TUESDAY: 2 August 2022. Afternoon paper. Time Allowed: 2 hours.

The paper is made up of fifty (50) multiple choice questions. Answer ALL questions by indicating the letter (A, B, C or D) that represents the correct answer. Each question is allocated two (2) marks.

1. What do you consider as a primary target for protection by cyber security efforts
A. Hardware
B. Software
C. Personal Information
D. Financial data (2 marks)

2. Which of the following element of cyber security is the most critical to an organization
A. Network security
B. Application security
C. End-user education
D. Business continuity planning (2 marks)

3. Which of the following is an integrated method of network security management
A. Encryption
B. Hashing
C. Firewall
D. Proxy server (2 marks)

4. Vulnerability Assessment (VA) and Penetration Testing (PT) are a useful security management process. What follows a VAPT exercise?
A. Finding vulnerabilities on the target
B. Knowledge of the system configurations
C. Prioritizing fixing of the identified flaws
D. Responding to the audit queries (2 marks)

5. Firewalls are necessary for securing your network, to ensure that these are successful some additional steps may be required , which of these is a key aid.
A. Security policies
B. System logs
C. Server configurations
D. User name and passwords (2 marks)

6. Which of the following steps is the most overlooked yet foundation in securing your servers?
A. Make sure you have a secure password for your root and administrator users
B. Remove default users from servers
C. Remove remote access from the default root/administrator accounts
D. configure your firewall rules for remote access (2 marks)

7. Data Leakage is an intentional or unintentional transmission of data from within the organization to an external unauthorised destination. Which of the following is the most common in organisations?
A. Accidental Breach
B. Intentional Breach
C. System Hack
D. System Engineering (2 marks)

8. Following are some common cyber attacks that could adversely affect your system.
A. Malware
B. Phishing
C. Password Attacks
D. Man in the Middle (2 marks)

9. Brute Force helps attackers find out the right credentials by repetitively trying all the permutations and combinations of possible credentials. Which of the following ways is the most effective in preventing this in a timely manner?
A. Increasing the minimum length for password.
B. Increasing the password complexity
C. Limiting the login attempts
D. Using two factor authentication (2 marks)

10. Port Scanning is the technique used to identify open ports and service available on a host. Which of the following techniques is not applicable for this?
A. Ping Scan
B. TCP Connect
C. Stealth Scanning
D. Telnet (2 marks)

11. An OSI model is a reference model for how applications communicate over a network. Which of the following statements is true?
A. The data link layer is responsible for packet forwarding
B. The network later is responsible for end-to-end communication over the network
C. The physical layer is responsible for transmission of digital data
D. The transport layer provides an interface between application and the network (2 marks)

12. Which of the following should the information security professional be most concerned about?
A. Threats
B. Vulnerabilities
C. Risks
D. Third parties (2 marks)

13. Considering the widespread use of VPNs, which of the following is considered a critical step in the data protection process?
A. Data sent by client to the VPN point
B. Data encrypted at the VPN point
C. Data decrypted at the VPN point
D. Decrypted data is sent to the client (2 marks)

14. Which is common identity theft vulnerability in a typical call center?
A. Sharing information online
B. Sharing passwords
C. Using computers unattended
D. Sharing computers (2 marks)

15. Which of the following is not true of white hat hackers
A. They are hired by companies
B. They fix vulnerabilities
C. They exploit security staff
D. They are skilled individuals (2 marks)

16. Which of the practices below is the most common way of handling man in the middle attacks?
A. Use VPN
B. Force HTTPs
C. Public key pair based authentication
D. Use of encryption (2 marks)

17. DDOS attacks cause servers to refuse to provide services to genuine clients. Which of the following is a predominant such attack?
A. Crash attacks
B. Flooding attacks
C. Worm attacks
D. Trojan horse (2 marks)

18. Which of the following is considered an application layer protocol?
D. ICMP (2 marks)

19. Botnets includes multiple devices in the security breach, which of the following is not a motivation for a botnet.
A. Steal data
B. Send spams
C. DDOs attack
D. Delay messaging (2 marks)

20. Which of the following components makes the difference in a salted hash value protection mechanism?
A. The user password
B. Hash value of the password
C. Random salt value
D. The combined value stored in the database (2 marks)

21. Which of the following requires data protection at rest
A. Database Users
B. Emails being sent
C. Network communication
D. Application logins (2 marks)

22. Which of the following is the primary method used by self-learning security systems
A. Data mining
B. Pattern recognition
C. Natural language processing
D. High powered computers (2 marks)

23. Which of the following best describes the role of a VLAN
A. Saves data from prying eyes while in transit
B. Means to logically segregate networks
C. Used to connect two points in a secured and encrypted tunnel
D. Used to extend the capability of network service (2 marks)

24. In a phishing attack the trustworthy person seeks to steal sensitive information through email or instant message. Which of the following user actions expose them to multiple attacks of this nature?
A. Entering sensitive information in the webpages that you don’t trust
B. Logging off websites
C. Using complex passwords on emails
D. Installation of antivirus software with Internet Security (2 marks)

