Basic Computer Concepts

DefinItion: A microcomputer is a type of computer which is based internally on a microprocessor, plus a number of additional components. At its simplest, a microcomputer will consist of a microprocessor, plus random access memory (RAM), read only memory ROM, and an input/output section, connected by the three main communication buses
A microprocessor is a component that performs the instructions and tasks involved in computer processing. In a computer system, the microprocessor is the central unit that executes and manages the logical instructions passed to it.

Computer Components and Electrical communication
Inside computers, there are many internal components. In order for these components to communicate with each other they make use of wires that are known as a ‘bus’ .
A bus is a common pathway through which information flows from one computer component to another. This pathway is used for communication purpose and it is established between two or more computer components. We are going to check different computer bus architectures that are found in computers.

Different Types of Computer Buses
The Computer Buses | Source
Functions of Buses in Computers
Summary of functions of buses in computers
1. Data sharing – All types of buses found in a computer transfer data between the computer peripherals connected to it.
The buses transfer or send data in either serial or parallel method of data transfer. This allows for the exchange of 1, 2, 4 or even 8 bytes of data at a time. (A byte is a group of
8 bits). Buses are classified depending on how many bits they can move at the same time, which means that we have 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit or even 64-bit buses.
2. Addressing – A bus has address lines, which match those of the processor. This allows data to be sent to or from specific memory locations.
3. Power – A bus supplies power to various peripherals connected to it.
4. Timing – The bus provides a system clock signal to synchronize the peripherals attached to it with the rest of the system.
The expansion bus facilitates easy connection of more or additional components and devices on a computer such as a TV card or sound card.
Computers have two major types of buses:
1. System bus:- This is the bus that connects the CPU to main memory on the motherboard. The system bus is also called the front-side bus, memory bus, local bus, or host bus.
2. A number of I/O Buses, (I/O is an acronym for input / output), connecting various peripheral devices to the CPU. These devices connect to the system bus via a ‘bridge’
implemented in the processors chipset. Other names for the I/O bus include “expansion bus”, “external bus” or “host bus”.

Basic Computer Components
The basic components of a microcomputer are: 1) CPU 2) Program memory 3) Data memory 4) Output ports 5) Input ports 6) Clock generator. These components are shown in figure below:
Central Processing Unit: The CPU consists of ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit), Register unit and control unit.
PC Maintenance Tools
Computer maintenance is the practice of keeping computers in a good state of repair.
Computer valeting is the in-depth cleaning of the physical components of a personal computer.
Computer maintenance describes various steps to keep your computer functioning at an optimal performance level from a software and hardware point of view.
A toolkit should contain all the tools necessary to complete hardware repairs. As you gain experience, you learn which tools to have available for different types of jobs.
Hardware tools are grouped into four categories:
 ESD tools
 Hand tools
 Cleaning tools
 Diagnostic tools

Maintenance Tools
To troubleshoot and repair laptop systems properly, you need a few basic tools.

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