APPROACHES OF MIS DEVELOPMENT
There are seven types of approaches used for developing MIS
1. Top down approaches:
This approach developed a corporate plan as a guide for designing the information system. Here top management takes the lead in formulating objectives, policies and plans and communicates them down the line to middle and supervisory management for translating them into reality.
2. Bottom up approaches:
It consists of following five steps:
a. Individual functional applications are planned separately consisting of transition processing, updating of files and simple reports.
b. Files of various functional applications are integrated by means of indexing and changing into a database.
c. Various functions are added to operate on the database and management control level.
d. Integration of models into a model base having a wide verity of analysis, decision and planning models.
e. Strategic planning data planning models are added to the information system.
3. Integrative approaches:
This approach permits managers at all levels to influence the design of MIS. Here evaluation, modification and approval of top management continue till a final design is acceptable to all levels.
4. Traditional approaches:
In this case activities are performed in sequence. Each activity is undertaken only when the previous activity is completed. Managers and users consider and review the work performed the MIS professionals during each stage of processing, in order to ensure accuracy and completeness.
5. Prototyping approaches:
In order to avoid any possible delay, prototyping approach is used. It is to developed a small or pilot version is called a prototype, which is built quickly and at lesser cost with the intention of modifying it when need arises.
6. End-user development approaches:
In this approach the increasing availability of low cost technology, end user development is popular in many organizations. Here the end user is responsible for system development.
7. Systematic approach for development in small organizations:
Since fewer MIS professionals shall be working having with variety of responsibilities that they have little time to develop new system for users. In a very small organization, no MIS professional will exit. This does not mean that they cannot develop management information systems. They develop systems using the following steps:
Locate, evaluate and secure software development.
Locate, evaluate and secure hardware.
Implement the systems.
CONSTRAINTS IN DEVELOPING AN MIS
Following are the constraints in developing an effective MIS:
1. No management system to build upon.
2. No clear definition of mission and purpose.
3. No objectives for the company.
5. Communication gap.
6. Lack of management participation.
MIS AND USE OF COMPUTER
Following are the main advantages of using computer technology in MIS:
1 .Expanding scope for using system
2. Enhancing speed of processing and retrieval of data
3. Widening the scope of analysis.
4. Increasing complexity of system design and operation.
5. Integrating different information sub systems.
6. Increasing the effectiveness of information system.
7. Extending more comprehensive information to business managers.
LIMITATIONS OF MIS
The limitations of MIS
1. MIS cannot replace managerial judgment in decision making. It is merely effective tool for the managers in decision making problem solving.
2. The quality of output of MIS is directly proportional to the quality of input and processes.
3. MIS cannot provide tailor made information packages. It is required to analyze the available information before decision making.
4. In a fast changing and complex environments, MIS may not have enough flexibility to update itself quickly.
5. MIS takes only quantitative factors into account.
6. MIS is less useful for making non programmed decisions.
7. MIS is less effective in organizations where information is not being shared with others.
8. MIS is less effective due to frequent changes in top management, organizational structure and operational staff.