SECTION A (30 marks)
1.(i)Products are free from chemical residues;
(ii) It is environmentally friendly;
(iii) Livestock and farmer do not risk effects of poisonous chemicals;
(iv) Ozone layer is preserved;
(v) It uses locally available materials/cheap;
(vi) It maintains soil structure;
(vii) Promotes microbial activities in the soil.
(2 marks)4x ½
2. (i) Seed impurity;
(ii) Low germination percentage;
(iii) Close spacing;
(iv) More seeds per hole / broadcasting;
(v) Early planting / dry planting;
3. (i) It improves soil capillarity;
(ii) It improves soil water holding capacity;
(iii) It binds soil particles/improves soil structure;
(iv) It improves soil microbial activities;
(v) Modiﬁes soil temperature;
(vi) It provides nutrients on decomposition;
(vii) It buffers soil pH.
4. (i) It conserves soil moisture;
(ii) It maintains soil structure;
(iii)It saves costs on land preparation/saves on time/saves on labour;
(v) It ensures minimum disturbance to plant roots;
(vi) Control soil erosion;
(vii) Reduces soil compaction by tillage implements;
(viii) Prevents loss of nutrients by volatilization.
5. (a) Is the growing of crops of different families on the same piece of land in an orderly sequence; (1 mark)
(b) Is the covering of the ground around a growing crop With organic matter or artiﬁcial sheets; (1 mark)
6. (i) To burry organic matter/weeds into the soil;
(ii) To expose soil to agents of weathering;
(ii) To expose pest/disease agents to predators/strong sun;
(iii) Bring up leached plant nutrients to the surface;
(iv) To encourage Water inﬁltration/aeration.4 X ½
7. (i) Mulching;
(ii) Cover cropping;
(iii) Crop rotation;
(iv) Timely planting;
(v) Proper spacing;
(vi) Clean seedbed;
8. (a) (i) Crowns;
3 x ½
(b) (i) Transmits diseases;
(ii) Propagates genetic/varietal defects;
(iii) No uniformity in growth;
(iv) It is laborious/bulky;
(v) Vegetative materials cannot be sored for long.
3 X ½
3 X ½
10. (a) Pollarding – cutting back the crown and the top branches of a tree;
(b) Coppicing – cutting down trees about half a meter from the ground;
(c) Lopping – cutting one or more branches from the stem;
(ii) Quantity of eggs;
(v) Buyer’s name;
(vi) Name of the farm/farmer;
(iX) Mode of payment (cheque/cash/in kind);
5 x 1/2
12. (a)(i) Stabilize river bank/control river bank erosion;
(ii) Slow down speed of surface runoff;
(iii) Trap soil/debris in surface runoff;
(iv) Reduces risk of ﬂooding;
2 X 1/2
(b) (i) Reduce speed of runoff;
(ii) Trap soil in erosive water;
(iii) Tree roots bind and stabilize the soil/maintains soil structure;
13. (i) Can be gnawed by rodents;
(ii) Become brittle on exposure to strong sun;
(iii) Can burst at high pressure;
14. (i) Irregular watering;
(ii) Lack of calcium;
(iii) Excessive nitrogen application;
3 x ½
15. It is the act of deciding on how to allocate available scarce resources to alleviate uses based on the farmers interests.
SECTION B (20 marks)
(a)Straight fertilizer supply only one of the fertilizer element eg N, P or K while compound fertilizers supply two or the three fertilizer elements;(1 mark)
17. (a) Splash erosion/rain drop erosion;(1 mark)
(b) Soil is detached; by the impact of raindrops;(2 marks)
(c) (i) Reduces impact of raindrops;
(ii) Prevents movement of soil;
(iii) Plant roots bind soil particles;(2 marks)
18. (a) (i)
(iii) B has a higher per capita income;
(iv) By creating employment/developing industries/increasing production;
19.(a)Black jack (Bidens pilosa);(1 mark)
(iii) Cultivation;(1 mark)
(c)A Contact herbicide;
B Systemic herbicide/translocated;(2 mark)
(d) Has underground propagation structures;(1 mark)
20. (a)~ Technology uncertainty.
‘ Price uncertainty.
‘ Personal injury or sickness.
‘ Government policy.
‘ Demand for a commodity uncertainty.
‘ Yield uncertainty.
‘ Theft of crop.
– Fire risk.
‘ Political instability.
‘ Labour uncertainty.
‘ Natural catastrophes.
‘ Pests and diseases.
° Obsolescence.(10 marks)
(b)~ Participating in exhibitions and competitions at ASK shows.
‘ Involvement in agricultural projects at club level.
‘ Participating in YFC annual rallies.
‘ Involvement in workshops & seminar related to agriculture.
‘ Participating in national tree planting activities.
‘ Participation in exchange programmes.
‘ Participating in national ploughing contests.(5 marks)
(c)’ Registered land can be used to secure credit facilities.
‘ Registration minimises land disputes.
‘ Security of tenure encourages long term investment projects/ensures investment on land.
‘ Enables occupant to lease or sell part of the land.
‘ Encourages underlying of soil conservation measures.(5 marks)
21. (a) (i)Farmers training eg. in FTCs on improved methods of maize production.
(ii) Provision of extension services to advise farmers on modern maize production techniques eg. irrigation, use of certiﬁed, irrigation, pest and disease control to reduce cost of production.
(iii) Provision of subsidies on farm inputs eg. fertilizers.
(iv) Provision of credit facilities eg. through AFC, to ﬁnance maize farming operations.
(v) Imposing high taxation on imported wheat and maize products to discourage importation and protect local farmers.
(vi) Quality control to ensure production of high quality maize that can attract foreign markets.
(vii) Supporting research into new and improved varieties of maize for high yields.
(viii) Farm input supplies
(Xi) Provision of marketing services
(iX) Provision of drying and storage facilities
(xi) Provision of tractor – hire service.
(xi) Ensuring effective control of pests/diseases/weeds.
(xii) Ensuring effective soil and water conservation measures.
5 x 2 = (10 marks)
(b) (i)To make the plant take a desired shape.
(ii) To remove diseased parts to prevent disease spread.
(iii) To control cropping to ensure production of high quality fruits.
(iv) To ease penetration of sprays to minimise wastage.
(V) To control pests/diseases by eliminating the micro-climates.
(Vi) To facilitate light penetration and optimise photosynthesis process.
(vii) To remove dead/broken pans.
(viii) To remove old/unproductive parts on which resources are wasted.
(iX) To promote lateral growth e.g in tea
(X) To facilitate management practices e.g weeding and harvesting.
(b) (i) Seedbed preparation.
‘ Bush clearing.
‘ Carryout primary cultivation.
– Carrying out secondary cultivation.
‘ Prepare land early during the dry season.
‘ Deep ploughing to remove perenial weeds.
‘ Harrow to medium tilth.
‘ Carry out soil and water conservation measures.
4 x 1 = 4 marks
(ii) Planting of maize
‘ Plant at the onset of rains/dry plant.
‘ Space according to variety 75 – 90 cm X 20 – 30 cm.
– Plant one or two seeds per hole.
‘ Planting depth 2.5 – 10 cm depending on the moisture content.
‘ Plant manually or use planters.
‘ Use phosphatic fertilizer/organic manure at a ratio of 120 kg/ha.
3 x 1 = 3 marks
(iii) Harvesting maize
‘ Harvest after 3 – 9 months.
‘ Harvest When the Whole plant dries/harvest according to market demand.
‘ Harvest manually by hand or use combine harvesters.
‘ Cut and stook the maize if harvesting is manual.
‘ Remove the cobbed maize from the husks.