ORAL AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION QUESTION AND ANSWERS

QUSTION ONE

Identify five skills relevant in non-verbal communication

  • Pay Attention to Nonverbal Signals

People can communicate information in numerous ways; so pay attention to things like eye contact, gestures, posture, body movements, and tone of voice. All of these signals can convey important information that isn’t put into words. By paying closer attention to other people’s unspoken behaviors, you will improve your own ability to communicate nonverbally.

  • Look for Incongruent Behaviors

If someone’s words do not match their nonverbal behaviors, you should pay careful attention. For example, someone might tell how they are happy while frowning and staring at the ground. Research has shown that when words fail to match up with nonverbal signals, people tend to ignore what has been said and focus instead on unspoken expressions of moods, thoughts, and emotions.

  • Concentrate on Your Tone of Voice When Speaking

Your tone of voice can convey a wealth of information, ranging from enthusiasm to disinterest to ar.ger. Start noticing how your tone of voice affects how others respond to you and try using tone of voice to emphasize ideas that you want to communicate. For example, if you want to show genuine interest in something. Express your enthusiasm by using an animated tone of voice: .

  • Use Good Eye Contact

When people fail to look others in the eye, it can seem as if they are evading or trying to hide’ something. On the other hand, too much eye contact can seem confrontational or intimidating. While eye contact is an important part of communication, it’s important to remember that good eye contact does not mean staring fixedly into someone’s eyes..Flow pan you tell how much eye contact is correct? Some communication experts recommend intervals of eye contact lasting four to five seconds.

  • Ask Questions About Nonverbal Signals

If you are confused about another person’s nonverbal signals, don’t be afraid to ask questions. A good idea is to repeat back your interpretation of what has been said and ask for clarification. An example of this might be, “So what you are saying is that.

 

  • Use Signals to Make communication More Effective and Meaningful

Remember that verbal and nonverbal communication work together to convey a message. You can improve your spoken communication by using body language that reinforces and supports what you are saying. This can be especially useful when making presentations or when speaking to a large group of people.

  • Look at Signals as a Group

A single gesture can mean any number of things, or maybe even nothing at all. The key to accurately reading nonverbal behavior is to look for groups of signal ‘that reinforce a common point. If you

Place too much emphasis on just one signal out of many, you might come to an inaccurate Conclusion about what a person is trying to communicate.

  • Consider Context

When you are communicating’ with others, always consider the situation and the context in. which the communication occurs. Some situations require more formal behaviors that might be interrupted very differently in any other setting. Consider .whether or not nonverbal behaviors are appropriate for the context. If you are trying to improve, your own nonverbal communication, concentrate on ways to make your signals match the level of formality necessitated by the situation.

Be Aware That Signals Can be Misread

According to some, a firm handshake indicates a strong personality while a weak handshake: is taken as a lack of fortitude. This example illustrates an important point about the possibility of mistreating nonverbal signals. A limp handshake might actually indicate something else entirely, such as arthritis. Always remember to look for groups of behavior. A person’s overall demeanor is far more I riling than a single gesture viewed in isolation.

Practice

Some people just seem to have a knack for .using nonverbal communication effectively and correctly interpreting signals from others, These people are often described as being able to “read people.” in reality, you can build .this skill by paying careful attention to nonverbal behavior and practicing different types of nonverbal communication with others. By noticing nonverbal’ behavior and practicing your own skills, you can dramatically improve your communication abilities.

