WEDNESDAY: 15 December 2021.    Time Allowed: 3 hours.

Answer ALL questions. Marks allocated to each question are shown at the end of the question.


1.            Analyse four factors that determine the amount of working capital.    (8 marks)

2.           Discuss three techniques used by financial institutions to manage portfolios and control concentration risks. (6 marks)

3.           Outline six important elements of an effective loan portfolio management process.     (6 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.           With reference to Base II Accord, highlight four conditions necessary for default to occur.    (4 marks)

2.          Outline four collaterals that could be used to secure repayment of project finance.   (4 marks)

3.          Explain four benefits of credit risk models.     (8 marks)

4.           Enumerate four consequences of overtrading.  (4 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.          Explain the following terms as used in portfolio risk:

Systematic risk.       (2 marks)

Diversifiable risk.       (2 marks)

2.           Banks need to develop and implement comprehensive procedures and information systems to monitor the condition of individual credits across various portfolios offered by the banks.

With reference to the above statement, enumerate three benefits that accrue from the measures implemented by banks to ensure effective credit monitoring systems.     (6 marks)

3.           Examine the following methods of perfection of a security:

Perfection by possession.     (3 marks)

Perfection by control.     (3 marks)

4.          List four examples of credit derivatives.      (4 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.           A risk based pricing model must be clear and conspicuous.

With reference to the above statement, enumerate four information contained in a risk-based pricing model that a consumer should be made aware of.       (4 marks)

2.          Differentiate between “positive working capital” and “negative working capital”.       (4 marks)

Describe three benefits of managing working capital in a business.     (6 marks)

3.           Analyse six critisms against Basel II in connection with financial crisis of 2008.     (6 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.          Explain “Merton model” as used in credit risk modelling.   (3 marks)

Examine six assumptions of the Merton model.                                                                                                   (6 marks)

2.        According  to  International  Reporting  Standard No.9  (IFRS 9),  Financial  Instruments  are  defined  as  a contract that gives rise to a financial asset in one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument in another entity.

With  reference  to  the  above  statement,  list  five types  of financial  assets  as  outlined under IFRS   9. (5 marks)

3.           Discuss the following methods of measuring financial assets:

Amortised cost.      (2 marks)

Fair value with changes in other comprehensive income (equity).     (2 marks)

Fair value through profit and loss.    (2 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)

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