25. SQL injections are used to take over database servers. What do you consider as a primary method to prevent these attacks?
A. Use prepared statements
B. User access management
C. Use Stored Procedures
D. Validate user input (2 marks)

26. What is the most typical risk of clicking links for e-cards that may be sent to you from a friend inviting you for a birthday
A. The attachment may contain viruses
B. Clicking the link may infect the computer
C. Email address may be faked
D. The website of origin may not be legitimate (2 marks)

27. Often questions about personal information are optional as they may be used to facilitate suspicious transactions. Which of the following would cause you to be most suspicious
A. Month of birth
B. Maiden name
C. Year of birth
D. Favorite meal (2 marks)

28. What actions would secure your email account that you access from a public computer?
A. Use strong passwords
B. logout of your emails before you leave
C. clear the cache before you exit
D. don’t use public computers (2 marks)

29. If you experience a situation when your computer screen starts to move around on its own and click on things on the desktop, what would be an immediate action to take.
A. Call your co-workers over so they can see
B. Disconnect your computer from the network
C. Tell your supervisor
D. Turn your computer off (2 marks)

30. Which of the following passwords pulled from a database meets UCSC’s password requirements?
A. @#$)*&^%
B. akHGksmLN
C. UcSc4Evr!
D. Password1 (2 marks)

31. What would your professional advice be for someone who receives an email from their bank telling them that there is a problem with their bank account and they should follow a link to fix it?
A. Follow the link and solve the problem
B. Ignore the email all together
C. Delete the email
D. Report the email as spam (2 marks)

32. Which of the following is the most typical cause of hacked passwords?
A. Out of date software patches
B. No antivirus software or out of date software
C. Using easy to guess passwords
D. Sharing and/or writing passwords down. (2 marks)

33. Which of the following benefits of cyber security management is generally overlooked?
A. Protection of the business against ransomware, malware, social engineering, and phishing.
B. Good protection for both data as well as networks
C. Increase in recovery time after a breach
D. Prevention of unauthorized users (2 marks)

34. What is the primary function of a firewall?
A. Protect systems from malware
B. Prevent remote access to the system
C. Filter access to content
D. Manage user access to application (2 marks)

35. Secure Sockets Layer secures information on transit. Which of the following would be critical for a school to protect.
A. Information in online transactions
B. Payment made through digital channels
C. List of students who have registered for courses
D. Number of applications that are available (2 marks)

36. Which of the following channels is the greatest contributor to data leakage in contemporary organizations?
A. Email
B. optical media
C. laptops
D. USB keys (2 marks)

37. Networking sniffing analyses data packets sent over the network. In which ways does a hacker best utilize this technology?
A. Getting sensitive data such as password
B. Getting list of internal IPs
C. Eavesdrop on chat messages
D. Monitor data package over a network (2 marks)

38. Which of the servers below should the system administrators be most concerned about in their network setup.
A. DNS Server
B. Proxy Server
C. Active Directory Server
D. Database Server (2 marks)

39. Which of the following best describes the process of salting to enhance user access management?
A. Salting uses special characters
B. Salting adds special characters to the password
C. Salting safeguards passwords
D. Salting prevents attackers who know passwords across the system (2 marks)

40. Which of the following represents a limitation of the SSL that it does not address?
A. It verifies the senders identity
B. It provides security for data on the server
C. It protects the server against data breach
D. It handles server side encryption (2 marks)

41. Which of the following cloud services would have the greatest impact when the vulnerabilities are exploited by a threat factor
A. Software as a service
B. Platforms as a service
C. Infrastructure as a service
D. Database as a service (2 marks)

42. Getting insurance is a possible option for handling residual risk, which risk handling mechanism does it represent?
A. Reduce it
B. Avoid it
C. Transfer it
D. Accept it (2 marks)

43. Which of the following cyber attacks can be used by hackers to damage your network
A. Phishing
C. Man in the middle
D. User ignorance (2 marks)

44. Which of the following certifications may not be relevant for a corporate information security officer?
D. CISSP (2 marks)

45. A common approach to managing information security is through corporate agreements, which of these is a primary tool that facilitates this?
A. End user license agreements
B. None disclosure agreements
C. Service level agreements
D. Software development agreements (2 marks)

46. Information security management has multiple tenets. Which of these is concerned with system change management?
A. Availability
B. Integrity
C. Confidentiality
D. Non-repudiation (2 marks)

47. Which of the following steps preceeds the information classification steps
A. Assignment of security protection
B. Inventory listing
C. Asset ownership determination
D. Classification based on value (2 marks)

48. Which of the following is not considered a management security control:
A. Conducting security training awareness
B. Review of the employee lifestyle
C. Crafting system security policy
D. Patching of computer servers (2 marks)

49. Which of the following factors may most be overlooked but would cause a delay on the system recovery time?
A. Weather conditions
B. Staff availability
C. Incident declaration and decision
D. Unavailable system backups (2 marks)

50. Which of the following is the most common source of information that can be used to initiate a cyber-attack when they access a public WIFI.
A. Emails,
B. Browsing history
C. Passwords
D. Credit card data (2 marks)

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