1 (a) What name is given to the process by which alcohol is formed from a carbohydrate? (1 mark)

(b) Explain why the solubility of ethane in water is lower than that of ethanol. (2 marks)

2 Complete the nuclear equation below:

(a)

(c) Give one harmful effect of radioisotopes. (1 mark)

3 A mixture contains ammonium chloride, copper (II) oxide and sodium chloride.

Describe how each of the substances can be obtained from the mixture. (3 marks)

4 The set-up below shows how nitrogen gas is prepared in the laboratory.

(a) Describe how nitrogen gas is formed in the flask. (2 marks)

(b) Nitrogen is inert. State one use of the gas based on this property. (1 mark)

5 The diagram below represents part of the periodic table. Use it to answer the questions that follow:

(a) Write the electronic arrangement for the stable ion formed by W. (1 mark)

(b) Write an equation for the reaction between V and Q. (1 mark)

(c) How do the ionisation energies of the elements M and T compare? Explain. (1 mark)

6 A certain mass of gas occupies 0.15dm3 at 293 K and 98,648.5Pa. Calculate its volume at 101325 Pa and 273 K. (2 marks)

7 When lead(ii) nitrate is heated. one of the products is a brown gas. (a) Write the equation of the reaction that occurs. (1 mark)

(b) If O.290dm3 of the brown gas was produced, calculate the mass of the lead(ii) nitrate that was heated. (R.F.M of lead (II) nitrate = 331; Molar gas volume = 24dm3). (2 marks)

8 (a) What is meant by a strong acid? (1 mark)

(b) In an experiment, 40cm3 of 0.5M hydrochloric acid was reacted with excess sodium carbonate and the volume of carbon (IV) oxide produced recorded with time.

In another experiment, the same volume and concentration of ethanoic acid was also reacted with excess sodium carbonate and the volume of carbon(iv) oxide produced recorded with time.

On the grid below, sketch and label the curves if the volumes of carbon (IV) oxide were plotted against time. (2 marks)

Volume of C02 cm3

9 State two reasons why hydrogen is not commonly used as a fuel. (2 marks)

10 During a class experiment, chlorine gas was bubbled into a solution of potassium iodide. (a) State the observations made. (1 mark)

(b) Using an ionic equation, explain why the reaction is redox. (2 marks)

11 Exhaust fumes of some cars contain carbon (II) oxide and other gases.

(a) Explain how carbon (II) oxide is formed in the internal combustion engines. (1 mark)

(b) Name two gases other than carbon (II) oxide that are contained in exhaust fumes and are pollutants. (2 marks)

12 Sodium hydroxide can be prepared by the following methods; I and II.

(a) Name one precaution that needs to be taken in method I. (1 mark)

(b) Give the name of process A. (1 mark)

(c) Give one use of sodium hydroxide. ( 1 mark)

13 Distinguish between the terms deliquescent and efflorescent as used in chemistry. (2 marks)

14 Two organic compounds P and Q clecolourise acidified potassium manganate (VII) solution; but only P reacts with sodium metal to give a colourless gas. Which homologous series does compound P belong? Give a reason. (2 marks)

15 Soap dissolves in water according to the equation below;

(a) Write the formula of the scum formed when soap is used in hard water. (1 mark)

(b) Write the ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when sodium carbonate is used to remove hardness in water. (1 mark)

16 Ethanoic acid and ethanol react as shown in the equation below:

Other than warming, how would the state of equilibrium be established within a short time? (1 mark)

17 The set up below was used to prepare a gas and study some of its properties. Study it and answer the questions that follow:

(a) State and explain the observations made in the:

(i) tube labelled A; (1 mark)

(ii) beaker labelled B. (1 mark)

(b) State one precaution that should be taken when carrying out this experiment. (1 mark)

18 Under certain conditions, chlorine gas reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium hypochloxite.

(a) Name the conditions under which sodium hydroxide reacts with chlorine to form sodium hypochlorite. (1 mark)

(b) State two uses of sodium hypochlorite. (2 marks)

19 50kg of ammonium sulphate (NH4)2 SO4 and 30kg of urea :CO(NH2)2 fertilizers were applied in two equal sizes of plots A and B to enrich their nitrogen content. Show by working, which plot was more enriched with nitrogen. (N = 14; S = 32; O = 16; C = 12; H = 1) (3 marks)

20 Describe how the PH of anti-acid (Actal) powder can be determined in the laboratory. (2 marks)

21 Graphite is one of the allotropes of carbon.

(a) Name one other element which exhibits allotropy. (1 mark)

22 The table below gives some properties of three elements in group (VII) of the periodic table.

Study it and answer the questions that follow:

(a) Which element is in liquid fonn at room temperature? Give a reason. (1 mark)

(b) Explain why the boiling point of iodine is much higher than that of chlorine. (2 marks)

23 The thermalchemical reaction between carbon and sulphur is as shown by the equation below:

On the grid below, sketch and label the energy level diagram for the reaction. (2 marks)

24 The table below gives the number of electrons, protons and neutrons in substances X, Y and Z. study it and answer the questions below

(a) Which letter represents an ion? (1 mark)

(b) Which of the substances are isotopes? Give a reason. (2 marks)

25 (a) State the Gay Lussac’s Law. (1 mark)

(b) 1Ocm3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon, C2HX required 30cm3 of oxygen for complete combustion. If steam and 20cm3 of carbon (iv) oxide were produced, what is the value of X? (2 marks)

26 The data given below was recorded when metal M was completely burnt in air. M is not the actual symbol of the metal. (R.A.M; M = 56, O =16)

Mass of empty crucible and lid = 10.240g

Mass of crucible, lid and metal M = 10.352g

Mass of crucible, lid and metal oxide = l0.400g

(a) Determine the mass of: (2 mark)

(i) metal M;

(ii) oxygen. ( 2 mark)

(b) Determine the empirical formula of me metal oxide. (2 marks)

27 The flow chart below shows some processes involved in the industrial extraction of Zinc metal

(a) Name one ore from which Zinc is extracted(1 marks)

(b) Write the equation of the reaction taking place in unit II(1 marks)

(c) Name two uses of zinc metal.(1 marks)

28 The diagram below shows the bonding between aluminium chloride and ammonia.

(a) Name the types of bonds that exist in the molecule.(1 marks)

(b) How many electrons are used for bonding in the molecule? (1 marks)

29. Explain why the following substances conduct an electric current.

(a) Magnesium metal.(1 marks)

(b) Molten magnesium chloride.(1 marks)

30 A sample of river water is suspectedc to contain zinc and sulphate ions.

Describe how the presence of zinc ions and sulphate ions can be established. (3 marks)

 

 

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