Highlight seven benefits which could accrue to an organization from conducting exit interviews

  1. They provide an opportunity to ‘make peace’ with disgruntled employees, who might otherwise leave with vengeful intentions.
  2. Exit interview are seen by existing employees as a sign of positive culture. They are regarded as caring and compassionate – a Sign that the organisation is big enough to expose itself to criticism.
  3. Exit interviews accelerate participating managers, understanding and experience of managing people and organizations. Hearing and handling feedback is a powerful development process
  4. Exit’ interviews help to support an organization’s proper HR practices. They are seen as positive and necessary for quality and effective people-management by most professional institutes and accrediting bodies concerned with quality management of people, organizations and service  training
  5. The results and analysis of exit interviews provide relevant and useful data directly into training needs analysis and training planning processes.
  6. Exit interviews provide valuable information as to how to improve recruitment and induction of new employees. Exit interviews provide direct indication’s as to how to improve staff retention.
  7. Sometimes an exit “interview provides the chance to retain a valuable employee who would otherwise have left (organizations often accept resignations far too readily without discussion or testing the firmness of feeling • the exit interview provides a final safety net).
  8. A significant proportion of employee leavers will be people that the organizations actually very sorry to leave (despite the post-rationalization and sour grapes reactions of many senior executives to the departure of their best people). The exit interview therefore, provides an, excellent source of comment and opportunity relating to management succession planning. , Good people leave often because they are denied opportunity to grow and advance. Wherever this is happening organizations need to know about it and respond accordingly.
  9. Every organization has at any point in time several good people on the verge of leaving because they are not given the opportunity to grow and develop, at the same time, ironically, that most of the  management and executives are overworked and stretched, some to the point of leaving too. Doesn’t it therefore make good sense to raise the importance of marrying these two situations to provide advantage both ways – ie., facilitate greater delegation of responsibility to those who want it? Exit interviews are an excellent catalyst for identifying specific mistakes and improvement opportunities in this vital area of management development and succession.
  10. Exit interviews, and a properly organised, positive exit process also greatly improve the chances of successfully obtaining and transferring useful knowledge,- contacts, insights, tips and experience, from the departing employee to all those needing to know it, especially successors and replacements. Most, leavers are happy to help if you have the courage and decency to ask and provide a suitable method for the knowledge transfer, be it a briefing meeting, a one-to-one meeting between the replacement and the leaver, or during the exit interview itself.

 



QUSTION TWO

Summarize five categories of non-verbal communication

  • Facial Expression     

Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are similar throughout the world.

  • Gestures

Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate numeric amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.

  • Paralinguistic

Paralinguistic refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of-voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest.

  • Body Language and Posture

Posture and movement can also convey, a great deal on information. Research on body language has grown significantly since the 19.70’s, but popular media have focused on the over interpretation of defensive postures, arm-crossing, and leg crossing, While these nonverbal behaviors can indicate feelings and attitudes, research suggests that body language is far. More subtle and. less-definitive that previously believed.

  • Proxemics

People often refer to their need for “personal space,” which is also ah important type of nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms, situational factors, personality characteristics and level of familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet.

 

  • Eye Gaze

Looking, staring and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. When people encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions, including hostility, interest and attraction.

  • Haptics

Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behavior. There has been a substantial amount of research on the importance of touching infancy and early childhood. Harry Harlow’s classic monkey study, demonstrated how the deprivation of touch and contact impedes development. Baby, monkeys raised by wire mothers experienced permanent deficits in behavior and social interaction. Touch can be used to communicate affection, familiarity, sympathy and other emotions.

  • Appearance

Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles and other factors affecting appearance are also considered a means of nonverbal communication. .Research on color psychology has demonstrated that different colors can evoke different moods. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions, Judgments and interpretations. Just think of all the subtle judgments you quickly make about someone based on his or her appearance. These first impressions are important, which is why experts’ suggest that job seekers dress appropriately for interviews with, potential employers

QUSTION THREE

Describe five stages of the listening process

Listening is actually a complex of processes and skills and so it’s convenient to divide the listening process into-stages or steps: This is a five-stage model and seems to get almost, if not all, of the essential listening processes and, more important, enables us to Identify the relevant skills at each stage. Here five stages are identified: Receiving, understanding, remembering, evaluating; and responding.

