This paper is intended to equip the candidate with knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable him/her to prepare financial statements for different entities.




A candidate who passes this paper should be able to:

  • Prepare books of original entry and basic ledger accounts under double entry system
  • Prepare basic financial statements of sole traders, partnerships, companies, manufacturing entities and not for profit organisations
  • Comply with the regulatory framework in the accounting field
  • Account for assets and liabilities
  • Analyse financial statements by use of ratios and statement of cash flows.



1.1          Introduction to accounting

  • The nature and purpose of accounting
  • Objectives of accounting
  • Users of accounting information and their respective needs
  • The accounting equation
  • Regulatory framework of accounting (regulatory bodies such as ICPAK, IFAC,


  • Accounting standards (IASs/IFRSs) (importance and limitations)
  • Professional ethics
  • Accounting concepts/principles
  • Qualities of useful accounting information


1.2         Recording transactions

  • Source documents: quotations, purchase orders, statement of account, remittance advice, receipts, petty cash vouchers, sales and purchase invoice, credit notes and debit notes, bank statements
  • Books of original entry: sales journal, purchases journal, returns inwards journal, returns outward journal, cash book, petty cash book and general journal
  • Double entry and the ledger; use of T- accounts and double entry aspects (debit and credit), sales ledger and purchases ledger
  • The trial balance
  • Computerised accounting systems – role of computers, application and accounting softwares in the accounting process, benefits and challenges of operating computerised accounting systems


1.3         Accounting for assets and liabilities

1.3.1     Assets

  • Property, plant and equipment – recognition, capital and revenue expenditure, measurement (depreciation and revaluation), disposal and disclosures, property, plant and equipment schedule
  • Intangible assets – recognition, measurement (amortisation, impairment and revaluation), disposals and disclosures
  • Financial assets – examples and risks only
  • Inventory – recognition, measurement and valuation using specific cost method, FIFO and weighted average cost only
  • Trade receivables – bad debts and allowance for doubtful debts and receivables control accounts
  • Accrued income and prepaid expenses
  • Cash at bank – cash book and bank reconciliation statement
  • Cash in hand – cash book and petty cash books


1.3.2      Liabilities

  • Bank overdraft – cash book and bank reconciliation statement
  • Trade payables – control accounts
  • Loans – accounting treatment of repayment of principal and interest
  • Prepaid incomes and accrued expenses


1.4        Correction of errors and suspense account


1.5         Financial statements of a sole trader

  • Income statement
  • Statement of financial position


1.6         Financial statements of a partnership

  • Partnership agreement
  • Introduction to partnership accounts
  • Distinction between current and fixed capital
  • Income statement
  • Statement of financial position
  • Changes in partnership – admission of a new partner, retirement, death and change in profit sharing ratio


1.7         Financial statements of a company

  • Types of share capital – ordinary shares and preference shares
  • Issue of shares (exclude issue by instalment and forfeiture)
  • Types of reserves – share premium, revaluation reserve, general reserves and retained profits
  • Income tax – accounting treatment and presentation (exclude computation)
  • Financial statements – income statement and statement of financial position
  • Published financial statements (describe a complete set of published financial statements but not preparation)


1.8         Financial statements of a manufacturing entity

  • Features of a manufacturing entity
  • Classification and apportioning costs between manufacturing, selling and administration
  • Financial statements – manufacturing account, income statement and statement of financial position



1.9         Accounts from incomplete records

  • Features
  • Types of incomplete records(pure single entry, simple single entry, quasi single entry)
  • Ascertainment of profit by capital comparison
  • Preparation of statement of affairs and profit determination
  • Techniques of obtaining complete accounting information


1.10      Financial statements of a not for profit organisation

  • Distinction between not for profit making organisation and profit making organisation
  • Nature of receipts and payments account
  • Accounting treatment of some special items
  • Income and expenditure account
  • Statement of financial position


1.11      Analysing financial statements

–              Statement of cash flows (categories of cash, methods of preparing statement of cash flows and the importance)

–              Financial ratios – definition, categories, analysis and interpretation, application and limitations


1.12      Introduction to Public Sector Accounting

  • Features of public sector entities (as compared to private sector)
  • Structure of the public sector (National and county governments, state corporations and other agencies)
  • Regulatory structures and oversight [IPSASB, PSASB (establishment, mandate and functions), Director of Accounting Services, National Treasury, Parliamentary Committees, Accounting Officers at national and county levels]
  • Objectives of public sector financial statements
  • Objectives of IPSAS
  • Accounting techniques in public sector (budgeting, cash, accrual, commitment and fund)(Preparation of financial statements excluded)


1.13      Emerging issues and trends



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