Five exceptions to the rule in Rylands v. Flctcher.
i) The escape was caused by an act of God.
ii) The escape of the thing was caused by the plaintiff himself. The defendant is not liable since the plaintiff brought about his own suffering.
iii) The accumulation or bringing of the thing was through the consent of the plaintiff.
iv) Statutory authority: The thing was brought into the land by requirement of an Act of Parliament.
v) Contributory negligence: if the plaintiff was also to blame for the escape.