Listening at the Receiving Stage

The first stage in the process of listening is receiving the message. At’ this stage you listen not only to what is said (verbally and nonverbally) but also to what is omitted. You receive, for example, your boss’s summary of your accomplishments as well as the omission of your shortcomings or, perhaps vice versa. Effective reception then consists of receiving what is as well as what is not said. Here are just three suggestions for improving your listening reception: |

  1. Focus your attention on the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages, on what is said and on-what isn’t said’. Avoid focusing your attention on what you’ll say next; if you begin to rehearse your responses, you’re going to miss what the speaker says next.
  2. Avoid distractions in the environment; if necessary, shut off the stereo or and turn off your cell phone. Put down the newspaper or magazine; close your laptop.
  3. Maintain your role as listener and avoid interrupting. Avoid interrupting as much as possible. It will only prevent you from hearing what the speaker is saying. This is not to imply that you should give feedback cues—minimal verbal or nonverbal responses (“I see,” “you’re right,” head nodding, widening of your eyes)—that say, “I’m listening.

Listening at the Understanding Stage

The second stage of listening is understanding the message. That is, after receiving the message, you process it; you extract the meaning from the message. You can improve your listening understanding in a variety of ways.

  1. Avoid assuming you understand what the speaker is going to say before he or she actually says it. If you do make assumptions, these will likely prevent you front accurately listening to what the speaker wants to say.
  2. See the speaker’s messages from the speaker’s point of view. Avoid judging the message until you fully understand it as the speaker intended it. .
  3. Ask questions for clarification, if necessary; ask for additional details or examples if they’re needed. This stows not only that you’re listening—which-the speaker will appreciate-but also that you want to learn more. Material that is not clearly understood is likely to be easily forgotten.
  4. Rephrase (paraphrase) the speaker’s ideas into your own words. This can be done silently or aloud. If doffs silently, it will help you rehearse and learn the material; if done aloud, it also helps you confirm your understanding of what the speaker is saying – and gives the speaker an opportunity to clarify any misunderstandings.

 

 

Listening at the remembering Stage

The third stage of listening is remembering the message. It would help little if you received and understood the message but didn’t remember it. If you want to remember what someone says or the names of various people, this information needs to pass from your short-term ‘memory (the memory you use, say, to remember a phone number just long enough to write it down) into long-term memory (or relatively permanent memory). Short-term memory is limited in capacity— you can hold only a small amount of information there. Long-term memory is unlimited. To facilitate the passage of information from short to long term memory, here are FOUR suggestions: –

  1. Focus your attention on the central ideas. Even in the most casual, of conversations, there are central ideas. Fix these in your mind. Repeat these ideas, to yourself as you continue to listen. Avoid focusing on minor details that often leap to detours in listening and in conversation.
  2. Organize what you hear; summarize the message in a more easily retained form, but take care not to ignore crucial details of qualifications. If you chink the material into categories, you’ll be able to remember more information. For example, if you want to remember 15 or 20 items to buy in the supermarket, you’ll remember more of them if you group them into chunks—say, produce, canned goods, and meats.
  3. Unite the new with the old; relate new information to what you already know. Avoid treating new information as totally apart from all else you know. There’s probably some relationship and if you identify it, you’re more like to remember the new material.
  4. Repeat names and key concepts to yourself or if appropriate, aloud. By repeating names, of key concepts, you in effect rehearse these names and concepts, and as a result you’ll find them easier to learn and remember. If you’re introduced to Alice you’ll stand a better chance of remembering her name if you say, “Hi Alice” than you say just “Hi”

Listening at the Evaluating Stage

Once you’ve received, understood, and have the message in memory, you need to evaluate it. After all, not all messages are equal—some are lies, some are truths; some are significant, some are trivial; some are constructive, some are destructive. In evaluating messages consider these suggestions

