Data Tabulation

When a mass of data has been assembled, it becomes necessary for the researcher to arrange the same in some kind of concise and logical order. This procedure is referred to as tabulation. Thus, tabulation is the process of summarising raw data and displaying the same in compact form (i.e., in the form of statistical tables) for further analysis. In a broader sense, tabulation is an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows. Tabulation is essential because of the following reasons.

1. It conserves space and reduces explanatory and descriptive statement to a minimum.
2. It facilitates the process of comparison.
3. It facilitates the summation of items and the detection of errors and omissions.
4. It provides a basis for various statistical computations. Tabulation can be done by hand or by mechanical or electronic devices. The choice depends on the size and type of study, cost considerations, time pressures and the availability of tabulating machines or computers. In relatively large inquiries, we may use mechanical or computer tabulation if other factors are favourable and necessary facilities are available. Hand tabulation is usually preferred in case of small inquiries where the number of questionnaires is small and they are of relatively short length.

Hand tabulation may be done using the direct tally, the list and tally or the card sort and count methods. When there are simple codes, it is feasible to tally directly from the questionnaire. Under this method, the codes are written on a sheet of paper, called tally sheet,
and for each response a stroke is marked against the code in which it falls. Usually after every four strokes against a particular code, the fifth response is indicated by drawing a diagonal or horizontal line through the strokes. These groups of five are easy to count and the data are sorted against each code conveniently. In the listing method, the code responses may be transcribed onto a large work-sheet, allowing a line for each questionnaire. This way a large number of questionnaires can be listed on one work sheet. Tallies are then made for each question. The card sorting method is the most flexible hand tabulation. In this method the data are recorded on
special cards of convenient size and shape with a series of holes. Each hole stands for a code and when cards are stacked, a needle passes through particular hole representing a particular code. These cards are then separated and counted. In this way frequencies of various codes can be found out by the repetition of this technique. We can as well use the mechanical devices or the computer facility for tabulation purpose in case we want quick results, our budget permits their use and we have a large volume of straight forward tabulation involving a number of crossbreaks. Tabulation may also be classified as simple and complex tabulation. The former type of
tabulation gives information about one or more groups of independent questions, whereas the latter type of tabulation shows the division of data in two or more categories and as such is designed to give information concerning one or more sets of inter-related questions.

Simple tabulation generally results in one-way tables which supply answers to questions about one characteristic of data only. As against this, complex tabulation usually results in two-way tables (which give information about two inter-related characteristics of data), three-way tables (giving information about three interrelated characteristics of data) or still higher order tables, also
known as manifold tables, which supply information about several interrelated characteristics of data. Two-way tables, three-way tables or manifold tables are all examples of what is sometimes described as cross tabulation.

Generally accepted principles of tabulation: Such principles of tabulation, particularly of constructing statistical tables, can be briefly stated as follows:
1. Every table should have a clear, concise and adequate title so as to make the table intelligible without reference to the text and this title should always be placed just above the body of the table.
2. Every table should be given a distinct number to facilitate easy reference.
3. The column headings (captions) and the row headings (stubs) of the table should be clear and brief.
4. The units of measurement under each heading or sub-heading must always be indicated.
5. Explanatory footnotes, if any, concerning the table should be placed directly beneath the table, along with the reference symbols used in the table.
6. Source or sources from where the data in the table have been obtained must be indicated just below the table.
7. Usually the columns are separated from one another by lines which make the table more readable and attractive. Lines are always drawn at the top and bottom of the table and below the captions.
8. There should be thick lines to separate the data under one class from the data under another class and the lines separating the sub-divisions of the classes should be comparatively thin lines.4
9. The columns may be numbered to facilitate reference.
10. Those columns whose data are to be compared should be kept side by side. Similarly, percentages and/or averages must also be kept close to the data.
11. It is generally considered better to approximate figures before tabulation as the same would reduce unnecessary details in the table itself.
12. In order to emphasise the relative significance of certain categories, different kinds of type, spacing and indentations may be used.
13. It is important that all column figures be properly aligned. Decimal points and (+) or (–) signs should be in perfect alignment.
14. Abbreviations should be avoided to the extent possible and ditto marks should not be used in the table.
15. Miscellaneous and exceptional items, if any, should be usually placed in the last row of the table.
16. Table should be made as logical, clear, accurate and simple as possible. If the data happen to be very large, they should not be crowded in a single table for that would make the table unwieldy and inconvenient.
17. Total of rows should normally be placed in the extreme right column and that of columns should be placed at the bottom.
18. The arrangement of the categories in a table may be chronological, geographical, alphabetical or according to magnitude to facilitate comparison. Above all, the table must suit the needs and requirements of an investigation.

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