  1. Resist evaluation until you fully understand the speaker’s point of view. This is not always easy, but’ it’s always essential. If you put a label on what the speaker is saying (ultraconservative, bleeding-heart liberal), you’ll hear the remainder of the messages through these labels.
  2. Distinguish facts from opinions and personal interpretations by the speaker. And, most important. fix these labels in mind with the information; for example, try to remember that Jesse thinks Pat did XYZ, not just that Pat did XYZ.
  3. Identify any biases, self-interests, or prejudices that may lead the speaker to slant unfairly what is said. It’s often wise to ask if the material is being presented fairly or if this person is slanting it in some way.
  4. Recognize fallacious forms of “reasoning” speakers may use. Some of the more popular ones are: –

 

  • Name-calling: applying favorable or unfavorable label to color your perception “democracy” and “soft on terrorism” are two currently popular examples.
  • Testimonial: using positively or negatively viewed spokespersons to encourage your acceptance or rejection of something—such as a white-coated actor to sell toothpaste or a disgraced political figure associated with an idea the speaker wants rejected.
  • Bandwagon: arguing that you should believe or do something because “everyone else does”.

 

Listening at the Responding Stage

After you evaluate the message, you’re, likely to respond in some way. And, of course a speaker expects a response. Here, are just a few suggestions for improving your responding to another’s messages.

  1. Support the speaker throughout the speaker’s conversation by using (and varying) listening cues, such as head nods and minimal and minimal responses such as “I see” or “mm-hmm.” Using the like” icon, poking back, reposting, and commenting on another’s photos or posts will also prove supportive.
  2. Own your responses. Take responsibility, for what you say. Instead of saying, “Nobody will want to do that” say something like “I don’t want to do that,” Use the anonymity that most social networks allow with discretion.
  3. Resist “responding to another’s feelings” with “solving the person’s problems” (as men are often accused of doing) unless, of course, you’re asked for advice. Oftentimes, people simply want to vent and just want you to hear what they have to say.
  4. Focus on the other person. Avoid multitasking when you’re listening. Show the speaker that he or she is your primary focus. You can’t be a supportive listener, if you’re also listening to a CD, .so take off the headphones; shutdown the iPhone and the television; turn away from the computer screen. And, instead of looking around the room, look at the speaker; the speaker’s eyes should be your main focus.
  5. Avoid being a thought-completing listener who listens a little and then finishes the speaker’s thought. This is especially inappropriate when listening to someone who might stutter or have word finding difficulties. Express respect (and a real willingness to listen) by giving the speaker time to complete his or her thoughts. Completing someone’s thoughts often communicates the message that nothing important is going to be said (“I already know it

QUSTION FOUR

Citing relevant examples, illustrate how the following speaker’s aspects can affect effective listening:

Credibility

A confident speaker gives an impression of delivering credible and trustworthy information. E.g. speaking while maintaining eye contact with the listeners

Logical argument

A confident speaker gives an impression of delivering credible and trustworthy information. E.g. speaking while maintaining eye contact with the listeners



Psychological appeals

  • When the presenter or speaker seem to be dull or irrelevant.
  • Information overloads i.e. too much to be taken in by the listener.
  • If the information cannot be understood by the listener.
  • Destruction or noise can cause communication breakdown.

 

QUSTION FIVE

During business communication, decoding of the message is dependent upon the type of listening adopted by the client. Summarize six types of listening

Appreciative listening

Where the listener gains pleasure/satisfaction from listening to a certain type of music for example. Appreciative sources might also include particular charismatic speakers or entertainers. These are personal preferences and may have been shaped through our experiences and expectations.

Critical Listening

Where the listener may be trying to weigh up whether the speaker is credible, whether the message being given is logical and whether they are being duped or manipulated by the speaker. This is the type of listening that we may adopt when faced with an offer or sales pitch that requires a decision from us.

Discriminative Listening

Where the listener is able to identify and distinguish inferences or emotion through the speakers change in voice tone, their use of pause, etc. Some people are extremely sensitive in this way, while others are less able to pick up these subtle cues. Where the listener may recognize and pinpoint a specific engine fault, a familiar laugh from a crowded theatre or their own child’s cry in a noisy playground. This ability may be affected by hearing impairment.

Empathic Listening

Where the listener tends to listen rather than talk. Their non-verbal behaviour indicates that the listener is attending to what is being said. The emphasis is on understanding the speakers feelings and being supportive and patient. The remaining exercise and paired activities are designed to demonstrate the advantages of empathic listening and to highlight a range of obstructions that may prevent us from being effective listeners.

Therapeutic listening

In therapeutic listening, the listener has a purpose of not only empathizing with the speaker but also to use this deep connection in order to help the speaker understand, change or develop in some way.

This not only happens when you go to see a therapist but also in many social situations, where friends and family seek to both diagnose problems from listening and also to help the speaker cure themselves, perhaps by some cathartic process. This also happens in work situations, where managers, HR people, trainers and coaches seek to help employees learn and develop.

Dialogic listening

The word ‘dialogue’ stems from the Greek words ‘dia’, meaning Through’ and ‘logos’ meaning ‘words’. Thus dialogic listening mean learning through conversation and an engaged interchange of ideas and information in which we actively seek to learn more about the person and how they think. Dialogic listening is sometimes known as ‘relational listening’.

Relationship listening

Sometimes the most important factor in listening is in order to develop or sustain a relationship. This is why lovers talk for hours and attend closely to what each other has to say when the same words from someone else would seem to be rather boring. Relationship listening is also important in areas such as negotiation and sales, where it is helpful if the other person likes you and trusts you.



Outline the measures which you could use to improve your listening skills

  • Minimize both internal and external distractions. You can’t always get rid of a headache, but you can close the windows if the driver of a truck is outside rewing his engine.
  • Adjust your listening to the situation. If you’re listening to a lecture for an exam in Biology class, you’ll want to pay closer attention than if you’re watching the local news. In the former situation, you’ll probably take notes.
  • Show you’re listening by your nonverbal communication. You might nod, shake your head, or raise your eyebrows. Adjust your posture accordingly Make eye contact.
  • If you’re listening to a speech or attending a business meeting, determine the most important points and develop a method to remember them. You might repeat them mentally or even jot them down briefly.
  • When you’re listening to a friend with a problem, demonstrate empathy. Show her you understand what she is going through.
  • Realize that people don’t necessarily want you to solve their problem. They may simply want to share how they are feeling. Save advice for another time, unless you’re asked for it.
  • Don’t interrupt. Let the person finish what he is saying before you explain your point of view or ask questions.
  • Don’t prejudge a person’s message by the way he looks. You can learn something from almost anyone.
  • Stay focused on the subject. It’s easy to let your mind wander, especially if the subject isn’t important to you. Train yourself to concentrate.
  • Remain clearheaded, even if the topic is emotional. Perhaps someone is discussing the victories of the recent election, and you were passionate about, a losing candidate. When emotions become involved, you may end up in the middle of a shouting match, which will resolve nothing. Present your points calmly. You’ll gain credibility by doing so.

QUSTION SIX

 describe the qualities employers look for during a job interview

  • Professional appearance. When you first arrive for your interview, you are being evaluated even before your interview begins. How you present yourself reflects many thing to an employer this is why it is important to dress appropriately for a job interview.
  • High energy and an interest in the job. Employers want to know that their employees bring energy and enthusiasm to their workplace. Your attitude and energy are often reflected in the way you walk when you enter the room and how well you make eye contact. Employers feel that employees who are enthusiastic and energetic about men their jobs will be more successful and productive.
  • A good work ethic. Employers want to have employees who are committed to getting the job done, and getting it done well. There are several things that let employers know that a job candidate has good work ethics. These include:
  • High career goals
  • Completing or reaching goals
  • Work-related activities after work hours
  • Employment history showing achievements
  • Motivation from mentors and role models. An important quality that employers tool motivation, which is often developed with the influence of good role models and mentors when a person is young, in school or just beginning their career. Role models can include family members, scout leaders, teachers and employers.
  • Emotional maturity. Employers need to have employees who are emotionally mature and who take responsibility for the quality of their work. Emotionally immature employees can cause problems between co-workers and are usually not team players.
  • Dedication to the job – not just the pay check Employers know that those employees who only take a job for the money are not usually as productive as they could be. Employers want employees who actually are interested in the jobs they have and who want to succeed.
  • Loyalty. Companies look for employees who are loyal to the goals and mission of the company. This includes supporting the company and co-workers both verbally and through actions.
  • Cooperation. Team players are valuable assets for any company. Employers look for employees who are cooperative, open-minded and who can take criticism well No one wants to work with someone who is touchy and who does not work well with others.
  • Follow through. It is important the employees are able to follow through on their assignments and complete their work on time and accurately. Employers look for job applicants who have a history of completing their work on time.
  • Ability to handle anger. Employers are concerned about keeping a harmonious atmosphere in the workplace. Employees who cannot deal with their anger, or who causes conflicts with others just create problems at work.

 



The first stage of a job interview is the warm up. Justify why this could be the most important stage of the interview

  1. General appearance of the interviewee is considered.
  2. Level of confidence’ on the interviewee is assessed.
  3. Relevancy of the subject matter is also put into consideration

Instills

You recently attended an interview for a job.

State five reasons why you might send a thank you message to the interviewer.

  • Show appreciation for the employer’s interest in you.
  • Reiterate your interest in the position and in the organization.
  • Review or remind the employer about your qualifications for the position. If you thought of something you forgot to mention in the interview, mention it in your follow-up / thank-you letter.
  • Demonstrate that you have good manners and know to write a thank-you letter.
  • Follow up with any information the employer may have asked you to provide after the interview.

Explain how you would decide which communication medium to use for your thank you message

  • The time necessary to prepare and transmit the message considering the urgency
  • The complexity of the message
  • The distance the message is requires to travel and in what condition it must arrive.
  • The- need for written record
  • The need for interaction or immediate exchange
  • The need for confidentiality

Highlight the circumstances under which an interviewee would write a letter of inquiry following a job interview

  • Thanking the employer for the opportunity to interview and follow up on when to expect feedback
  • Sending supportive materials, e.g., transcripts.

Notifying the employer of a change of address or additional experience gained since submitting your application

QUSTION SEVEN

Explain the principles of effective use of visual aids in a presentation

  • Plan the timing of the presentation
  • Make the points being presented clear
  • Speak clearly when explaining the points being
  • Use visuals that can be seen clearly by all.
  • End the presentation on time.
  • Build your confidence during the presentation as it helps show that the presentation is important.
  • Visual aids must observe the principles below:
  • Detailed
  • Objective
  • Practical
  • Relevant
  • Complete
  • Economical
  • Simple

 

QUSTION EIGHT

Describe the basic techniques of conducting an interview

Urgency to fill the vacancy

The more urgent the position needs to be filled; the more urgent the interview process will be carried out. Mission critical jobs that cannot be left without attention will warrant urgent recruitment; hence the interview process is likely not to take too much time.

Number of applicants shortlisted      •

If the number of successful applicants is high on the interview day, it then follows that the interview exercise will take much time.

Nature of the job

There are some jobs that, due to the sensitive nature of the work involved; the interview process has to be thoroughly executed. The need to get the ‘right man for the job requires that many areas of the interviewees qualifications be scrutinized.

Number of employees required for a given post

Some posts require that two or more people work as a team. This may warrant double or even triple recruitment and may call for more time.



QUSTION NINE

State the advantages and disadvantages of:

Open ended questions during an interview

ADVANTAGES

  • More interesting for the interviewee
  • Allows more spontaneity
  • Makes phrasing easier for the interviewer
  • Useful if the interviewer is unprepared
  • Putting the interviewee at ease
  • Allowing the interviewer to pick up on the interviewee’s vocabulary
  • Reflect education, values, attitudes, and beliefs
  • Providing richness of detail
  • Revealing avenues of further questioning that may have gone untapped

DISADVANTAGES

  • May result in too much irrelevant detail
  • Possibly losing control of the interview
  • May take too much time for the amount of useful information gained
  • Potentially seeming that the interviewer is unprepared
  • Possibly giving the impression that the interviewer is on a “fishing expedition”

Conducting exit interview

Advantages of Exit interview questions

  • Saving interview time
  • Easily comparing interviews
  • Getting to the point
  • Keeping control of the interview
  • Covering a large area quickly
  • Getting to relevant data

Disadvantages of Exit interview questions

  • Boring for the interviewee
  • Failure to obtain rich detail
  • Missing main ideas
  • Failing to build rapport between interviewer and interviewee

 



QUSTION TEN

Describe six types of listening skills

Informative Listening

 

Informative listening is the name we give to the situation where the listener’s primary concern is to understand the message. Listeners are successful insofar as the meaning they assign to messages is as close as possible to that which the sender intended. Informative listening, or listening to understand, is found in all areas of our lives. Much of our learning comes from informative listening.

 

 Relationship Listening

 

The purpose of relationship listening is either to help an individual or to improve the relationship between people. Therapeutic listening is a special type of relationship listening. Therapeutic listening brings to mind situations where counsellors, medical personnel, or other professionals allow a troubled person to talk through a problem. But it can also be used when you listen to friends or acquaintances and allow them to “get things off their chests.” Although relationship listening requires you to listen for information, the emphasis is on understanding the other person

 

 Appreciative Listening

 

Appreciative listening includes listening to music for enjoyment, to speakers because you like their style, to your choices in theatre, television, radio, or film. It is the response of the listener, not the source of the message that defines appreciative listening. That which provides appreciative listening for one person may provide something else for another.

 

 Critical Listening

 

The ability to listen critically is essential. On the job, in the community, at service clubs, in places of worship, in the family—there is practically no place you can go where critical listening is unimportant. Politicians, the media, salesmen, advocates of policies and procedures, and our own financial, emotional, intellectual, physical, and spiritual needs require us to place a premium on critical listening and the thinking that accompanies it.

 

 Discriminative Listening

The most important type, for it is basic to the other four. By being sensitive to changes in the speakers rate, volume, force, pitch, and emphasis, the informative listener can detect even nuances of difference in meaning.

 

 Full listening

 

Full listening happens where the listener pays close, and careful attention to what is being said, seeking carefully to understand the full content that the speaker is seeking to put across. This may be very active form of listening, with pauses for summaries and testing that understanding is complete. By the end of the conversation, the listener and the speaker will probably agree that the listener has fully understood what was said. Full listening takes much more effort than partial listening, as it requires close concentration, possibly for a protracted period. It also requires skills of understanding and summary

 

Deep listening

 

In deep listening, you listen between the lines of what is said, hearing the emotion, watching the body language, detecting needs and goals, identifying preferences and biases, perceiving beliefs and values, and so on.

Outline eight barriers of effective listening skill

  • Evaluating and judging. Are you so busy criticizing what the other person is saying that you don’t hear them? There is nothing wrong with using discrimination, but it is more helpful to defer judgment until you fully understand what the other person is talking about.
  • Interrupting; when you don’t allow the other person to complete a thought, you are not listening.Many people interrupt because they are impatient. If you find yourself losing the train of a conversation because the other is talking excessively, ask for a summary and then continue to listen.
  • Jumping to conclusions- It is easy to mentally fill in the details of what another person is saying and then to assume you have understood them. People often take everything they hear personally, which is one of the main reasons for misunderstandings that ’ead to breakdowns in relationships. You can remedy that tendency by checking out your assumptions first.
  • Selective listening- People tend to hear what they expect to hear, need to hear, or want to hear and block out the rest. For example, if you have been feeling a lack of confidence in yourself lately, you might hear everything that is said to you through a filter of “Pm no good.” Or you might tune out everything that is critical, unpleasant, or negative because it is too threatening to hear right now. Keep in mind that everybody uses some form of selective listening. Get to know your form of selectivity and observe your tendency to block listening with it.
  • Advising– You may think that you have to answer every question asked and solve every problem. Not true. The other person may simply be thinking aloud, asking rhetorical questions, or just looking for a supportive presence. In fact, as you share your advice, you may actually be disregarding what the other person is saying. Let others specifically ask for help or advice. Otherwise, just listen and be there. One valuable way to encourage people to solve their own problems is to ask how they would advise a friend with a similar problem.
  • Lack of attention- Do you let your mind wander frequently in conversations, giving in to other external noises and distractions or to your own daydreams or plans? Often it is helpful to be up front about it—admit your temporary lack of attention to the person speaking; explain that you are sleepy, anxious, or whatever. If boredom is the problem, though, remember that the more involved you become in the conversation, the less boring it may be. Ask questions. Ask for examples. Summarize what you hear the other person saying. If all else tails, tell the other person honestly that you need to leave or get back to what you were doing. Good listening need not be a matter of silent endurance. Good listening is an active process.
  • Pride-Another type of listening barrier is our pride or ego. Most often, we let our pride or ego to take over the conversation. We think that we are already smart enough to even listen from other people. We think that we are better from other people that we have nothing more to learn from them. When we close ourselves and stop listening to other people, we are doomed because we stop learning. To eliminate this listening barrier, be more open-minded to listen and learn from other people. You may learn more things if you open yourself and listen. But be mindful of selective listening. Remember that you don’t have to agree with everything, but its helpful if you at least consider listening.
  • Assumptions-Human mind is mysterious and it can process a lot of information, especially in , between conversation, even while the other party is still talking. This is why we have the tendency to interrupt, because we assume that we already know what the other is telling us. Such behaviour is cause by another listening barrier called assumptions. Assumptions are statement that is assumed to be true and from which a conclusion can be drawn. Quiet often, when we make assumptions, we already create conclusion in our mind without even considering the thoughts and feelings of the other person. And as such, you create more gap and unresolved problems.

To resolve and eliminate this listening barrier practice keeping an open mind and listeb before you make any assumptions. You may try putting yourself in the shoe of another so you can fully understand and feel the sentiments of the other person.

  • Close-Mindedness- this is intolerant of the beliefs and opinions of others; stubbornly unreceptive to new ideas. When we think that we all have the answer, and that the things we know are always the right answers, then our mind will dose for new ideas.
  • Defensiveness- It’s when we constantly protect ourselves from criticism, exposure of one’s shortcomings, or other real or perceived threats to the ego. Defensiveness is a primal response to feeling attacked, threatened, misunderstood or disrespected. This will normally results to never ending argument, protest, denial and blaming.

QUSTION ELEVEN

Summarize five advantages of selecting telephone communication as the mode of transmitting messages in an organization

  • A telephone allows for virtually instantaneous voice communication.
  • it overcomes the barriers or distance
  • because a telephone conversation  is a form of synchronous communication participants have the opportunity to ask questions and provide feedback, enabling agreements to be reached more quickly than they could by an exchange of letters, memos, or email ,
  • Its time Effective as one does not have to travel to deliver a message.
  • It’s also cost effective as its cheaper to deliver a message through the telephone rather than by post.

 

QUSTION TWELVE

Define the following types of interviews:

Structured  –

(also known as a standardised interview or a researcher administered survey) is a quantitative research method commonly employed in survey research. The aim of this approach is to ensure that each interview is presented with exactly the same questions in the same order. This ensures that answers can be reliably aggregated and that comparisons can be made with confidence between sample subgroups or between different survey periods

Panel  – 

takes place when a candidate is interviewed by more than one interviewer at the same time. The first type of group interview is when each job applicant is interviewed by multiple interviewers. The group (or panel) of interviewers typically includes a Human Resources representative, the manager, and possibly co-workers from the department where the applicant would be working, if hired.

 

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